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Full text of "A complete history of England : from the descent of Julius Caesar, to the Treaty of Aix la Chapelle, 1748. Containing the transactions of one thousand eight hundred and three years"

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O F 



Descent of Julius C je s a r, 


Treaty of Aix la Chapelle, 1748. 

Containing the Transactions of 

One Thoufand Eight Hundred and Three Years. 


Non tamen pigebit vel incondita ac nidi voce memorlam prioris fervitutis, ac 
teftimonium praefentium bonorum compofuifie. Tacit. Agricola. 


Printed for James Rivington and James Fletcher, ai the 
Oxford- Theatre; and R. Baldwin, at theRofe, in Paternoiler-row. 


' ADAMS *A* 




O F 




NOTHING could be more agreeable to the Aic. 153* 
Englifli than the humiliation of the prelates. 
They now began openly to difcufs contro- 
verted points of religion •, and were by their indif- 
creet zeal hurried into dangerous extremities. The 
bifhops, in order to lighten the burden of the fum 
they had granted to his majeiiy, were defirous that 
a part fhould be borne by the inferior clergy ; and 
the bimopof London aflembled fome priefts of that 
metropolis in the chapter-houie of St. Paul's, to 
propofe an afTefTment. His purpofe was to obtain 
the confent of a few at firft, hoping the reft would 
follow their example. But all the London priefts, D . . . 
being apprized or his intention, went thither in a priefts of 
tumultuous manner, accompanied by a great num.- Lond * I2 » 
ber of laymen, who fomented the difpute ; and 
when the bifhop made the propofal, they anfwered, 

B 2 they 


a. c. 1531. t ] ie y h ac ] never meddled with any of the cardinal's 
faculties, confequently had not fallen in the pre- 
munire : that their livings were already too fmall 
for their fubfiftence : that, as the guilt lay intirely 
among the bifhops and abbots, who had good pre- 
ferment, they only ought to fuftain the pumfhment : 
as for themfelves, they had not tranfgreffed, and 
therefore would not pay for a pardon. They had 
already burft open the dcor, and committed divers' 
irregularities •, and now that the bifhop's officers 
threatened them with condign punifhment, a fharp 
conflict enfued, in which his lordfnip's fervants 
having been very roughly handled, he difmiffed the 
rioters with his bleffing, affuring them, they mould 
not be called in queftion for this disturbance. Far 
from keeping his word, he complained to the chan- 
cellor, by whofe order fifteen priefts, and five lay- 
men were committed to prifon •, but, whether or 
not the inferior clergy payed any proportion of the 
tax - , we cannot determine. Henry, alarmed at 
thefe commotions, refolved to convince his people, 
that although he had fhaken off the papal yoke, his 
intention was not to violate the efTential truths of 
religion ; and therefore ordered the laws againfb 
heretics to be rigoroufly put in execution : an order 
which was attended with the death of two eccle- 
fiaftics, and a lawyer, who were condemned to the 
flames in Smithfield. 

Notwithftanding this feverity, the king of Eng- 
land, and his ally Francis, refolved to fupport the 
protectants in Germany, not from religious motives, 
but in order to oppofe the growing power of the 
Auftrian family. Ferdinand was by this time 
elected king of the Romans - y and the catholic 
princes of the empire had entered into an oftenfive 
league aaainft the Lutherans. The French king 
not only favoured thefe reformers, but is even faid 
to have inftigated the Turks to invade the Auflrian 





dominions. Charles, without pretending to fufpect A - c - »?3A 
him of any fuch defign, fent ambafTadors to follicit 
a fupply of money for the maintenance of the war 
again ft the Infidels •, and to this addrefs Francis 
replied, that the emperor had received money 
enough from him already; that he was neither sleiJan ' 
merchant nor banker, to fupply his wants ; bur, 
that he would have his fhare in the honour and 
danger in all enterprizes which it might become 
him as achriftian prince to undertake. The aim a.c. 153*, 
of Francis was to regain the footing he had loft in 
Italy, by the affiftance of the Englifh monarch, and 
fomenting jealoufy between Charles and the pope, 
whom he foothed and threatened by turns, accord- 
ing to the prevailing paftions of his holinefs. He 
likewife cajoled Henry, by flattering his inclina- 
tions in the affair of the divorce alluring him, that 
fhould Clement refufe doing him juitice, he would 
join him in withdrawing all fpiritual obedience from 
the holy fee. He concluded an agreement with the 
princes of the league of Smaicalde -, and perfuaded 
the king of England to affift them with fifty thou- 
fand crowns, remitted by the hands of the French 
ambaffador, as a fum to be employed for the de- 
fence and conservation of the rights and privileges 
of the empire. The two kings had endeavoured by Heibert - 
negotiations to detach the pope wholly from the em- New treaty 
peror ; but, Clement dreading an open rupture Henry " 
with fuch a powerful antagonift, amufed them andFranri^ 
with vain hopes, until at length, fearing he would 
compromife affairs with Charles, they refolved to 
intimidate him from taking fuch a ftep, by diffufing 
the report of a new treaty, which they actually 
concluded at London. Though this was purely 
defenfive, as the articles were not known, the em- 
peror was not a little alarmed, believing, that 
while the Turks mould invade his Auilrian domi- 
nions, Henry and Francis would attack him in 

B 3 Italy 


a. c, 1534. i^iy anc | t he Low Countries. He was confirmed 
in this conjecture, v/hen he underftood that thefe 
two princes had agreed to have an interview between 
Calais and Boulogne. 

The parliament meeting on the fifteenth day of 
January, the commons, who were previoufly in- 
itructed by the court, prefented an addrefs, be- 
feeching his majefty to confent to the reformation 
of divers abufes which had crept into the immuni- 
ties enjoyed by the clergy. The king anfwered, 
that before he could afient to a propofal of fuch 
importance, he would hear what the clergy had to 
fay in their own defence. This ftep was taken, in 
order to fhew them how much they needed *iis royal 
protection, hated as. they were by the parliament. 
fbrid^g° r Several ftatutes were enacted, which (lightly touch- 
the popes ed upon the privileges of that body ; though they 
!mortion d in were abundantly confoled for thefe mortifications, 
England, by an act releafing them from the payment of an- 
nates to the pope, which had ever been a heavy 
burden. The ftatute imported, That fince the 
reign of the late king, above one hundred and 
fixty thoufand pounds had been fent to Rome, on 
account of annates, or firft-fruits, palls and bulls 
for bifhoprics : That the annates had been origi- 
nally intended as a contribution for a war againft: 
the Infidels-, but, as they were not employed for 
that purpofe, it was enacted, That they mould not 
be payed for the future : That not above five per 
cent, of the actual revenue fliould be paid for the 
bulls of bifhoprics : That, in cafe of the pope's 
refufing to grant them on thefe conditions, the 
hi (hop elect mould be prefented by the king to the 
metropolitan of the province, by whom he mould 
be confecrated : but, mould the archbifhop refufe 
confeeration, on pretence that he himfelf had not 
as yet received his bulls or pallium, two prelates 
nominated by trje'king fliould perform the cere- 
mony 9 


mony ; and then the elect fhould be deemed law- A - c - £ 53=« 
fully eonfecrated. The parliament declared, That 
it fhould be in the king's power to annul or confirm 
this act within a certain time. If, in that interval, 
he mould make an accommodation with the court 
of Rome, it mould be deemed inviolable ; but, 
fhould the pope, on account of fuch accommoda- 
tion, pretend to harrafs the kingdom with kn- 
tences of excommunication and interdict, thefe 
cenfures fhould be held as null and void ♦, all ec- 
clefiaftics were forbid to publifh them, but ordered 
to celebrate divine fervice, as if they never had Burner 
been ifTued. 

About this period the king received a letter from 
the pope, obferving, that he had heard of his put- 
ting away his queen, and keeping another perfon 
called Anne, as his wife, to the great fcandal of his 
character, and contempt of the holy apoflolic fee, 
before which the fuit was ftill depending : he there- 
fore exhorted him to take back queen Catherine, 
and difmifs Anne •, and in fo doing, he would avoid 
a rupture with the emperor, who could never other- 
wife digeft fuch an indignity as he had put upon 
his aunt •, and prevent an interruption in the union 
of Chriftendom, which was the only fecurity againft 
the progrefs of the Infidels. It does not appear that 
Henry fent a particular anfwer to this letter ; but, 
he difpatched doctor Bennet to Rome in quality 
of ambaffador, to lay before the pope the decifions 
and opinions of univerfities and learned men, 
touching the divorce ; and he was charged with 
a letter, in which the king taxed his holinefs with 
ignorance, partiality, and deceit-, declared, that 
he did not intend to impugn his authority further, 
unlefs compelled -, defired he would conform to the 
opinion of fo many learned cafuifts •, and do his 
duty according to the dictates of his confcience, 
Clement, inftead of gratifying the king's inclina- 

£ 4 lion, 

* H I STO R Y of EN G L AN 

a. c. 1532. t * 10n? expedited a citation, fummoning him to ap- 
Henry fends pear in perfon, or by proxy, at Rome, to anfwer 
^Rome. at ° r tD tne queen's appeal ; and Sir Edward Karne was 
fent thither as Henry's excufator. He was in- 
ftructed to employ the belt counfel he could find, 
to juftify the king for not appearing at Rome, on 
the principles of the canon-law, and the preroga- . 
tives of the crown of England. He was accom- 
panied by Bonner •, and found the confiftory di- 
vided in their opinions of the divorce. Thofe who 
favoured the emperor preffed the pope to pro- 
ceed in the caufe. The more moderate cardinals 
advifed him to a6l with caution, as in all probabi- 
lity he would lofe England by adhering to Charles. 
The pope himfelf being informed of the bill con- 
cerning annates, expoftulated on that fubject with 
the ambaiTadors,who anfwered, that as k was ftill in 
the king's power to revoke the act, it would depend 
upon his holinefs whether it fhouid be annulled or 
confirmed. They retained Rovidellus, a learned 
canonift of Bologna, to plead the king's caufe ; 
and they bribed the cardinals of Ravenna, Monte, 
and Ancona, to ufe their influence in his behalf. 
The excufatory plea was argued in the confiftory, 
and after much diipute, neither allowed nor reject- 
ed : bur, the vacation approaching, the pope and 
college of cardinals wrote a letter to Henry, intreat- 
ing him to fend a proxy in the winter. Bonner, 
who was fent over to England on this occafion, had 
inftructions from the cardinals who were gained 
over to the king's intereft , to allure him, that the 
affair could be judged in no other manner but in 
the confiftory ; and that he had nothing to fear 
from the decifion of the pope, who now leaned to 
'***• the French intereft. 

While thefe points, were debated at Rome, the 
parliament of England met again in April; and- in- 

the courfe of the feffiah, a member of the name 




of Temfe moved, that an add reft might: be pre- A - c - *53>* 
fentcd to the king, praying his majefty to take back 
the queen, and avoid all the inconveniencies thus 
might attend the il legitimation of the princefs. 
Henry was incenfed at the freedom of this com- 
moner, for which he chid the fpeaker of the houfe, 
and appealed to the teftimony of his own confeience 
for the j unification of his conducl. He afterwards 
represented to the lower houfe his intention of 
peopling the Englidi fide of the northern Marches, 
which v/ere uninhabited ; and the members voted 
a fubfidy for this purpofe ; but, before the bill 
could be pafFed, the plague broke out in London, 
and the parliament was prorogued till February. 
Immediately after this prorogation, Sir Thomas 
More dreading the confequences of a total rupture 
with the court of Rome, and didiking the peiibn 
and proceedings of Anne Boleyn, resigned his office * ,;r rhr -~ n 
or chancellor*, which was conrerred upon oir the leaf*. 
Thomas Audley. Anne was created marchionefs 
of Pembroke, and accompanied the king in his in- 
terview with Francis. 

On the eleventh day of October, Henry em - *"*«■*»«* 
barked for Calais with a royal retinue, and yifited Hcnry"n4 
Francis at Boulogne, where he was entertained with £«««»* 
equal magnificence and hofpitality, for the fpace of Herbert 
four days, at the expiration of which the French 
king accompanied him to Calais. There he was 
fplendidiy regaled with entertainments of various 
forts. Anne de Montmorency conftable, and Phi- 
lip Chabot admiral of France, were admitted into 
the order of the garter, as the dukes of Norfolk 

* Sir Thomas More, who was very daughters, upon the income of a fmall 

much addi&ed to jetting, retired to eftate, not exceeding cue hundred 

Chelfea, difmifled his fervants^ made pounds a-year, and the intereit of a 

a prefent of his fool to the lord mayor, little money. He was a man of learn- 

provoked his wife by fome faicaitic ing, humour, moderation, and int^- 

j^kes to leave him ; and lived with hi? gri cy , Herbert. 




A. c. 1532. and Suffolk had been received into that of St» 
Michael at Boulogne. The two monarchs, in or- 
der to vindicate themfelves from the afperfions of 
Charles, who taxed them with indifference to the 
intereft of Chriftendom, and to amufe the Italians 
and Germans with the hope of a new war, which 
might hinder them from accommodating their dis- 
putes with the emperor, mutually engaged by let- 
ters patent, to raife an army of eighty thoufand 
men againft the Infidels, and march with them in- 
to the empire, or into Italy, according to the emer- 
gency of affairs : but, this fcheme they never in- 
tended to put in execution. In this interview 
Henry loudly complained of the pope's partiality 5 
and Francis feemed to encourage and foment his a- 
nimofity againft that pontiff, though he was then 
engaged in a fecret negotiation with Clement, about 
a marriage between his fecond Ton the duke of Or* 
Hubert l eans > ana " Catherine de Medicis the pope's kinf- 

Henry mar- When the two kings parted, Henry returned to 
Boief n nne E n gl an d *> and in January was privately married 
to Anne Boleyn, by Rowland Lee, afterwards bi- 
fhop of Coventry and Litchfield, in the prefence of 
Cranmer, who had now fucceeded Warham in the 
archbifhopric of Canterbury, the dukes of Norfolk 
and Suffolk, and Anne's father, mother, and bro- 
thers. The pope had fent a meffage to the king, 
propofing to fend a legate, with two auditors of the 
Rota, to try the caufe in fome indifferent place, 
Different reserving the fentence to himfeif ; and that a truce 
r. eg ctiaticm (hould be eftablifhed for four years, before the ex- 
Touvtor 6 pi ration of which he would call a general council. 
France. Henry difpatched Sir Thomas Elliot with an an- 
fwer to thefe propofais, importing, That he could 
rake no refolution concerning a peace, without the 
concurrence of the French king : that, confidering 
the prefcnt ftate of religion in Germany, he appre- 




hended a general council would be altogether un- A.c.rjj$, 

leafonable : that he could not fend a proxy to Rome, 
or any other place out of his own dominions, with- 
out giving up the prerogative of his crown, and 
acting contrary to the laws of his kingdom ; but, 
that his holinefs might remit the difcuflion of the 
affair to the clergy of England, and confirm the 
fentence they mould pronounce. The emperor, a- 
larmed at the defigns of Solyman emperor of the 
Turks, as well as at the interview and league be- 
tween Henry and Francis, thought it was high time 
to quiet the clamours of the proteftants -, and for 
that purpofe repaired to the diet of Ratifbon, where 
it was decreed, that no perfon mould be molefted 
on account of religion, until a general council 
fhould be convoked. The proteftants were fo well 
fatisfied with this indulgence, that th&y joined the 
other princes in furnifhing Charles with fuch pro- 
portions of men and fuccours, as enabled him to 
aflemble a very powerful army, to flop the pro- 
grefs of the Infidels. Thefe invaded Hungary, and 
advanced as far as Auftria, in hope of drawing the 
Imperialifts into a battle j but Charles wifely avoid- 
ed a general engagement, and hampered them fo 
much in their progrefs, that they were foon oblig- 
ed to retreat into their own country. Then the 
emperor repaired to Bologna, where he had an in- 
terview with the pope, to whom he propofed a ge- 
neral council for the reduction of the proteftants, a 
match between Catherine de Medicis and Sforza 
duke of Milan, and a league of the Italian pow- G 
ers, who fhould maintain an army to defend their dini 
country from invafion. Clement would not agree 
to a council, becaufe the laft of thofe aflemblies had 
encroached upon the papal authority : he told the 
emperor, that his niece was already engaged to the 
duke of Orleans ; but he afTented to the propofal of 
the Ieague } which was accordingly concluded, A- 




a. c. rss 2 ' bout this time, doctor Bennet the Englifh envoy 
made frefh overtures touching the divorce ; but 
they were rejected by the pope, as expedients that 
would intrench upon his prerogative. He ordered 
the dean of the Rota to fummon Henry to ahfwer 
to the queen's appeal : Karne protefted againft the 
Bumet. citation, as the king could not expect juftice at 
Rome, where the emperor's intereft predominated. 
He demanded, that his holinefs would defift, other- 
wife Henry would appeal to the decifion of learned 
cafuiils and univerfuies : he affirmed, there was a 
nullity in all the proceedings : that his king was a 
fovereign prince, and the church of England a free 
church, over which the pope had no legal autho- 
a. c. 1533. The Englifh people refolved to concur heartily 
with the king in all his meafures for abolimino; the 
papal authority in this kingdom. The parliament 
afiernbling in February, enacted a ftatute, prohibit- 
ing all appeals to Rome, under the penalty fpeci- 
Canmer fie J in the ftatute of Premunire. Cranmex being 
totEe^ch- m Germany when the archbifhopric of Canter - 
biftopricof bury became vacant, was no fooner informed of the 
canterbury, j^g^ intention in his favour, than he begged to 
be cxcufed from fueh a burdenfome dignity *, but, 
his refufal ferving only to confirm Henry in his de- 
fign of promoting him to that fee, he was obliged 
to return, though he journeyed flowly, in hope that 
the king's reiblution might be altered before his ar- 
rival. Henry having great confidence in his learn- 
ing, courage, and integrity, looked upon him as 
the only man who could put the finishing ftroke 
to the divorce -, and infifted upon his receiving the 
archbifhopric. After Cranmer had fubmitted with 
great reluctance to the will of his fovereign in this 
particular, another difficulty occurred. He pro- 
feffed fcruples of confcience about taking the ufual 
oath co the pope 5 but, at length the king found 



out a falvo, which removed his objections. This A - c ' "533- 
was a previous proteftation againft the oath, which 
he accordingly made, not much for the credit of 
his character ; and was put in pofTeffion of the tern - 
poralities of the archbifhopric. This affair being convocation 
determined, the convocation of the province of d;cIares the 

^ t rr 1 1 1 J • j • marriage of 

Canterbury was aiiembled, and required to give Catherine 
their opinion on the following queftions : Whether ^fj 1 "^' 11 ' 7 
or not the difpenfation of pope Julius II. for the void. 
marriage of Catherine and Henry was fufficient to 
render the faid marriage binding and valid ? and> 
"Whether or not the consummation of Arthur's nup- 
tials with that princefs had been fully proved r 
On the fifth day of April the convocation declared, 
That the pope had no power to grant diipenlations 
againft the lav/ of God ; and, that the confumma- 
tion of the firft marriage had been as fully proved 
as the nature of the cafe would permit. The fame 
anfwers were made to thofe proportions by the 
convocation of York ; and Henry refolved to pro- 
ceed upon the caufe of the divorce before the judi- 
cature of his own clergy. 

In the mean time, he defired Francis to fend o- 
ver fome perfon of confidence, to whom he might 
impart certain things which he did not care to di- 
vulge •, and the French king pitched upon William 
,du Bellay lord of Langeais, who was ordered to tell 
Henry, that the marriage between the duke of Or- 
leans and Catherine de Medicis was concluded, and 
would be celebrated at Marfeilles in the prefence of 
the pope and Francis : that the prefence of the king 
of England at fuch a juncture would probably in- 
duce Clement to comply with his defires : or, that 
mould he decline coming in perfon, he might fend 
thither an envoy to follicle his affair. When Du 
Bellay arrived in England, Henry gave him to un- 
derftand, that as Clement had obltinately rejected 
all his propofals, he was refolved to renounce Cle- 


a. c. i 533 . me nt in his turn : that he had married Anne Boleyn ; 
but, that he would keep his marriage fecret until 
the month of May, to fee if the king of France 
could prevail upon the bifhop of Rome to do him 
juftice •, but mould that pontiff ftill continue ob- 
ftinate, he would intirely withdraw himfelf from 
jkiiT* du tne P a P a * power. He likewife told Langeais, that 
he had written a book upon the ufurpation of the Ro- 
man fee, and the prerogatives of crowned heads ; 
but would not publilh it until all hope of accom- 
modation fhould vanifh. It was not in his power, 
however, to conceal his marriage much longer : 
for his new wife became pregnant, and it was ne- 
cefTary to make it public, in order to preferve her 
reputation. The archbifliop of Canterbury now 
demanded his permiftion to proceed againft his for- 
mer marriage with Catherine, whofe confent to the 
Canmer divorce the king attempted to obtain by fair means ; 
rent^ceTo DUt ms endeavours proving ineffectual, the queen 
the fame ef- was cited to appear at Dunltable, near the place of 
confirms the ner refidence. She rejecting the citation, Cranmer 
king's mar- pronounced fentence, declaring her marriage null, 
Anne Bo- as being contrary to the law of God j and, by ano~ 
l *)' a * ther, confirmed the king's marriage with Anne 

Boleyn, who was crowned on the firft day of June. 
Henry fent the lord Mountjoy to intimate thefe 
fentences to Catherine, who ftill refufed to fubmit; 
and the king ordered that, for the future, fhe 
mould have no other title than that of princefs 
dowager of Wales. He likewife notified his di- 
vorce and new marriage to all the neighbouring 
princes •, and, among the reft, to the emperor, by 
the mouth of Sir Thomas Wyat, who endeavoured 
tojuftify his majefty^s conduct, and told the empe- 
ror, that the king of England hoped to find him 
his friend as heretofore. Charles received this in- 
timation very coldly; and anfwered, that he would 
take the advice of his council, touching the mea- 


E N Y III. is 

fares he mould purfue. 1 hp pope was incenfed to A " G * *S}* 
the Utmoil degree of indignation at the fentence of 
Cranmer, and the book written by Henry againft 
the papal authority ; a copy of which had been al- 
ready perufed at Rome. He forthwith reverfed the The - 
fentence-,. and declared, that the king himfelf &■££%£" 
ferved excommunication, unlefs he mould, before 
the end of September, renounce all that had been 
done contrary to the authority of the holy fee. 
Clement flill hoped that fome expedient might be interview 
found to reclaim Henry, who had gone too far to^ 6 ^ 
retract ; but fent the duke of Norfolk, as his am- and Francis, 
baffador, to accompany Francis in his interview 
with the pope at Marfeilles. That nobleman, while Herbert* 
he refided in France, being informed of the fteps Burnet « 
that were taken againft his mailer at Rome, fent 
lord Rochfort to England for new inftructions, and 
was himfelf immediately recalled. Neverthelefs, 
the king, at the defire of Francis, fent Stephen 
Gardiner, lately created bifhop of Winchefter, with 
Sir Francis Bryan, and Sir John Wallop, to attend 
him at the interview ; and thefe were accompanied 
by Edmund Bonner, an ecclefiaftic of great impu- 
dence and refolution. After the celebration of the 
nuptials at Marfeilles, Francis prevailed upon the 
pope to fatisfy the king of England; but, in order 
to fave the honour of the holy fee, he infilled upon 
judging the caufe in a confiflory, from which the 
cardinals of the emperor's faction mould be ex- 
cluded. Bonner, who was ignorant of this refolu- 
tion, demanded an audience of Clement, and gave 
him to underiland that the king of England had 
appealed to a future council from any papal fen- 
tence that either was or might be given againft him. 
The pope faid he would take the advice of the car- 
dinals ; and, in a few days, told him that the ap- 
peal was not receivable: but Bonner, without be- 
ing intimidated by this anfwer, proceeded to notify 



a. c. 1533. the appeal of the archbifhop of Canterbury from 
the reverfion of the fentence he had pronounced ; 
and his holinefs was fo incenfed at Bonner's pre- 
fumption, that he threatened to caufe him to be 
thrown into a cauldron of molten lead. Francis 
likewife expreffed his indignation at the English- 
man's infolence, and promifed to aflift the pope in 
Guicnardi- t a kj n g vengeance on him fcr fuch an outrage; ne- 
Bwnct. verthelefs he allowed the delinquent to efca r e. 

Notwithstanding this intervention of Bonner, 
which, for the preient, prevented the accommoda- 
tion •, Francis did not defpaif of feeing the difpute 
terminated in an amicable manner. On his return . 
from Marfeilles he lent John du Bellay, bifnop of 
Paris, with new propofals to Henry, who consent- 
ed to the difpute's being terminated at Cambray, by 
judges who could not be fufpected of partiality. 
The bifhop, having gained this point, fet out for 
Rome in the middle of winter, and found Clement 
very well difpofed to agree to this expedient ; but 
he infilled upon Henry's figning a writing, by 
which he fhould be bound to abide by this deter- 
mination ; and, in order to avoid delays, fixed a 
certain day for the return of the courier, who 
THepope was difpatched to England for the inflrument. The 
Denounces emperor's minifcers were no fooner informed of 
cnaicenfdre "tt s negotiation, than they prefled the pope to re- 
aga-nft voke his engagement; and, by dint of importunity, 
obtained his promife, that if the courier mould not 
arrive within the limited time, hewould hold himfelf 
difengaged, and give fentence againft Henry. The 
rnefTenger not appearing precifely within the time, 
the bifhop of Paris follicited a delay of fix days on- 
ly; but the pope was fo much affected by the me- 
naces of the Imperialifts, that he would not comply 
with this requeft. On the contrary, he fmifhed in 
one confiftory, what, according to the ufual forms, 
ought to have been canvaffed in three. He pub- 


lifted a fentence, declaring the marriage of Henry Ai c - W* 
with Catherine good and legitimate, and command- 
ed that prince to take back his wife, on pain of 
incurring ecclefiaftical cenfure. In two days after 
this decifion the courier arrived from England, 
with full power to the bifhop of Paris to grant what 
the pope had demanded; and feveral cardinals ad- 
vifed him to revoke the fentence, but the emperor's 
partifans prevailed upon him to reject the propofal. 
Thus England was wholly diimembered from the 
fee of Rome. 

In all probability the king was not fincere in his A C ' * 534, 
propofals of accommodation with Clement; for, 
even before he could know the ifiiie of that nego- 
tiation, the parliament, meeting on the fifteenth 
day of January, began the feflion with an act, re- 
pealing the ftatute of Henry IV. againft heretics. 
Not that the parliament intended to exempt them 
from the penalty •, for, by the new law, they were 
condemned to the flake : but, in order to hinder 
the clergy from being fole judges in fuch cafes, it 
was enacted that heretics mould be tried according 
to the laws of the kingdom, without any regard to 
the canon law. By another act it was decreed,. 
That no fynod or convocation of the clergy mould 
be held without the king's licence : That his ma- 
jefty mould appoint two and thirty perfons from 
the parliament and the clergy, to examine the 
canons and conftitutions of the church : That 
thofe which were necefTary (hould be preferv- as forc- 
ed, and all the reft abolifhed. This parliament ^f^ he 
paffed an act of attainder or conviction againft Eli- tions of the 
zabeth Barton, known by the appellation of the church - 
maid of Kent, a native of the parifh of Aldington, Account of 
who was tutored by certain ecclefiaftics to excite di- B^"^ m 
ilurbances in the kingdom. She had been troub- 
led with hyfterical fits, during which fhe uttered 
many incoherent and delirious exprefTions, which 

,N* 51. C in- 



a c. »S34. induced the ignorant by-flanders to believe that fhe 
was divinely infpired. Richard Mailer, the parifh 
piieft, foreseeing advantages to him felf in trump- 
ing up an impofture, perfuaded this weak fanatic 
that fhe actually fpoke from the infpiration of the 
Holy Ghoft ; taught her to counterfeit trances, and 
utter fpeeches which were deemed the oracles of 
heaven : he was affifled in his knavifh defign by 
one doctor Bocking, a canon of Chrift-Church in 
Canterbury. Elizabeth thus inftructed, became an 
apt pupil •, prophefied with all the marks of holy 
emotion, writhed her body into ftrange contortions, 
inveighed againft the favourers of the new doctrine 
as abeminable heretics, exclaimed againft the king's 
divorce •, and, in order to raife the reputation of a 
chapel within the parifh, declared that the Blefled 
Virgin had appeared to her, and allured her fhe 
would never recover until fhe ihould vifit her 
image in that place of worihip. She accordingly 
went in pilgrimage to the chapel -, where, in the 
midft of an infinite concourfe of people, fhe pre- 
tended to fall into a trance, poured forth pious 
ejaculations, declared that God had called her to a 
religious hfe, and appointed Bocking to be her 
ghoftly father. She pretended to be recovered of 
all her diflempers by the interceflion of the Virgin •, 
took the veil, law vifions, heard melody, received 
from Mary Magdalen a letter from heaven, was 
conveyed by an angel to Calais, while the king re- 
fided in that city, received the facrament in his 
prefence, though invifible; and was brought back 
again in the fame manner to her own monaftery. 
Sht prophefied that if Henry mould proceed in the 
divorce, and marry another wife, his royalty would 
not be of a month's duration* but that he ihould die 
the death of a villain. 

Her pretended revelations were collected and 
inferted in a book, by a monk called Peering. 



Warham, archbifaop of Canterbury, a credulous a. c. 1534.. 
though pious prelate, was impofed upon by her 
delufions. She was countenanced by Fifher bifhop 
of Rochefter, and others, who adhered to the inte- 
reft of Catherine. They held private meetings 
with this diviner, arid debauched many perfons 
from their allegiance, particularly the fathers and 
nuns of Sion, the Charter- houfe, and Sheen, and 
fome of the obfervants of Richmond, Greenwich, 
and Canterbury. One Peto, preaching before the 
king at Greenwich, told him he had been deceived 
by many lying prophets; but he as a true Micajah* 
warned him that the dogs mould lick his blood, as 
they had licked the blood of Ahab. Henry bore 
this infult with great temper; but, to undeceive 
the people, appointed doctor Corren to preach be- 
fore him on the enfuing Sunday, when that eccle- 
fi aft icjuftified the king's proceedings, and branded 
Peto with the epithets of rebel, flanderer, dog, and 
traitor. He was interrupted by an Obfervant friar 
of the name of Eilfton ; who calling him a lying 
prophet, that fuught to eftablifh the fucceflion to 
the crown upon adultery, he fpoke with fuch vi- 
rulence that the king was obliged to interpofe, and 
command him to hold his peace ; and he and Peto 
were afterwards fummoned before the council, and 
rebuked for their intemperance. The ecelefiaftks 
engaged in this confpiracy, encouraged by the leni- 
ty of the government, had reiblved to publifh the 
revelations in their fermons throughout the king* 
dom : they had communicated them to the pope's 
ambafTadors, to whom alio they introduced the 
maid of Kent, and rhey exhorted queen Catherine 
to perfift in her obftinacy. At length the confede- 
racy began to be a very ferious affair, and Henry 
ordered the maid and her accomplices to be exami- 
ned in the Star-chamber ; where they confefled all 
the particulars of the impofture, and appeared upon 

C 2, a 


a. c. 1534. a fcafFold in St. Paul's church, where the articles 
of their confeiTion were publicly read, in their hear- 
ing. From thence they were conveyed to the 
Tower, where they remained till the meeting of 
the parliament, which having confidered the cafe, 
pronounced it a confpiracy againft the king's life 
and crown ; and the nun, with her accomplices, 
Biftop of were attainted of high treafon. The bifhop of Ro- 
Re , ch -f £r chefler, Thomas Gold, Thomas Laurence, Ed- 
adjudged ward Twaites, John Addifon, and Thomas Abell, 
^Tpnfionof were adjudged guilty of mifprifion of treafon, to for- 
treafon. feit their goods and chattels to the king, and to 
be imprifoned during his majefty's pleafure; and 
the books of the nun's revelations were ordered to 
be fent to the fecretary of (late, on pain of fine and 
imprifonment. In the courfe of the inquiry they 
difcovered that the letter faid to come from 'Mary 
Magdalen was written by one Hankherft of Can- 
terbury •, that the door of a dormitory faid to have 
been opened by miracle, that the nun might go into 
the chapel, and converie with God, was really 
opened for carnal communication between her- and 
her accomplices. 

The parliament pallid the act, declaring the 


The fuccef- 


• ;. parna- 
n at. 

led king's marriage with Catherine void, and fettling 
the iucceflion upon the ifiue of his lawful wife 
Anne, whether male or female*; the members, 


* Thty confirmed the ftatnte againfl an oath to ihe king, who fhould re- 
Afinatc c 5 they enacted that for the commend him 10 the bifhop for confe- 
future the rope mould have no fliare in ciation; and fhould the elect or the 
the election or confirmation of bifhops ; archbifhop refine to conform to this or- 
but, that in cafes of vacancy, the der, he ihould incur the penalties of 
king fhould expedite a conge d'elire, or. the act of Premunire. All perfons 
iicence to elect new biinops ; and if the v.ere hkewife forbid to addrefs them- 
election fhould not be made in twelve felves to the hi/hop of Rome for bulls, 
days after the date of the licence, the palliums, ot any other religious pur- 
power of electing fhould devolve to the pofe- Another act abolifhed Peter- 
hat the bifhop cleft ftould take pence, together with all procurations, 



having fworn to maintain the fucceflion, the two A - c - T 534» 
houfes were prorogued to the third day of Novem- Burnet, 
ber. On the twentieth day of April, the maid of 
Kent, with Booking, Mafter, Deering, Rifby, and 
Gold, were executed at Tyburn, where the nun 
conferred her impoflure, laying the blame upon the 
confederates, who had impofed upon her ignorance; 
me craved pardon of God and the king, and be- 
fought the people to pray for her and her fellow- Stowe. 
fufferers. When the cheat was firft difcovered, 
Cromwell, who was by this time railed to the office 
of fecretary of ftate, exhorted Fifher bifhop of Ro- 
chefter to acknowledge his offence, and afk par- 
don of the king, who he knew would grant it in 
confideration of his age and infirmities. The bi~ 
mop rejected this advice with difdain, and threat- 
ened to fpeak his confcience freely, fhould he be 
further troubled on this account. Cromwell fent 
him another letter, expoitulating with him upon 
his mifconduct, reminding him of having con- 
cealed matters that concerned his majefty's life and 
dignity ; afTuring him that mould he be brought 
to trial, he would certainly be found guilty ; and 
prefling him again to have recourfe to the clemen- 
cy of the king, who, upon proper fubmifiion, 
would pardon what was pail, and take him into 
favour : Fifher continued flill obflinate, refufing 
to make the leaf! fubmiffion, and was included in 
the act, as guilty of mifpnfion of treafon. 

After the feparation of the parliament, Henry 
fent cornmifTioners through the whole kingdom, 
to adminifter the oath to all his ecclefiaftical 

delegations, bulls, and difpenfations, arifing, fhould be brought into the 
sffusd by the court of Rome ; impow- king's treafury. Befides, all religious 
ering the archhifhop of Canterbury to houfes, whether exempted or non-ex- 
grant fuch difpenfations as fhould not empted, werefubje&ed to thevifitation 
be contrary to the law of God, on con- of the archbiihqp. 
dition that part of the money thence 

C 3 fub- 


22 HISTORYofEN gland. 

a.c. 1534. fubje&s, importing that they would be faithful to 
the king, queen, their heirs, and fucceffors •, that 
they held the king to be the fupreme head of 
the Englifh church, and the pope to be no more 
th'an any other bifhop •, that they renounced all o-* 
bedience to that prelate; that they would preach 
the pure doctrines of the holy fcripture •, and that 
they would publicly pray for the king as the head 
of the Englifh church, for the queen, and the arch- 
bifliop of Canterbury. This oath was voluntarily 
taken by the majority of all the abbots, priors, 
monks, and all the bifhops, except Fifher; who, 
with Sir Thomas More, refufed to take it as it was 
then conceived. Sir Thomas declared he was wil- 
ling to fwear to the fucceffion, provided he might 
Sir Thomas De allowed to draw up an oath for himfelf. Cran- 
Morc and mer and Cromwell expreffed great ttndernefs for 
committed" mrn - They endeavoured to convince him by argu- 
to the Tow- ments, and Cranmer propofed that his expedient 
"' mould be accepted •, but the king being mcenfed a* 

gainft them, they were committed prifoners to the 
Tower, debarred the ufe of pen and paper *, and 
Fifher was dripped of every thing in his old age, 
but a few rags which hardly covered his nakednefs. 
Henry, having in vain endeavoured to perfuade 
Catherine to fubmiflion, began to apprehend fome 
itorm from her nephew the emperor, who had un- 
dertaken to execute the pope's fentence, and propo- 
fed to render his union with Francis Thill more inti- 
mate, for their common defence. That prince a- 
mufed him with fairproimies, but did not chufe to 
contract any new connections, left he fhould difo- 
blige the pope, with whom he had been fo lately 
v -- .^Jlied. His chief aim was to recover Milan; and, 
in order to pave the way for repclfeffing himfelf of 
that dutchy, he endeavoured to detach Sforza from 
the intereft of the emperor, who had reftored him 
on very hard conditions, and was in his heart dif- 


HENRY Vtll. 2 3 

affected to the houfe of Auftria. That the nego- A - c - '534. 
tiacion might be kept fecret, it was carried on by 
one Merveille, a native of Milan, who had refided 
many years in France, and now returned to his na- 
tive country with private credentials to Sforza, 
who received him as the French envoy. The em- 
peror, being informed of this correfpondence, 
threatened the duke in fuch a manner, that he re- 
folved to facrifice Merveille for hfs fatisfaction. 
He hired a man to quarrel with this envoy ; and 
the fray ending in the murder of the perfon thus 
employed, Merveille was imprifoned, convicted, 
and in two days beheaded. When prancis com- 
plained of this outrage offered to his honour in the 
perfon of his envoy, the duke denied that Merveille 
was in any public character: but the French king 
ufing this as a pretext for invading the Milanefr, 
afifembled a body of troops, and demanded a paf- 
fage through the territories of the duke of Savoy. 
That prince refilling his demand, he refolved to 
flrip him of his dominions, to which he trumped 
up a claim in right of his mother Louifa •, and, 
during his preparations for this war, pope Clement Deathof 
dying, was fucceeded in the papacy by cardinal ^ I e lt cle " 
Farnefe, who affumed the name of Paul III. In 
the courfe of this year, the landgrave of Heffe de- 
feated the army of king Ferdinand, and re-efta- 
blimed the duke of Wirtemberg in poflefiion of 
his dominions : at length, Ferdinand was acknow- 
ledged as king of the Romans by the Huke, the 
landgrave, and the elector of Saxony, in confide- 
ration of his giving his word, that no perfon in the 
empire fliould be molefted on account of religion, sieidan. 

The parliament of England re affembling on the 
twenty- third day of November, enacted feveral me nt P cou- a ~ 
important laws, to deftroy all future connexion be- firms &* 
tween the kingdom and the pope. They confirm- p^macy*" 
ed the title of fupreme head of the church, which 

C 4 the 


a.c. 1534. the clergy bad already beftowed upon the king. 
They declared all thofe who mould fpeak, write, or 
imagine any thing to the prejudice of the king and 
queen, guilty of high-treaibn. They deprived all 
fuch of the benefit cf fanctuaries. They drew up 
a certain form of oath to be taken by fu ejects, with 
regard to the fuccefficn of the crown, abolifhing all 
former oaths on the fame fubject. They adjudged 
to the king the annates and firft fruits, together 
with the tythe of all benefices. They eftablifhed 
five and twenty fuffragans to be chofen by the 
king, and to depend upon the bifliops of the dio- 
cefes to which they fhould belong •, and granted a 
general amnefty, frcm which, however, they ex- 
cepted Fifher and More, who were, by a particular 
Bumst, a £t 3 declared guilty of mifprifion of treafon. After 
the parliament broke up, the king publifhed a pro- 
clamation to fupprefs the name ot pope, and eraze 
it from all books and writings. All the prelates re- 
nounced obedience to the bifhop of Rome, and, 
among the reft, Gardiner bifhop of Winchefler, 
though in his heart he detefted the king's meafures. 
By this time the reformation had made great pro- 
grefs in England as well as in Germany, notwith- 
itanding the perfecution which had been raifed at 
the inftigation of Sir Thomas More, while he oc- 
cupied the office of chancellor. The treatifes of 
Luther were weli known to the fubjects of Henry j 
and the Bible was tranflated into the Englifh lan- 
guage by Tindal, who had withdrawn into the 
Low Countries. The bifhop of London ordered 
fome copies of this tranfiation to be burned by the 
hands of the common hangman. , Several perfons 
were burned and fuffered martyrdom with lurpri- 
fing conftancy. Thefe feverities, inftead of extin- 
guifhing, ferved only to feed the flame of religious 
oppofition, which was likewife increafed by the 
quarrel with the pope. The reformation was favour- 


cd by Anne Boleyn, archbiiliop Cranmer, and fe- AC I 534» 
cretary Cromwell ; but, at the fame time, it had 
very powerful enemies in the perfons of the duke 
of Norfolk, Gardiner, Longland bifhop of Lin- 
coln, and many other ecclefiaftics who had accefs to 
court; and, in preaching before Henry, filled their 
fermons with invectives againil the new doctrine. 
The king himfelf, though he had fhaken off the 
papal yoke, was a bigotted catholic in every other 
refpecl ; and, to his dying day, believed the real pre- 
knc& in the Sacrament. Beiides, he had written a 
book againil the doctrine of Luther, who had 
treated him in a fcurrilous manner ; and though 
that reformer had afterwards humbled himfelf in a 
letter to Henry, he could never forgive the in fa- 
ience of his firft attack. 

In the beginning of theenfuing year, the French a c. 1535, 
king, in order to found the inclinations of Henry, 
fent over Philip Chabert, admiral of France, to 
communicate fome overtures of peace, which had 
been made by the emperor. That prince proposed 
a marriage between the third daughter of Francis, 
and Philip prince of Spain ; and another match 
between the dauphin, and Mary, daughter of Hen- 
ry and Catherine. When the admiral imparted 
thefe particulars to the king of England, Henry 
replied that he could not but wonder at the infolence 
of the emperor, in pretending to difpofe of his 
daughter, over whom he had no power -, but he 
afterwards propofed, in his turn, that his new-born 
daughter Elizabeth mould be married to the duke 
of Angouiefme, third fon of Francis, on condition 
that he (the French king) his three fons, the princes 
cf the blood, the principal nobility, the parliaments 
and univerfities of France, mould engage to pro- 
cure a reverfion of the fentence which the bifhop of 
Rome had pronounced againil: Henry ; that the 
duke of Angouiefme ihould be educated in Eng- 


A.c. 1535. l anc j } an( j j in cafe of his afcending the EngliiTi 
throne, by virtue of his marriage, the dutchy of 
Angoulefme fhould be independent of the crown of 
France. Thefe propofals were favourably received 
by Francis, who neverthelefs demanded that Henry 
would furnifh him with fuccoursfor the war of Sa- 
voy, and releafe him intirely from the perpetual 
penfion of one hundred thoufand crowns, which he 
had obliged himfelf to pay to the king of England. 
Henry, judging from this demand that Francis was 
Sandoval, not in earneft, declared, that far from renouncing 
Herbert. j-g p en f 10 n, he infifted upon the payment of the 
Francis in- arr ears within the time prefcribed. This reply in- 
•McMm 7 ' terrupted the negotiation-, and, while Charles car- 
fMwn, ried his arms into Africa, where he reftored Mu- 
ley HafTem to his kingdom of Tunis, from whence 
he had been expelled by the famous corfair Bar- 
barofa, Francis attacked the dutchy of Savoy, 
which he reduced in the very firft campaign. 

Although Henry had now trampled under foot 
the papal authority, conquered ail oppofkion in 
his own dominions, reduced the earl of Kildare, 
who had rebelled in Ireland at the inftigation of the 
emperor, and concluded a treaty of peace with his 
nephew James king of Scotland ; he did not enjoy 
that tranquillity which he might have expect- 
ed to reap from his fuccefs. He was embroiled by 
the difputes about religion, in which he acted fiich 
a part as was agreeable to neither fide. He gave a 
Jcofe to his padions, and became boifterous, cruel, 
and arbitrary. The monks having incenfed him 
with perfonal abufe, he refolved, with the advice 
of his council, to execute the laws upon them with- 
out mercy. He was in particular exafperated againft 
the new pope, who created Fifher a cardinal during 
his imprifonment, as a recompence for having de- 
nied the king's fupremacy. The king, in order to 
ihew his refentment and contempt of the honour 



which the pope had bellowed, ordered the oath to A * c> , 535- 
be tendered once more toFifher, who, refufing it as Thebi/hop 
before, was condemned and executed as a traitor. ®^f ^ efter 
He was a prelate of fome learning, of an exemplary Thomas 
life, great aufterity, and devoted to the papal power. JJjJj^J 
Sir '1 nomas More was inveigled by Rich the foli- 
citor-general into a converfation about the fupre- 
macy, which, joined to his former conviction of 
mifprifion of treafon, was deemed a fufficient caufe 
for taking his life away. He was accordingly 
condemned and decapitated, though the king reap- 
ed nothing but reproach from the death of a man 
who was univerfally efteemed for his integrity, and 
admired for his wit and facetious humour, which he 
exerted to the laft moment of his life. He defired 
one of the by-ftanders to help him to mount the 
fcarfold, faying, he mould not be fo follickous 
about coming down again. When the executioner 
afked his forgivenefs, he told him, he would ac- 
quire very little honour by doing his work upon 
him, becaufe he had a very fhort neck ; and, after 
having laid his head upon the block, perceiving his 
beard was in the way of the ax, he laid it on one 
fide ; faying, it did not dcferve to fuffer, as it never 
committed treafon. 

During thefe tranfactions, pope Paul III. ex- 
preffed an eager defire to find fome means of ac- 
commodating matters with Henry } and frequently 
conferred on this fubjeft with Gregorio Cafali, who 
Hill refided at Rome, though not in a public cha- 
racter. But when he underftood that Fifher and 
More, together with feveral monks, had been exe- 
cuted for refufing to own the king's fupremacy, he 
concluded that England was loft for ever to the fee 
of Rome •, and, in order to fupport the honour of 
the papacy, thundered a bull of excommunication 
againit Henry, abfolving all his fubjects of their 
oath of allegiance. He ordered all ecclefiaftics to 



A - c - T 555- retire from his dominions, commanded the nobility 
Henryisex. to rife in arms againft him, laid the kingdom under 
eom " 1 " ni - an interdict, forbad all chriftians to communicate 
pope, y with the Englim, annulled all treaties which other 
powers had concluded with Henry before his mar- 
riage with Anne Boleyn, and declared all the chil- 
dren that mould be produced from that marriage 
illegitimate and incapable of fucceffion : neverche- 
lefs, he delayed the publication of this bull, until it 
could be fupported by the imperial arms. The 
king was no fooner informed of this attack, than 
he, in conjunction with Francis, fent ambaffadors 
to the princes of the league of Smalcalde in Ger- 
many, to propofe an union of interests : but the 
protectants, whofe only aim was to enjoy liberty of 
confcience, faw no profpect of being able to main- 
tain a fincere union with two princes who condemn- 
ed their doctrines, and even perfecuted thofe of 
their own fubjects by whom thefe doctrines were 
profefied. They propofed, in their turn, that 
Henry mould fubfcribe the confefiion of Augfburg ; 
and he defired they would fend fome able theologi- 
cians to confer with thofe of England on this fub- 
iect. But he had no intention to conform to their 
opinions : on the contrary, he himfelf pretended to 
dictate to all the world. 

As the monks had flandered him in many par- 
ticulars, and even debauched a great number of his 
fubjects from their allegiance, he, after having de- 
liberated with his council, ordered a general vifi- 
Geneml yi, ration of the monafleries, that ftrict inquiry might 
rhTmoiu- De ma de * nt0 their titles, revenues, the morals of 
fteries. the friars and nuns, and the regulations obferved 
in each order. By this expedient he forefaw he 
mould be able to undeceive the public in their opi- 
nion of the fanctity of fuch characters, to wreak his 
revenge upon the monks, whom he confidered as 
his implacable enemies, and augment his revenue 



with their fpoils. Thomas Cromwell, being chofen A - Q - *-&* 
vifi tor- general, appointed fubftitutes for the exa- 
mination of the monafteries, where they found fuch 
irregularities and fcenes of vice, debauchery, and 
impofture, as were difgraceful to religion, and in- 
deed mocking to human nature. The examiners, 
who were by no means friends to monaftic inftitu- 
tions, did not fail to exaggerate thofe particulars in 
their reports. They firft threatened the delinquent 
friars and nuns with all the feverity of the law, and 
then infinuated, that, in order to avoid punimmenr, 
and conceal the diforders they had committed, they 
fhould refign their houfes to the king, who would 
take care to provide for the fubfiftence of every in- 
dividual. This advice was followed by a great 
number of priors, with the concurrence of their 
monks ♦, and the report of the commiflioners was 
publifhed, that the world might fee there was an 
abfblute necefiity for fuch a general vifitatiom 
Then appeared a minute detail of the mod furpri- 
fing enormities. Many convents were divided in- 
to factions, which exercifed the mod barbarous 
cruelties on one another, as they chanced to pre- 
dominate. They carried on an idolatrous traffic, 
by impofing upon the fuperftitious people with re- 
lics and images. In fome houfes the vifitors found 
the implements of clipping and coining. The ma- 
jority of the nuns in many nunneries were preg- 
nant; a great number of abbots and monks were 
convicted of criminal correfpondence with harlots 
and married women ; and, not a few detected in the 
gratification of unnatural lulls, and other brutal 
practices. After this publication, the king, as the Burnet, 
head of the Englifh church, abfolved of their vows 
all the monks who had engaged in a religious life 
before the age of four and twenty ; and permitted 
all the reft to quit their monafteries, and live as fe- • 
culars, according to their own pleafure. But this 

4 permiflion 


a. c. 1535. permiflion producing very little effect, Henry had 
recourfe to other meafures. 

In the courfe of this year, cardinal Campejus, 
and an Italian called Ghinacer, were deprived of 
their bifhoprics of Salifbury and Worcefter, which 
the king beftowed upon Nicholas Chaxton, and 
Hugh Latimer, who favoured the reformation. 
John Helfey obrained the fee of Rochefter, vacant 
by the death of Fifher, and Edward Fox was ap- 
pointed bifhop of Hereford. Henry, apprehenfive 
that James, king of Scotland, who he knew was 
difaffected to his perfon, would, notwithstanding the 
peace, take the firft opportunity of invading Eng- 
land, if any civil commotion mould arife, thought 
he could not find a more effectual method to fecure 
himfelf from that quarter, than by perfuading his 
nephew to follow his example, in renouncing the 
papal authority. For this purpofe he wrote a long 
letter to that prince, explaining the reafons of his 
feparating himfelf from the fee of Rome ; then he 
pot^anTn- ^nt an ambaffador to prop ;fe an interview. Tho' 
tervkw with t h e reformation had gained footing in Scotland, 
if&Sdand? James himfelf had no intention to rorfake the old 
by whom it religion; neverthelefs, he would not bluntly de- 
** t c cline the interview which his uncle propofed : but, 

Bachanan. t r , j 1 1 r 1 

Herbert, he round means to delay the conference, under va- 
rious pretences ; and in the mean time, follicited the 
pope for a brief, forbidding him to hold an inter- 
view with Henry. Then he intimated this prohi- 
bition to his uncle, who having already made pre- 
parations for his journey, was extremely incenfed at 
the repulfe, which produced a quarrel between the 
two monarchs. 
Death of * n l ^ e beginning of the enfuing year, the unfor- 
queen ca- tunate queen Catherine died at Kimbolton, after 
thcrine. having fuftained a long feries of afflictions. She 
had been haraffed by repeated meiTages from Henry, 
importuning her to reiign the title of queen, which 



fhe never would lay down, proteiting, that as the A a * 
pope had declared her marriage valid, fhe would 
fooner lofe her life than her title, which (lie con- 
tinued to exact from all her fervants. She became, 
however, very affable, and acquired great popula- 
rity among the country people. When the king 
propofed, that fhe mould re fide at Fotheringay-caf- 
tle, fhe declared, fhe would never go thither un- 
lefs as a prifoner. She lived on the penfion align- 
ed her as princefs dowager of Wales \ and though 
fhe could have no great comfort in England where 
fhe was a flranger, fhe never difcovered the leart 
inclination to quit the kingdom, where, in all pro- 
bability, (he was detained by her motherly care of 
the princefs Mary. In her will, fhe defired her 
body might be buried in a convent of Obfervant 
friars : that five hundred maffes mould be faid for 
her foul : and, that a perfon fhould make a pil- 
grimage to our lady of Walfingham, and diftribute 
two hundred nobles in charity upon the road : fhe 
likewife bequeathed fome legacies to her fervants. 
When the king heard of her illnefs, he fent her a 
kind meffage, and fhe dictated a very tender letter 
to him, in which fhe called him her dear lord and 
hufband •, forgave him all the trouble in v/hich he had 
involved her ; recommended her daughter Mary to 
his care and affection ; defired he would provide for 
her three maids ; indulge her fervants with a fmaii 
gratuity ; and concluded with thefe words : j* I 
" make this vow, That mine eyes defire you above 
" all things." She was certainly a devout and vir- 
tuous princefs, who led a fevere and mortified life -, 
but, fhe was a bigot in religion, and of a fretful 
difpofition , which, in all probability, at firft alie- 
nated the king's affection, as fhe had no perfonai 
eharms to fix his natural inconflancy. He expref- 
fed fome regret at her death •, but would not allow 
her to be buried according to her own directions. 



a- c 1536. Her body was interred in the abbey church of Peter- 
borough, which he afterwards converted into an epif- 
copal cathedral. Queen Anne did not behave with due ^ 

Poivd.virg. decorum on this occafion. She rejoiced openly at J 

Hoi'iing/hed. t h e deceafe of Catherine * and teemed to take plea- 
BuTnet? fure in communicating her fatisfadtion to the public. 
The parliament had impowered the king to no- 
minate two and thirty perfons, to make a collec- 
tion of ecclefiaftical conftitutions •, and now that 
act was confirmed. The king reprefented to the 
parliament in this fefiion, that the great number of 
monafteries was an expence to the kingdom, and 
defired them to apply fome remedy to this evil : in j 

confequence of which remonftrance, they palled an 
A^forfup- act, fupprefiing all monafteries whofe revenues did 
preffwgmo- noc exceec j two hundred pounds-, and appropriated 
their income for his majefty's ufe. By this law the 
crown acquired the yearly value of two and thirty 
thoufand pounds, befides a capital of above one 
hundred thoufand pounds, on the plate, ornaments, 
and effects of churches and convents. Then he 
erected a new court of juilice, called the court of 
the augmentation of the king's revenue, for taking 
cognizance of all fuch fequeft rations. The clergy 
met in convocation, propofed, that a new tran- 
flation of the Bible into the Englifh language mould 
be made, and published for the fake of thofe who 
did not understand Latin •, and though this motion 
was vehemently oppofed by Gardiner, and his 
party, Cranmer carried his point. The king was 
petitioned to employ fome capable perfons to tran- 
slate the fcriptures -, the queen feconded the peti- 
tion, with which Henry complied ; and though 
we know not who the tranflators were the work 
was in three years printed at Paris. Henry, hav- 
ing obtained all he wifhed from the parliament, 
difiblved that afifembly, after it had continued fit- 
ting fix years, a longer term than parliament had 


Henry viil 33 

ever fubfifted fince the beginning of the Englifh At c - J 53 6 * 

By this time, Sforza duke of Milan being dead 
without iflue, the dutchy devolved to the emperor, 
who perceiving Francis bent upon the conqueft of 
that country, and fuppofing he would not embark 
in fuch an undertaking, without the promife of af- 
firmance from the king of England, refolved, if 
poffible, to difunite thole two potentates. He fet 
on foot a private negotiation with the king of 
France ; and promifed to cede the dutchy of Milan 
to one of that monarch's fons. At the fame time, 
hearing of queen Catherine's death, he offered to 
renew his alliance with Henry, on condition, that 
the king of England would be reconciled to the 
pope through his mediation •, that he would fur- - 
nifh him with powerful fuccours againfl the Turks ; 
and aflat him in defending Milan from the attacks 
of Francis. To thefe propofals Henry replied, 
that the meafures he had taken againfl the pope 
could not be recalled ; that he fhould always be 
ready to a6l as become a chriflian prince, againfl 
Infidels : that he was willing to renew the alliance 
with the emperor, provided it could be done with- 
out prejudice to his ally the king of France ; and 
the emperor would own, that he himfelf had been 
the caufe of the rupture. Henry plainly perceived, Herbert,; 
that the defign of Charles was to detach him from 
the interefl of France, without any intention to re- 
new the alliance with England. Francis had given 
him to underftand, that Charles intended to com- 
pel him by force of arms to acknowledge the pope's 
fupremacy •, for which purpofe he follicited the af- 
fiflance of Francis ; and, omthat condition offered 
to cede the Milanefe. The king of England being 
thus apprized of the emperor's intentions, continued 
his negotiation with the proteflants of Germany, 
in order to find him work in his own dominions. 

N c 5 i. D He 


/* 0.1536. fj e | lac ] a i reac |y f en t Edward Fox as his envoy to 
the league of Smalcalde ; and the members of that 
affociation agreed to unite their interefts with his, 
on condition, that he would fubfcribe the confef- 
fion of Augfburg, and defend it with all his power 
in a free council, which mould be held in a place 
chofen for the purpofe, with their content ; that if 
the pope mould infift upon affembling a council, 
according to his own pleafure, Henry mould join 
them in their proteftations againft it, and aflume 
the title of protector of the league : that he mould 
never acknowledge the pope's fupremacy, or give 
the lead affiftance to their enemies : that he mould 
fupply the league with one hundred thoufand 
crowns for their prefent cccafions, and furnifh 
double that fum, in cafe the war mould continue : 
and they declared, that as foon as he mould have 
agreed to thefe articles, they would fend ambafia- 
dors to England, to bring the treaty to perfection. 
Henry had no intention to fubfcribe the confeflion 
of Augfburg ; but as it was his intereft to protract 
the negotiation, he gave them to underftand, that 
the money mould be furnifried as foon as they could 
agree about the other articles : that he had no ob- 
jection to the title of protector ; but, could not 
profefs the faith of Augfburg, until his confcience 
could be fatisfied of the truth of that confeflion; for 
which purpofe, he defired to be better informed of 
their particular doctrines. They forth with nominated 
Sturmius, Draco, Melanchthon, and Bucerus, to 
confer with Henry and his theologians ; but they 
were forbid to come to any conclufion that might 
be prejudicial to the emperor or empire. 

This treaty was interrupted by an event equally 
furprifing in itfelf, and interefting to the favourers 
of the reformation. Henry began to be cloyed 
with the poiTeffion of Anne Boleyn, who had lately 
been'delivered of a dead male child, to the unfpeak- 



able difappointment of her hufband, who was fuper- A - c * % si 6t 
ftitious enough to believe this accident was a judg- 
ment from heaven. He was about this time cap- 
tivated with the beauty of Jane Seymour, one of 
the queen's ladies ; and his paflions were fo ftrong 
and impetuous, that he facriflced every thing to 
their gratification. Thefe concurring motives for 
his alienation from the queen, were ftrengthened by 
his wife's deportment, which was too frank and 
unguarded, to fcreen her from the imputation of 
levity and indifcretion. Her enemies, in particu- 
lar the duke of Norfolk, and all thofe who had 
adhered to the old religion, took advantage of this 
difpofition, to inflame the king's jealoufy ; the 
principal fomenter of which was the lady Roch- 
ford, fifter- in-law to queen Anne, a woman of an 
infamous character, who hated her miftrefs with the 
moil envenomed rancour. She hinted to the king 
that his wife carried on a criminal correfpondencewith 
her own brother the lord Rochford •, and Henry's 
mind being prepared for this poifon, by his difguft 
for Anne, and his new paflion for Jane Seymour^ 
it operated with great violence. The infinuations 
of the lady Rochford were confirmed by the duke 
of Norfolk, who enjoyed a great fliare of the king's 
confidence, and was devoted to the popifh religion, 
which could not flourifh while queen Anne lived 
to countenance the reformation. The partifans of 
the pope therefore confpired her ruin. She was noc 
only accufed of incefl with her brother Rochford, 
but likewife of living in carnal commerce with 
Henry Norris, groom of the flole, Wefton, and 
Brereton, of the king's privy -chamber, and Mark 
Smeton, a mufician. There was no other evidence 
than an hearfay declaration of one lady Wingfield, 
who conferTed fome particulars on her death-bed : 
but, this was fuiHcient to rufBe fuch a mind as that 
of Henry, who is faid to have oblerved Anne, at 

D 2 a tour- 



a.c. 1536. a tournament in Greenwich, drop her handkerchief 
to one of her minions, that he might wipe his face, 
after having overheated himfelf in the exercife. Be 
that as it may, the king returned abruptly to 
Whitehall -, Anne was confined to her chamber ^ 
and the fufpected delinquents being apprehended at 
the fame time, were committed to the Tower. Anne 
fmiled at firft, thinking the king was in jell •, but, 
when fhe found it was a very ferious affair, fhe re- 
ceived the facrament in her clofet, and prepared for 
death. This reverfe of fortune affected her in fuch 
a manner, that me v/as feized with hyfteric fits, 
during which fhe laughed and wept by turns •, and 
uttered many inconfiflencies according to the na- 
AnneBo- ture of that difeafe. Next day, fhe was conveyed 
leyn com- to the Tower, where fhe fell upon her knees, and 
SeTWr. appealed to God for the knowledge of her inno- 
cency. She in vain begged to be admitted into the 
prefence of the king. The ladyBoleyn, her uncle's 
wife, who had always hated her, was ordered 
to be in the fame chamber with her -, and fhe made 
a report of all the incoherent ravings of the afflicted 
prifoner. She was vifited by the duke of Norfolk, 
and fome of the king's council, who endeavoured 
to draw her into a confeffion, by faying fhe was 
atccufed by Norris and Smeton : but, fhe ftill per- 
fitted in denying the charge ; and told the lieute- 
nant of the Tower, fhe was not more guilty with 
any man upon earth than with himfelf. She con- 
fe ed indeed, that fhe had, in the gaiety of heart, 
made ufe of fome indifcreet exprefiions to Smeton, 
and Wefton •, and the familiarity of her behaviour 
had encouraged them to hint a paffion for her, 
which, in all probability, afforded her matter of 
laughter and amufement j and perhaps, the know- 
ledge of thofe frivolous circumflances increafed the 
king's jealoufy and indignation, 



Every perfon at court abandoned the unhappy A - c « J 53 6 * 
queen in her diftrefs, except Cranmer, who, tho' 
forbid to come into the king's prefence, wrote a 
Jetter to him in behalf of Anne Boleyn ; but his 
interceffion had no effect. On the twelfth day of 
May, Norris, Wefton, Brereton, and Smeton, 
were tried in Weftminfler-Hall; when Smeton 
confeffed he had known the queen carnally three 
times ; but, he was fuppofed to have been in- 
veigled into this confdfion with a promife of par- 
don. The other three pleaded not guilty •, but 
all four were convicted and condemned to die the 
death of traitors. On the fifteenth day of the 
month, the queen, and her brother lord Roch- 
ford, were brought to their trial, before the duke 
of Norfolk, as lord high-fteward for the occafion, 
the duke of Suffolk, the marquis of Exeter, the 
earl of Arundel, and five and twenty other peers.- 
The queen appearing at the bar, was charged with 
criminal converfation with her brother, and the 
other four ; as alfo with having confpired the 
king's death. She pleaded not guilty, and aa- 
fwered diftinctly all the evidence that was produced 
againft her. As fhe was not confronted by Sme- 
ton, in all probability he had bore falfe witnefs ; 
for all the others denied the charge. Neverthe- conviaed 
lefs fhe was convicted, and condemned to be burn- p d d b ^ 
ed or beheaded, at the king's pleafure. Her bro- 
ther likewife was found guilty, and fentenced to be 
beheaded and quartered. The king, not fatisfied 
with this vengeance, was defirous of feeing her 
daughter Elizabeth declared illegitimate. He re- 
membered a report of a previous contract, between 
lord Piercy, now earl of Northumberland; and 
Anne Boleyn. The earl being queftioned on this 
fubject, declared, that no fuch contract had ever 
fubfifted. He fwore to this declaration on the fa- 
crament, which he wifhed might be his damna- 

D 3 tion 


a. c. 1536. t j on if ^ e did not fpeak the truth. Neverthelefs, 
Anne was tampered with in fuch a manner, either 
by promife of life, or threats of executing the fen- 
tence in all its rigour, that fhe conferred, fuch a 
pre-contraft, at Lambeth, before the afflicted arch- 
bifhcp of Canterbury, and fome other perfons of 
diftinction ; and her marriage with the king was 
declared null and inefficient. This fentence, how- 
ever, palpably contradicted the other which had 
been pronounced againft \gft \ for, if her marriage 
with Henry was null from the beginning, me could 
not be juftly attainted for adultery. In two days 
after this declaration, me was ordered to be exe- 
cuted in the green on Tower-Hill; and behaved 
with great piety, refignation, and good humour. 
She is laid to have written a letter to the king, when 
Hie firft under flood the caufe of her confinement. 
Such an addrefs was afterwards found among the 
papers of Cromwell, drawn up with fuch pathetic 
eloquence and dignity of expreffion, as to do great 
honour to the author ; but it is generally fufpeded 
to have been written by another hand. On the 
day that preceded the execution, fhe defired the 
wife of the lieutenant of the Tower to fit down in 
the chair of ftate ; then kneeling before her, and 
fhedding a flood of tears, fhe conjured her to 
go, in her name, and afk pardon of the princefs 
Mary, for the harfhnefs with which fhe had been 
treated. On the morning of her execution fhe fent 
for the lieutenant, that he might be prefent at her 
receiving the facrament, and declaring her own in- 
nocence. She faid, fhe was forry to hear her exe- 
cution was delayed till the afternoon, becaufe, be- 
fore that time, fhe had expecled to be out of her 
pain. Then fhe inquired about the dexterity of the 
executioner •, fixed her hands about her neck, ob- 
ferving, that fne had a very little neck, and laugh- 
ed heartily. When fhe was brought to the fcaffold, 



in prefence of the dukes of Suffolk and Richmond, AiC< ! 53 6 * 
the lord chancellor, the fecretary Cromwell, with 
the lord mayor, aldermen, and fherifFs of London, 
fhe faid me was come to die, as fhe had been judged 
by the law. She prayed God would preferve the 
king, who had been always to her a mofi merciful, 
good, and gentle fovereign ; and delired, that 
people would judge of him with charity. She 
took leave of all the fpectators, defiring they would 
pray for her ; and after fhe had fpent fome time in 
devotion, her head was fevered from her body by 
the executioner of Calais, who was brought over 
for his dexterity in performing that operation. Her 
body was thrown into a common chefl, and buried 
in the Tower-chapel without any ceremony. Her 
brother, with the other convicts, were beheaded, 
except Smeton, who was hanged. Norris was pro- 
mifed to be forgiven, if he would confefs his guilt, 
and accufe the queen. But he rejected the propofal 
with difdain, faying, in his confcience he thought 
her free of the crimes laid to her charge - 9 and would 
rather die a rhoufand times, than ruin an innocent 
perfon. Thus fell Anne Boleyn, whofe fate has been 
the fubject of muchcontroverfy. She feems to have 
been a lady of unaffected piety, and a very charita- 
ble difpofition •, though fhe had, by her education in 
France, contracted a kind of vivacity that did not 
fuit the manners of an Englifh court. She was na- Hail, 
turally volatile, and in fome cafes childifhly indif- ^elber^' 
creet : fo that, in all probability, her heart was spdman. 
better than her underflanding. She encouraged Burnet> 
learning and genius, diftributed great fums in alms, 
and died a facrifice to the jealoufy and intempe- 
rance of Henry, inflamed by the malicious fuggef- 
tions of thofe who were enemies to the reforma- 
tion, which fhe in a particular manner patronized. 

Nothing juflifi^d Anne Boleyn fo much as the 
conduct of the king, who on the very day that fuc- 

D 4 ceeded 


a. c 1536. ceeded her execution, married Jane Seymour ; fa 
Henry mar- little regard did he pay to common decorum, and 
rj? J ane the opinion of his fubjects, over whom he had by 

Seymour. , . F . , , J n j r 1 W 

this time acquired the molt delpotic authority. 1 ne 
princefs Mary, who had been harfhly ufed by her 
father, on account of her attachment to her mother, 
and her obftinate refufal to conform to the ftatutes 
which had been lately enacted, was advifed by her 
friends to fue for a reconciliation with the king at 
this juncture, when her filter Elizabeth was de- 
clared illegitimate. She accordingly wrote a very 
fubmifTive letter to him, imploring his forgivenefs 
for her former obftinacy \ and promifing for the 
future to obey him in all his directions. Henry, 
before he would readmit her into his favour, in- 
filled upon her fubfcribing the .act of fupremacy, 
the renunciation of the bilhop of Rome, and the 
invalidity of her mother's marriage. Mary ufed 
all her endeavours to be excufed from a fubmiffion 
of this nature ; but feeing the king inflexible, at 
length complied, and figned the articles, which 
were contrary to her confcience and perfuafion. 
Elizabeth being in the fourth year of her age, was 
deprived of the title of Princefs of Wales, which 
fhe had hitherto enjoyed ; but Henry carefully 
fuperintended her education, and treated her en 
all occafions with parental affection. 
The fuccef- A new parliament being afTembled on the eighth 
hy p jj£? ^ a > r °^ J unt > enacted a flatute reverfing the former 
pent. adt of fuccefllon, declaring the children of the king's 
two Rrfi: marriages illegitimate, and excluded 
for ever from the fuceefiion to the crown ; con- 
firming the condemnation of Anne Boleyn, adjudg- 
ing the crown, after the king's death, to his illue 
by queen Jane, or any other wife he might after- 
wards efpoufe ; impowering his majeft'y to regu- 
late the manner in which they fnould fucceed, 
either by will, or letters patent under the great 

leal j 


feal ; and declaring all thofe who mould maintain A - c> x 53 6, 
the validity of his firft marriages, guilty of high 
trealbn. Pope Paul III. when he was informed of 
Anne's fate, began to conceive hopes of feeing all 
that had been done againft the papal power in 
England, revoked ; and conferred with Cafali on 
this fubject. But, times were greatly altered fince 
Henry difcovered the lead tendency to an accom- 
modation with the fee of Rome. He had now 
made himfelf abfolute with the clergy as well as 
laity of his dominions ; and he had no mind to part 
with any portion of his authority. In order to de- 
prive the pope of all chance for retrieving his fpi- 
ritual jurifdiction in England, this parliament parted 
an act, fubjugating to the penalty of Premunire all 
thofe who mould in any manner attempt to re-efla- 
bliih in England the authority of the bifhop of Rome; 
and all magiftrates who mould neglect to put this law 
in execution. By another ftatute, they annulled and 
abolifhed all difpenfations, exemptions, and privi- 
leges, derived from the court of Rome, faving, how- 
ever, to the archbifhop of Canterbury, the power of 
confirming what mould be judged for the benefit of 
the church and people. A third prohibited marriage 
with any. of the king's relations, unlefs permiflion 
mould be previoufly granted. This act was pafTed 
in confequence of a ftolen match between Thomas 
Howard brother to the duke of Norfolk, and Mar- 
garet Douglas the king's niece, who, together with 
her hufoand, was confined in the Tower for this 
prefumption. A fourth lav/ decreed, That all 
ufurpation of parliament upon the king's authority, 
before he mould have attained the age of four and 
twenty, might be annulled by letters patent under 
the great feal of England. In a word, one would 
imagine, that this parliament had met with no other 
view than that of extending the royal prerogative 
beyond the bounds within which it had been hither- 
to confined. Nor did the clergy yield to the par- 


a.c. 1536. lament in this kind of flavifh complaifance. The 
convocation confirmed the fentence of divorce be- 
tween the king and Anne Boleyn, upon the fup- 
pofed precontract fubfifting between that lady and 
the lord Piercy, though this nobleman had denied 

New confti- i t U p 0n oatn j n tne mo ft folemn manner. 

tutions r ... - 

fanned in 1 he lower houie or convocation being averfe to 
convocau- Cranmer, Cromwell, and thofe who favoured the 


reformation, and fuppofmg that the perfons whom 
Anne protected would now be involved in her ruin, 
fent to the upper houfe fixty Teven proportions, 
which they deemed heretical. At the fame time, 
their deputies complained loudly againft innova- 
tions in religion, and thofe by whom they were intro- 
duced, meaning Cranmer, Cromwell, Shaxton, and 
Latimer. They had, in their proportions, infert- 
ed many doctrines adopted by the Lutherans, an- 
tient Lollards, and Anabaptifts, infinuaung, that 
the reformers profefTed them all equally. But, they 
v/ere baffled in their expectation : Cranmer and 
Cromwell flill maintained their places in Henry's 
favour, and the latter was created king's vicege- 
rent in all ecclefiaftical affairs. By Henry's order, 
he declared to the convocation, That the rites and 
ceremonies of the church mould be reformed by the 
rules of fcripture ; and, in a few days, he preferred 
to them a fet of articles drawn up by the king him- 
felf, touching the religious doctrines, that the con- 
vocation might examine them, and make a faithful 
reportof their deliberations on the Subject. In this 
debate, the friends and enemies of the reformation 
declared themfelves openly. Cranmer was fecond- 
* ed by Goodrick bifhop of Ely, Shaxton of Salis- 
bury, Latimerof Worcefter, Barlow of St. David's, 
Fox of Hereford, and Hilfey of Rochefter. At the 
head of the other party was Lee archbifhop of York, 
Supported by Stokefly of London, Tonital of Dur- 
ham, Gardiner of Winchefler, Longland of Lin- 
coln, SherburnofChichefter, Nix of Norwich, and 



Kite of CarliQe. Thefe were fecret partifans of the A * c - *53 6 « 
pope, with whom they hoped a reconciliation would 
one day be effected. But Cranmer and Cromwell 
had the king's ear, and perfuaded him, that the 
abufes of which they demanded an abolition, di- 
rectly tended to the fupport of papal usurpation. 
After warm debates, the convocation agreed to cer- 
tain articles reduced into the form of constitutions, 
importing, That the holy fcripture was the foun- 
dation of faith, together with the creed of the apof- 
tles, the Nicene, and that of Athanafius: That 
baptifm was abfolutely necerTary, as \^t\l as peni- 
tence, comprehended in the three acts of contrition, 
auricular confeilion, and amendment of life : That 
the real body of Chrift was prefent in the eucharifl : 
That juftificatFon was acquired by regeneration, in 
contrition, faith, and charity : That images ought 
to be preferved in churches -, but, that the wor- 
fhip mould not be paid to the image, but to God 
himfelf : That the faints ought to be honoured, 
though without believing that they could grant 
what was in the gift of God alone : That they might 
neverthelefs be invoked, without fuperflition, and 
their feftivals obferved; but, that fome of thefe 
might be retrenched by the king's authority : That 
the cuftomary ceremonies of the church mould be 
retained ; fuch as the prieft's ornaments, holy wa- 
ter, confecrated bread, tapers on Candlemas- day, 
afhes on Afh-Wednefday, palms on Palm-Sunday, 
proftrations before the crofs on Good -Friday, hal- 
lowings of the font, exorcifms, and benedictions : 
That prayers mould be put up for departed fouls, 
and alms given for maffes and exequies ; but, as 
the place they were in, and the pains they fu tiered, 
had not been afcertained by fcripture, they ought to 
be remitted wholly to God's mercy : That the ridi- 
culous notions of purgatory mould be exploded -, Bur net.' 
fuch as that fouls could be delivered from it by the 

2 pope's 


A. c. iy,5. pope's pardon, or by mafTes faid in certain places, or 
before particular images. 

Thefe conftitutions, corrected in fome places by 
the king's own hand, were figned by Cromwell, 
Cranmer, feventeen bifnops, forty abbots or pri- 
ors, and fifty archdeacons, or deputies from the 
lower houfe of convocation, among whom were 
two Italians, namely, Peter Vannes archdeacon of 
Worcefter, and Polydore Virgil archdeacon of 
Hewy fum- Weils, who wrote an hiftory of England. Before 
"ouncVa - 3 t ^ ie convocation broke up, the king imparted to 
Mantua, the two houies, a citation he had received to a coun- 
cil, which the pope, in concert with the emperor, had 
afTembled at Mantua. The clergy, having delibe- 
rated upon this fubject, declared, That neither the 
pope, nor any prince upon earth, had power to 
convoke a general council without the confent of 
all the fovereigns in Chriftendom. Henry, fatis- 
fied v/ith this decifion, publifhed a proteft againft 
the council of Mantua, declaring he could not look 
.upon that as a free council which was afTembled 
in a fufpe&ed place, where the bilhop of Rome 
prefided, and which could not be compofed of any 
great number of prelates during the war between 
Prance and the emperor. 
- f car- About this time, Reginald Pole rendered him- 
d^aiPpie. felf univerfaliy famous for his tafte and learning. 
He was defcended from the duke of Clarence, and 
confequently related to the king, who refoived to 
raife him to the higheft dignities of the church, be- 
llowed upon him the deanery of Exeter, and fent 
him to finilli his ftudies at Paris. He refufed to 
concur with Henry's agents in procuring the fub- 
- fcriptions and feals of the French univerfities, in fa- 
vour of the divorce, which he himlelf difapproved. 
He afterwards returned to England, and concurred 
with the clergy in acknowledging Henry fupreme 
head of the church. Then he made a voyage to 



Padua, where he diftinguifhed himfelf by his wit A,c,I 53 6 » 
and eloquence, above all his contemporaries ; and 
contracted an intimacy of friendmip with the mod 
eminent men and writers of that country. The 
king underfta tiding, that he openly condemned him 
for his feparation from the apoftolic fee, fent him 
a book written by doctor Sampfon in defence of his 
proceedings. To this performance Pole wrote an 
anfwer, intitled De unione ecclefiaftica, in which 
he reprehended the king in very fevere terms, com- 
paring him to Nebuchadonofor ; and conjuring the 
emperor to turn his arms againft him, rather than 
againft: any other infidel. Henry, though incenfed 
at this prefumption, diflembled his refentment, and 
defired he would come over to explain fome paf- 
fages in his book, which he did not rightly under- 
ftand •, but rinding him upon his guard, he depriv- 
ed him of all his dignities, and wreaked his revenge 
on Pole's family and kindred. The pope made up 
all his lolTes, and prefented him with a cardinal's hat. 
But he did not rife above the degree of a deacon ; H . ft R ^ 
neverthelefs, he became more and more attached to form. 
the papal interefts. 

The fuppreffion of thefmall monafteries, though Murmuw 
decreed in the firft feffion of the parliament, did not by the (up- 
take place till the month of Ausuft, when it pro- P ieffionof 

, \ i i -rv /T monaltenes.- 

duced great murmurs among the people. Many 
perfons of diftinction were diffatisfied at feizing the 
effects of thofe monafteries which their anceftors 
had founded. They faw themfelves deprived of a 
great convenience which they enjoyed, while they . 
could provide for their younger children in thofe 
convents; befides that of being hofpitably enter- 
tained by the abbots and priors, when they had oc- 
eafion to travel through the country. The poor 
had flill greater reafon to complain, becaufe they 
lived upon the alms daily distributed by thofe reli- 
gious houfes : and fuperfticious people lamented 



a. c. 1536. tnat the fouls of their friends would now continue 
in purgatory, fince the prayers for the dead were 
abolifhed by the fuppreflion of monafteries. In 
order to appeafe thefe difcontents, the king, by the 
advice of Cromwell, fold the lands of the fuppref- 
fed monafteries at a low price, on condition that 
the purchafers fhould maintain the practice of hof- 
pitality ; and he re-eftablifhed one and thirty con- 
vents, for the further fatisfacYion of the people : but 
even this condefcenfion failed to produce the delired 
effect, though it reconciled many lay gentlemen to 
the meafures which had been taken. Yet what the 
king gained by this expedient, he loft by another 
flep, namely, that of publishing, in the name of 
his vicegerent, a fet of injunctions for regulating 
the lives and conduct of ecclefiaftics. This was 
the Jirft pure act of the king's fupremacy ; for, in 
all the preceding tranfactions, he had the concur- 
rence of the convocation. The clergy now looked 
upon themfelves as (laves to a vicegerent. The 
great advantage they ufed to make by their images, 
relics, and pilgrimages, was taken away by thefe 
injunctions. They were loaded with fevere impo- 
sitions j a fifth part of their revenues was deducted 
for repairs; a tenth for exhibitioners, whom they 
were obliged to maintain ; and a fortieth for cha- 
rity : their labour was increafed, and they were re- 
trained to a life of feverity. The fecular clergy 
thus hampered, concurred with the regulars, in 
diffufing a fpirit of difcontent among the people ; 
and they were fecretly encouraged by the great ab- 
bots, who trembled at the diffolution of the lefTer 
monafteries, on the fuppofition that their houfes 
would meet v/ith the fame fate. 
infernal- At length a flame of rebellion was kindled, and 
C oinfhi^ n " broke forth in Lincolnihire, where above twenty 
and York- thoufand perfons affembled, under the conduct of 
***• doctor Makrel, prior of Barlins, difguifed like a 



cobler. They fvvore to be true to God, the king, A « c - 'ss 6 * 
and the commonwealth ; and fent a petition to 
court, complaining, That many religious houfes 
were fuppreffed by the advice of fome evil counfel- 
lors : That they laboured under fome hardfhips in 
their fecular concerns, from certain late acts of par- 
liament : That fome bifhops had fubverted the 
faith : That they apprehended the jewels and plate 
of their churches would be taken away. They in- 
treated the king to afTemble the nobility of the na- 
tion, and confult them touching thefe grievances ; 
and they concluded with acknowledging him as fu- 
preme head of the church, to whom the tithes and 
firft fruits of all livings juftly belonged. The king 
publifhed a very (tvert anfwer to this remonftrance, 
following the firfl: dictates of his pafiionate temper 
and imperious difpofttion •, and fent Charles Brandon 
duke of Suffolk againft them, at the head of fome 
forces. Though his anfwer ferved only to inflame 
the multitude, feveral perfons of diftinclion entered 
into a private negotiation with the duke, alluring 
him, that they had joined the revolters for no o- 
ther purpofe but to bring them by degrees to a 
fenfe of their duty ; and that, if the king would in- 
dulge them with an amnefty, they would foon dif- 
perie without blobdfhed. The duke wrote to the 
king on this fubjec"t •, and Henry being informed 
of another infurrection in Yorkfhire, publifhed an 
amnefty in favour of the revolters in Lincolnmire, 
who disbanded accordingly, though fome of the 
number joined the rebellion in the county of York, 
which v/as much more dangerous than the other, 
becaufe the effect: of premeditation, and encourag- 
ed by many perfons of confequence. It was head- 
ed by one Robert Afke, who had attempted to en- 
gage William lord Dacres of Gillefland, and feve- 
ral other gentlemen in the confpiracy, which was 
called a Pilgrimage of grace, The infurgents were 



a.c. 1536, preceded by priefts with crucifixes in their hands; 
and the paflion of Chrift was painted on their ban- 
ners. They compelled all the freeholders in the 
neighbourhood either to join them, or fly the coun- 
try. They re-eflablifhed the monks who had been 
difpofTeffed. The commons of Richmond, Lancaf- 
ter, Durham, and Weftmoreland, rofe in arms at 
the fame juncture. 

The earl of Shrewsbury armed his vaffals to op- 
pofe their progrefs, and was created king's lieute- 
nant againft the rebels *, while the duke of Suffolk 
was ordered to remain in Lincolnfhire to hinder 
any frefh commotion in that county. Several no- 
blemen were commifTioned to levy forces, and the 
king himfelf began to afTemble an army to be com- 
manded by the duke of Norfolk. During thefe 
RoTrf 5 ° f P re P arat i° ns > Afke reduced the caftle of Pontefract, 
A/ke, chief into which the archbifhop of York and the lord 
or the rebels. £) arcv h ac j thrown themfelves. He afterwards 
made himfelf matter of Hull and York, and oblig- 
ed all the nobility of thole parts to join his army. 
Lancafter, the herald, being fent to this demagogue 
with a proclamation, found him fitting in ftate be- 
tween the archbifhop and Darcy, who had taken 
his oath upon compulfion ; importing, That they 
fhould engage in this pilgrimage of grace for the 
love of God, and prefervation of the king's perfon 
and iffue,' the purification of the nobility, the ex- 
pulfion of bafe blood and evil counfellors, the refti- 
tution of the church, and the fuppreffion of heretics. 
Aske being informed of the contents of the procla- 
mation, would not fufFer it to be read in public ; 
but granted a fafe- conduct to, the herald, in confi- 
deranori of his office. He required Henry Clifford, 
earl of Cumberland, to furrender his caftle of Skip- 
ton, and join his forces ; but that nobleman refuf- 
ed to comply with his demand, although he was 
forfaken by five hundred gentlemen, whom he re- 


tained at his own expence. Then the rebels befieg- A - c - l &^\ 
ed Sir Ralph Ewers in the caftle of Scarborough, 
which he gallantly defended ; though he and his 
garrifon talted no other food for twenty -four days 
but fimple bread and water. Henry, feeing this 
affair become every day more and more ferious, 
fent the duke of Norfolk and the marquifs of Ex- 
eter, with fome troops levied in hafte, to join the 
earl of Shrewsbury ; but even after the junction, 
they were not able to face the enemy, who advan- 
ced againft them to the number of thirty thoufand 
men ♦, and, in all probability, would have attack- 
ed them at Doncafcer, had not the river been fo 
fwelled by heavy rains that they could not ford it, 
and the bridge fo ftrongly fortified, that they had 
no profpect of carrying it by afTault. 

The duke of Norfolk who favoured them in his Ne g° tJa t'pn 

i f- 1. .' i ','. r if ji with the in- 

heart, was not lorry to had himlelr unable to at- fu rg ent«. 
tack them : he maintained a private intelligence 
with fome of their chiefs ; and, by his advice, they 
prefented a humble petition to the king, which the 
duke engaged to deliver, and fupport with his in- 
tereft; but, in the mean time, he infilled upon a 
cerTation of hoftilities, to which they agreed. 
Perceiving however that Henry, inftead of an- 
fwering their petition, endeavoured to fow divifion 
among them by his emiffaries, they refolved to at- 
tack his army without further delay-, but were once 
more prevented by the rain, which rendered the ri- 
ver impaffable. Then the king propofed they 
mould fend three hundred deputies to meet his 
commiflioners at Doncafter ; and the duke of Nor- 
folk returning to that place, gave them to under- 
fland he had procured an amnefty in their favour, 
from which however ten were excepted -, fix of thefe 
by name, and the other four to be pitched upon 
by his majefty. This indulgence they rejected, but 
fent their three hundred deputies to Doncafter;, and as 
Numb. LII. E they 


a.c. 1536. they knew the king's intention was to gain time by 
protracting the negotiation, and that he hoped fuch 
a number of deputies would not agree among them- 
felves, they furnifhed them with inftru6tions in 
writing, containing certain propofals, from which 
they were not at liberty to recede. They demand- 
ed a general pardon without exception : That the 
king fhould convoke a parliament at York, and 
eftablifh a court of juftice in the Norch : That the 
inhabitants of thofe parts mould not be obliged to 
profecute their law-fuits in London : That certain 
laws, lately made to the grievance of the people, 
mould be repealed : That the princefs Mary fhould 
be declared legitimate, and the pope's authority re- 
eftablifhed on the ancient footing : That the mona- 
fteries which had been fupprefled fhould be reftored 
to their former condition : That the Lutherans and 
all innovators in religion fhould be feverely punifh- 
ed : That Thomas Cromwell and the chancellor 
fhould be expelled from the crown and parliament; 
and, That Lee and Leighton, the commiflioners 
for the fupprefllon of monafteries, fhould be impri- 
foned, and obliged to give account of their vio- 
lence and extortion. 

Thefe demands were rejected by the king's com- 
miflioners ; and the conference proved ineffectual : 
but the duke of Norfolk, being equally afraid of 
their ruin and fuccefs againft the troops he com- 
manded, v/rote a letter to the king, reprefenting 
that the number of the rebels daily encreafed •, and, 
that as he was in no condition to oppofe them, it 
would be necefTary to give them fome fort of fads - 

The king faction. Henry forthwith impowered him to offer 

grants an , n • 1 • i 

amnrfty, a general amneity without exception, and to pro- 

dffVrfe 7 m ^ e m k' s name tnat tne next parliament fhould ) 
pcre * be held in the North. Thefe terms were accepted 
by the chiefs of the infurgents ; and the accommo- 
dation being concluded, they difperfed to their own 



homes, to the inexpreflible difTatisfaction of the A - c - »s3'- 
monks and fanatics, who neverthelefs frill conti- Herbert. 
nucd to cheriih among them the fpirit of revolt. 

While thefe events engrofled the attention of the The em pe - 
Englim. monarch, a new rupture happened between theFrlnc" 
the emperor and the king of France. Charles, on d <>mimoaa. 
his return from Africa, continued to amufe Fran- 
cis with a negotiation ; insinuating that he would 
cede the dutchy of Milan in favour of h ; s third 
fon, the duke of Angouleme, on certain conditions : 
but, as he wavered in his propofals, Francis order- 
ed his general to fufpend all hoftilkies in Piedmont, 
and fe'nt the cardinal of Lorrain, as his ambafTador^ 
to demand a categorical anfwer of the emperor, who 
had repaired to Rome. There, in a public con- 
fiftory, he declaimed againft the king of France as 
the fole author of all trie wars which had afflicted 
Europe fince his acceftion to the throne -, and ob- 
ferved, that inftcad of fhedding fo much innocent 
blood, he would have acted more like a chriftian 
prince in deciding the quarrel with Charles by a. 
fword and poignard, in fome boat or ifland. Next 
day, the French ambaffador defired to know if his 
intention was to challenge his mafter in fingle com- 
bat; but he replied in the negative, faying, his 
meaning was that the French king ought to have 
accepted the expedient when it was at ntft propof- 
ed. The cardinal foon perceived tha: Charles had 
no intention to bellow the dutchy of Milan on a 
prince of the houfe of France; and wrote to Fran- 
cis that he had nothing to expect but war from the 
emperor. He had already projected the fcheme of 
. an invafion againft France, and began ro aflemble 
three armies •, one to act in Piedmont under his 
own command ; another in Picardy, and a third in 
Champagne. Francis being apprized of his defign, 
recalled the greateil part of his troops from Pied- 
mont, after having left ftrong garrifons in Turin 

E 2 and 


a.c. i 53 6. an( j the other places he had conquered. The 
French forces had no fooner quitted Piedmont than 
Charles inverted Turin, and, during the fiege, en- 
tered Provence at the head of a numerous army ; 
while Francis, having provided for the defence of 
Marfeilles, ordered two camps to be fortified, one 
at Cavaillon, under the command of the marechal 
Du Beiiay. fe Montmorency, and the other at Valence, where 
BuXoan. he was made acquainted with the death of his 
eldeft fon the dauphin, who had been poifoned by 
Montecuculli. The emperor, having reduced 
Aix, undertook the fiege of Marfeilles, which 
however he was obliged to raife ; and, for v/ant 
of provifion, retreated in great diforder towards 
james king Genoa, where he embarked for Spain. In the 
etou?e! and mean time, the count de Naffau fell into Picar- 
Madeiaine, ^y w ith thirty thoufand men, took Guife by af- 
rrancis? fault, and befieged Peronne, which was relieved 
by the duke of Guife. Francis, in his return to 
Paris, was met by James V. king of Scotland, 
who demanded his daughter Madelaine in mar- 
A. c, 1537. r i a ge 5 and the nuptials were folemnized in January. 
England was ftill agitated by the remains of 
the laft ftorm in the North. The king had no in- 
tention to keep his word with the rebels •, but 
ordered the duke of Norfolk to continue in arms 
among them, to be a check upon their conduct, 
and to exact the oath of fupremacy, which was ad- 
miniftred to perfons of all ranks and conditions. 
Aske was ordered to repair to court, where he at 
firlt met with a civil reception ; but the lord Dar- 
cy was fent to the Tower as foon as he arrived at 
Another in-- London. The difcontents among the people of 
in the ' the North foon broke cut again in open rebellion: 
North. two gentlemen, called Mufgrave and Tilby, put- 
ting themfelves at the head of eight thoufand mal- 
contents, made an attempt upen Carlifle*, from 
whence they were repulfed, and afterwards entirely 



routed by the duke of Norfolk. Mufgrave efcap- A « c - l sv, 
ed ; but Tilby, with feventy of his followers, were 
taken and hanged upon the walls of Carlifle. Ano- 
ther body, commanded by Sir Francis Bigot, and 
one Hullam, endeavoured to furprife Hull, but 
were alfo taken and executed. Thefe enterprizes co e ™Jmore 
exafperated the ferocious temper of the king tofuch auei. 
a'degree, that he commanded Aske and the lord 
Darcy to be put to death, on pretence of a confpi- 
racy, for which like wife the lord Hurley and many 
perfons of diftindtion fuffered, notwithftanding the 
amnefty which had been granted. The Lord Dar- 
cy, during his imprifonment, accufed the duke of 
Norfolk of having favoured the rebels at Doncaf- 
ter. The duke denied the charge, which he impu- 
ted to malice, and offered to clear himfelf by fingle 
combat \ but the king, whether convinced of his 
innocence, or unwilling to deal feverely with fuch 
a powerful nobleman, declared himfelf fatisfied with 
his conduct. By this time Henry's difpofition was 
fo favaged, that he became terrible to his fubje&s : 
not fatisfied with the blood he had fhed, he order- 
ed Thomas Fitzgerald, fon to the earl of Kildare, 
and five of his uncles, who had furrendered to lord 
Gray on promife of pardon, and been long detained 
in prifon, to be hanged at Tyburn; but the younger 
fon of Kildare efcaped by being packed up in a 
bundle of cloaths, and was conveyed to Ireland, 
from whence he failed to France-, and, finding 
himfelf unfafe in that kingdom, took refuge with 
cardinal Pole, who was his kinlman, and received 
him with great hofpirality. The king, having 
quelled the rebellion in Ireland, commanded the 
parliament in that kingdom to pafs divers ftatutes 
againft the pope's authority, for the eftablifhment 
of the fucceiTion, the ufe of the Englifli language, 
and the fupprefiion of certain monasteries. 

E 3 On 


a-c. 1537. On the twelfth day of October, the queen was 
Birthof delivered at Hampton- court of a prince, who was 
p nice Ed- chnftened by the name of Edward •, and, though 
w * nl the mother died in two days after the birth, Hen- 

ry was overjoyed at this event, which not only gra- 
tified his vanity, but removed all doubts about the. 
Poiyd. vir. fuccefTion. In fix days after this child was born, 
the king created him prince of Wales, duke of 
Cornwall, and earl of Chefter. At the fame time, the 
queen's brother, Sir Edward Seymour, lately made 
lord Beauchamp, was created earl of Hertford •, Sir 
William Fitzwilliams honoured with the title of earl 
of Southampton •, in the month of March, Sir Wil- 
liam PauJec, treafurer of the houfliold, was creat- 
ed lord St. John ♦, and Sir John RuiTel, comptrol- 
ler, dignified with the title of lord RufTel. In the 
stateofaf- cour f e f t ^ s year James V. of Scotland, in his 

mqnyand return from France with his young queen, touch- 
Scotianti. j n g on t ^ e coa ^. Q f £ n g\ m d ) had been follicited 

by a great number of the natives to take up arms 
againit the tyrant Henry ; but he declined em- 
bracing their propofals, and arrived at Edinburgh, 
where his queen Icon died of a hectic fever : then 
he fent ambaiTadors to France to demand in mar- 
riage Mary, filler of the duke of Guife, and car- 
dinal of Lorrain, whom he actually efpoufed in the 
fequel. During' thefe transactions, the proteftants 
Buchanan. j n Germany were ftill perfecuted by the intrigues 
of the emperor and his brother Ferdinand king of 
the Romans. The council, convoked at Mantua, 
was a Hep directly contrary to the promife Charles 
had made of aflernbling one in Germany : and the 
Lutherans complained of this breach >f promife, 
refufing to iubmit to the decifions of a council in 
which the pope prefided. The emperor, whole 
fcheme was to crufh them by force of arms, endea- 
voured to amufe them with delufive anfwers, until 




he iliould be in a condition to declare his defigns. A c '537. 
That he might be enabled to execute it with the sieidan. 
fairer profpecl of fuccefs, he concluded a truce 
with Francis, and negotiated for a peace, in hope 
of detaching the French king from the league of 
Smalcalde. Mean while the pope, poftponing 
the opening of the council from May to November, 
directed the cardinals Contarini, Sadolet, Polus, 
and Bembo, to inquire into fuch abufes of the 
church as required reformation. They found no- 
thing amifs in point of doctrine •, and, with re- 
fpect to difcipline, made out a lift of divers trifling 
irregularities, which, in their opinion, deferved 
to be reformed. 

Henry had been fo provoked by the ill offices Total fcp- 
of the monks, who ftirred up the late infurrections, [he^na- 
that he refolved to fupprefs all the monafteries in fteries « 
England, without exception ; his refolution being 
in this particular influenced by his intereft as well 
as his refentment, for he already grafped in idea 
the rents and riches of all the convents and religi- 
ous houfes. To pave the way for this total difto- A,c - '53 
lution, he ordered another minute vification, that 
he might bs able to remove the prejudices of the 
people, by divulging the enormities committed in 
thofe receptacles of vice ; and fuch fcenes were 
brought to light, as could not fail to excite the far- 
prize and abhorrence of the public. A great num- 
ber of monks, and even fome abbots and priors, 
were convicted of holding correfpondence with the 
rebels, and executed as traitors. Many compro- 
mifed for their lives, by'refigning their houfes into 
the king's hands •, fome gave up their monafteries 
from motives of confcience •, others to avoid pu- 
nifhment and difgrace ; .but all of them received 
penfions for their fubfiftence. Had nothing ap- 
peared againft thole religious foundation* but the 
vice and profl'gacy of the abbots, abbefles nuns, 

E 4 and 


a.c. i55 8 - and friars, the people would have naturally thought 
that the inftitution, which was good in itfeif, ought 
not to have been abolifhed, for the corruption of 
the members, who might have been changed and 
reformed. But the king chofe a more effectual 
expedient, in opening the eyes of the people with 
re i peel: to the pretended fanclity of relics, images, 
and all the other trumpery of fu perdition. The 
vifitors were inftrucled to examine, and, if poflible, 
difcover the arts by which the minds of the vulgar 
were infatuated ♦, and then the whole machinery of 
monkifh impofture was detected : not but that the 
fcandalous vices pracYifed in convents were likewife 
publifhed, in order to undeceive the nation. The 
imjMirities of Sodom and Gomorrah are faid to 
have been exceeded in Battel-abbey, Chrift- church 
in Canterbury, and feveral other convents. They 
found innumerable inftances of whoredom, adul- 
tery, onanifm, and other unnatural lufts and Dead- 
ly practices^ with arts to prevent conception and 
procure abortion among the nuns who were de- 
bauched. With refpec~t to monkifh idolatry and 
deceit, Reading feems to have been the repofitory 
of the nation. There the vifitors found an angel 
with one wing, that brought over the head of the 
fpear which pierced the fide of jefus Chrift, with 
fuch an inventory of other relics as filled up four 
iheets of paper. At St. Edmundsbury they feized 
fome of the coals that roafted St. Laurence, the 
parings of Sz. Edmund's toes, the penknife and 
boots of St. Thomas Becket, a great quantity of 
the real crofs, and certain relics to prevent rain 
and the generation of weeds among corn. The 
houfe of Weftacre had pawned a finger of St. An- 
drew for forty pounds ; but this the vifitors did not 
think proper to redeem. There was a crucifix at 
Boxley in Kent, diftinguifhed by the appellation of 
the Rood of Grace, which had been long in repu- 


tation, becaufe it had been feen to bend and raife A < G * 'ss 8 * 
itfelf, fhake the head, hands, and feet, roll the 
eyes, and move the lips. This puppet, being 
brought to London, was broke in pieces in fight 
of the people at St. Paul's crofs, where, with their 
own eyes they faw the fprings by which it had 
been actuated. At Hales in Gloucefterlhire the 
monks had carried on a profitable traffic with the 
blood of Chrift in a chryftal vial : fometimes this 
blood appeared, and fometimes was invifible, ac- 
cording to the faith or holinefs of the fpeelator. 
This relic was no other than the blood of a duck 
renewed weekly, and put in a vial ; one fidt of 
which was thin and tranfparent, and the other thick 
and impervious to the rays of light : it was placed 
near the altar, fo as to be turned occafionally by 
thofe fpiritual jugglers, according to the bounty of 
the pilgrim, or votary, by whom it was adored. 
The vifitor for Wales fent up to London a huge 
image of wood called Dawel Gatheren, to which 
incredible numbers of pilgrims reforted, on the 
fuppofition that it had power to deliver fouls from 
hell. This idol ferved for fuel to burn friar Forreft 
in Smithfield ; and another famous image of our 
Lady at Worcefter was found to be the ftatue of 
a bifriop, difguifed with veils and other ornaments. 
Another, in the bifhopric of St. David's, with a ta- 
per which was faid to have continued burning nine 
years, with many rich fhrines belonging to our Lady 
of Walfingham, of Ipfwich, and of Iflington, were 
committed to the flames by order of the vicegerent. 
That of St. Thomas Becket at Canterbury excelled 
all the others in magnificence, and opinion of fanc- 
tity : vail numbers of pilgrims reforted to it from 
all quarters, and even to thofe of Chrift 
and the BlefTed Virgin ; for, in one year, the offer- 
ings at the altar of Chrift and his mother did not 
exceed four pounds j and thofe at the fhrine of St. 



a.c. i 53 8. Thomas amounted to nine hundred and fifty-four*' 
Lewis VII. of France had vifited and prefented at 
it a jewel that was deemed the richeft in Europe. 
Not contented with one feftival in the year, they 
kept the anniverfary of his tranflation as an holiday; 
and, in every fiftieth year, there was a jubilee for 
fifteen days, during which, indulgencies were 
granted to all thofe who came to vifit his fhrine. 
The skull, which they worfhipped as the faint's, 
had never belonged to him ; for the true skull was 
found lying in the grave with the reft of his bones. 
The fhrine was now broken down and carried away, 
together with the gold that adorned it, which filled 
two large chefts that eight ftrong men could hardly 
carry out of the church. The king ordered his 
bones to be burned, his name expunged from the 
calendar, and the office for his feftival to be ftruck 
out of the breviary. A convocation meeting took 
into confideration the articles which had been pub- 
lifhed in the preceding year, and given great of- 
fence *, and, at the conclufion of their feffion, they 
„ printed an explanation of the Creed, the feven Sa- 
craments, the ten Commandments, the Lord's 
prayer, the falutation of the Virgin, with the doc- 
trines of JuftiEcation and Purgatory. 

When Henry's proceedings were known at 
Rome, that city was filled with fatires and libels 
againft his perfon and conduct. He was branded 
as the mod infamous and facrilegious tyrant that 
ever exifted. They accufed him of violating the 
afhes of the dead, which even the heathens had re- 
vered -y with waging war againft heaven and the 
faints ; with facrificing confecrated priefts to his 
favage cruelty and revenge •, with pilfering ail 
that the devotion of former ages had dedicated to 

Burnet.' God and his fervice. They compared him tt> Bel- 
fhazzar, Nero, Domitian, Dioclefian, and efpeci- 
ally to Julian the apoftate, whom he refembled in 



his learning and apoftacy, though he fell fhort of A « c - *53*. 
him in his morals. Henry had fpies at Rome, 
who gave him to underftand that the intelligence 
from England was generally fent to cardinal Pole. 
That prelate's pen being (till recognized in fome 
of the keen eft fatires, Henry conceived fuch an 
implacable refentment againft him as he had never 
harboured againft any other perfon; and wreaked 
his revenge on the cardinal's family. Pope Paul ^p°p c 
III. now publifhed the bull againft Henry which bull againft 
he had hitherto fufpended ; he endeavoured to in- Henrjr * 
ftigate all chriftian princes againft him, and even 
offered the kingdom of England to James king 
of Scotland. 

Henry, being made acquainted with the publica- 
tion of this bull, exacted of the bifhops and abbots 
a new oath, by which they renounced the pope's 
authority ; and a new tranflation of the Bible, print- Anewordiw 
ed at London, beins; prefented to him by Cromwell, nam * a - 
he permitted it to be diftributed through all theryinEng. 
principal churches of the kingdom. About the land * 
fame time, he ordered the clergy to read the Lord's 
prayer, the confeffion of Faith, and the ten Com- 
mandments, in Englifh. They were directed to 
jrecommend good works, and teach the people, that 
relics, rofaries, and fuch trompery, were unneceflary 
to falyation. All the images to which devotees 
made offerings were pulled down, all the tapers 
were taken away, except thofe that burned before 
the reprefentation of Chrift ; and he fuppreffed ali 
the invocations of Ora pro nobis, added to the. 
prayers addreffed to faints. 

Although this ordinance was a mortal blow to the 
old religion, the king was now fo abfolute, that no 
perfon would venture to exprefs the leaft difappro- 
bation. Gardiner, bifhop of Winchefter, had by 
this time returned from France : he detefted the 
reformation in his heart, was fufpected of having 



a. c. 153S. reconciled himfelf privately to the pope; and of 
carrying on a correfpondence with the emperor. 
Neverthelefs, he difTembled in fuch a manner, that 
the king, who defpifed his intellects, had no doubt 
of his fidelity •, and even beftowed upon him fome 
degree of his confidence, on account of his com- 
plaifance and fubmifilon. As he feemed to enter 
into all the king's meafures with the utmoft zeal of 
obedience, Henry willingly liftened to him in his 
fuggeftions againft the iacramentarians, or thofe 
who denied the real prefence in the eucharift, efpe- 
cially as this was a doctrine to which the king him- 
felf was firmly attached. Gardiner imagined, that 
the zeal of thofe who favoured the reformation, 
when perfecuted, would irritate the temper of the 
king, who was impatient of contradiction ; and 
that he would crufli them during the prevalence of 
perfects his indignation. The bifhop carried his point fo 
the facn- f ar as t0 ra if e a perfecution againft the facramenta- 

rians, one of whom, called John Nicholfon, alias 
Lambert, fuffered death as an heretic. He had 
been minifter of the Englifh company at Antwerp, 
from which office he was difmiifed on account of 
his belief. He afterwards kept a fchool at Lon- 
don ; and hearing doctor Taylor preach upon the 
real prefence in the facrament, prefented him with 
his reafons for contradicting that doctrine. The pa- 
per was carried to Cranmer, who was then of Lu- 
ther's opinion in that article, and endeavoured to 
convince Lambert of his error. But, this lad ap- 
pealed to the king, who undertook to confute him 
in Weftminfter-Hall, before the bifhops, nobility, 
and judges of the realm. A fham difpute was ac- 
cordingly maintained by Henry, feconded by all his 
prelates, who extolled his learning with the moil 
Lambert extravagant encomiums. Lambert was brow- 
herer f ° r beaten, confounded, and convicted of herefy : bur, 
he chofe to refign his life, rather than part with 



his opinion ; and was burned at Smithfield, with a. c. 153s* 
horrid circumftances of barbarity. The adulation of Burnet, 
the learned infpired the king with fuch an opinion 
of his own ability, as proved equally fatal to both 
parties *, for, he now refolved to punifh rigoroufly 
all thofe who fhould prefume to differ from him 
in point of opinion, without making any diftin&ion 
between papift and reformer. Underftanding that 
the emperor had concluded a truce for ten years 
with the king of France, he endeavoured to profit 
by his negotiation with the League of Smalcalde ; 
and defired them to fend over theologicians to con- 
fer with him concerning the points in which he 
differed from thofe of their communion. They 
difpatched ambaffadors to England for that pur- 
pose ; but, as they infilled upon his embracing the 
confeffion of Augfburg, and would not give up one 
tittle of their belief, touching the communion in 
one fpecies, private mattes, auricular confeffion, 
and the celibacy of priefts, all which articles they 
renounced, he was obliged to difmifs them without „ , „ 

r 1 • Herbert. 

coming to any reiolution. 

The intereft of the reformed religion in England du Beihy. 
began to decline fenfibly at court, fince the death 
of the queen, who, as well as her predecelfor, had 
favoured its progrefs. Cranmer ftill kept his foot- 
ing in the king's good graces, by dint of perfonal 
merit ; but, Cromwell is faid to have minded his 
own intereft, rather than that of religion : Shaxton, 
bifhop of Salifbury, was proud and litigious : Lati- 
mer, of Worcefter, was weak and fimple : Barlow, 
of St. Afaph, fhallow and imprudent : and the 
other preachers of the new religion were generally 
enthufiafts, who fuffered themfelves to be hurried 
away by an intemperate zeal, which payed no je- 
fpecl: to the temper and character of Henry ; and 
confequently never failed to incur his indigna- 
tion. About this time they flattered themfelves 



a.c. i 53 s. they had gained an accefTion of ftrerigth in the pro- 
motion of Bonner to the fee of Hereford, vacant 
by the death of Edward Fox : but, they were griev- 
oufly difappointed ; for, that prelate, notwith- 
standing the obligations he had been laid under by 
the chiefs of the reformation, became one of their 
mod rancorous enemies. At the death of Stoke - 
ley, he was afterwards advanced to the fee of Lon- 
projSh* don. Cromwell and Cranmer perceiving that their 
another credit began to diminifh, thought there was no 
theking°. r method fo likely to retrieve their influence at court, 
as that of perfuading the king to marry another 
wife, upon whofe protection they might depend. 
With this view they turned their eyes to Germany ; 
and Cromwell undertook to negotiate a match be- 
Herbert. tween Henry, and Anne filler to the duke of Cleves 
and to the dutchefs of Saxony. 

By this time the pope had effected an interview 
at Nice, between the emperor and the king of 
France, who, though they could not agree to a 
treaty of peace, concluded a truce for ten years ; 
and then pope Paul engaged in a league againft 
the Turks, with the emperor, the king of the Ro- 
mans, and the Venetians. Francis having nothing 
further to fear from Charles, cooled fenfibly in his 
friendfhip towards Henry, who refented his indiffe- 
rence, and ordered Bonner, in his return from Spain, 
to demand of him an Englifh rebel who had taken 
refuge in France, together with the arrears of his 
penfion. Bonner made thofe demands in fuch in- 
folent terms, that Francis, by an exprefs courier, 
defired Henry to recal him ; and fo far the king 
complied with his requeft. Mean while, cardinal 
Pole, not fatisfied with having reviled the charac- 
ter of Henry, by word and writing, maintained a 
private correfpondence in England ; and was even 
faid to afpire at the crown, through a marriage 
with the princefs Mary. His correfpondence was 



ciifcovered to the king by Sir Geoffery de la Pole, A - C <*si*' 
his own kinfmah •, and in confequence of this in- Several no- 
formation, Henry Courtney marquis of Exeter, £S ti 
grandfon of Edward IV. Henry de la Pole lord Jjightre*. 
Montague, Sir Edward Nevil, and Sir Nicholas 0,u " 
Carew knight of the garter, were tried, convicted, 
and executed for high-treafon. Herbert. 

The king having extorted refignations from all 
the abbots and priors of monafteries, acquired a 
vaft accefiion of revenue, not only by the rents of 
thofe houfes, but alfo by their moveables, clocks, 
bells, lead, and other materials ; for, notwithftand- 
ing the induftry which the monks, and their fupe- 
riors, exerted in pillaging their churches and con- 
vents, when they found themfelves on the brink of 
being fupprelTed, a great quantity of rich movea- 
bles ftill remained; infomuch, that in the abbey of 
St. Edmundfbury, the king found to the value of 
five thoufand marks in gold and filver bullion. The A - c. 1539. 
parliament being alTembled on the twenty-eighth Tranfaai- 
day of April, and being properly tutored by the ^"J"" 
king, enacted the law of the Six articles, com- The future t 
monly called the Bloody ftatute, denouncing death ofblood - 
againft all thofe who mould deny tranfubftantia- 
tion ; maintain the neceffity of communicating in 
both fpecies •, affirm, that it was lawful for priefts 
to marry •, that the vows of chaftity might be vio- 
lated ; that private malfes were ufelefs •, and, that 
auricular confefllons were not neceffary to falvation. 
That ftatute was fuggefted by Gardiner bifhop of 
Winchefter, who told the king, that nothing would 
more effectually prevent the formation of a league 
againft him : that he had not altered the eflentials 
of religion : and, that no potentate or perfon could 
believe him an heretic while he maintained thefe 
fix articles, which fo fignally diftinguifhed the true 
catholics from fectaries and innovaters. Cranmer 
oppofed this ftatute in parliament for three days 

fucceflively y 


a.c, 1539. fuccefilvely ; but as foon as the bill pafTed, he fent 
his wife abroad to Germany, of which fhe was a 
native. Henry, in order to reconcile the people to 
the fupprefllon of the monaileries, pretended he had 
undoubted intelligence of an intention to invade 
England, vifited the fea-coafts in perfon, and be- 
gan to build bulwarks for the defence of the king- 
dom, as well as a navy to protect commerce ; de- 
claring, that all this extraordinary expence would be 
defrayed by the revenues of the monafleries, with- 
out any additional tax upon the people. The par- 
liament, which was intirely devoted to his will, con- 
firmed him in pofTefllon of thofe houfes, on the 
fuppofition that he would employ their income in 
other religious foundations ; and by another fla- 
tute impowered him to erect fome new bifhoprics. 

Camden. The number of monafleries fupprefTed in England 
and Wales, amounted to fix hundred and forty- 
five : ninety colleges were deflroyed, together with 
twO|fhoufand three hundred and feventy-four chan« 
tries and'free-chapels, and one hundred and ten hof- 
pitals : the yearly revenue of the whole being 
equal to one hundred and fixty-one thoufand and 
one hundred pounds. Henry from this fund aug- 
mented the number of colleges and profeffors in the 
univerfities, erected the bifhoprics of Weflminfler, 
Oxford, Peterborough, Briflol, C heller, and Glou- 
cefler : that of Weftminfter was diiTolved by queen 
Mary, and Benedictines placed in the abbey ♦, but 
queen Elizabeth afterwards converted it to a col- 
legiate church, and a feminary for young fcholars. 
Bumet. In this feflion of parliament an act was pafled, de- 
creeing, that the fame obedience fhould be payed to 
the king's proclamation, or an order of council 
during a minority, as was due to an act of parlia- 
ment-, but, this under certain limitations. Ano- 
ther flatute regulated the rank of the nobility ; and 
Cromwell, though the fon of a blackfmith, ob- 

HENRY frill 65 

tained the firft place immediately after the princes A - c ■*$&• 
of the blood. Then the feflion confirmed the Aft. Pub. 
fentence pronounced againft the marquis of Exeter, 
and the reft who had been executed for carrying on 
a correfpondence with cardinal Pole : and for the 
fame offence, condemned the cardinal's mother the 
countefs of Salifbury, and the marchionefs of Exe- 
ter, without allowing them to plead in their own 
defence, though they were both princerTes of the 
blood royal. The king granted a pardon in favour 
of the marchionefs, and a reprieve to the countefs^ 
who neverthelefs died afcerv/ards on a fcaffold. 

Henry ftill efteemed Cranmer for his confcientions 
behaviour, though he oppofed the ftatute of the fix 
articles ; and fent the duke of Norfolk to allure him 
of the continuation of his affection. He afterwards 
difcourfed with him upon that law ; and allowed 
him to explain the reafons that induced him to op- 
pofe it. He even ordered him to commit thefe 
reafons to writing, though fuch a Hep was render- 
ed capital by the ftatute. Cranmer accordingly 
drew up a memorial on the fubjsft, which being 
loft by accident fell into the hands of a perfon who 
would have delivered it to the king, had he not 
been prevented by Cromwell. Shaxton bilhop of 
Salifbury, and Latimer of Worcefter, who had 
likewife oppofed the articles, were not fo favour- 
ably dealt with. In order to appeale the king's re- 
fentmenr, which they had incurred, they thought 
proper to refign their bifhoprics •, but, they had 
no fooner made this facririce, than they were ac- 
cufed of harbouring fentiments contrary to the 
flatute, and committed prifoners to the Tower 
of London. When the fefiion of parliament pfr&tiiiiih 
broke up, the king appointed commiftioners ce- in £»#***< 
voted to the catholic religion, arid fent them 
through the kingdom to difcover all thofe who 
condemned the iix articles, that they might be 

N? 52. F punilhed 


a. c, 1539, punifhed with all the rigour of the law. In Lon- 
don alone, above five hundred perfons were im- 
prifoned on this account, after having been in- 
veigled into confefiion by the cornmifiioners - 7 but, 
the chancellor reprefented the pernicious confe- 
quences of fuch a perfecution, in fuch pathetic 
terms to the king, that he pardoned all thofe who 
had been apprehended •> and put a flop for the pre- 
fent to all further enquiry. The king's will was 
now become the meafure of the law, becaufe both 
parties cultivated his favour with the mod abject 
complaifance. Bonner bifhop of London, though 
in fecret a zealous partifan of the papal power, ma- 
naged his intererx with fuch dexterity, that he ob- 
tained letters patent, adjudging to him the fpiritua- 
lities as well as the temporalities of his bifhopric, 
during the king's good pleafure ; and Gardiner (till 
maintained his influence by the moft extravagant 
complaifance, and the moft profound difiimulation. 
Henry forefeeing a rupture between the emperor 
and the protectants of Germany, fent new am oaf- 
fadors to the league of Smalcalde, to encourage 
them in their oppofition to the hcufe of Auftria y 
man anc ^ t0 P romi fe fte would engage in their afibcia- 
Hcrbcrt'. tion. They perceived his drift was only to amufe 
them, and intimidate the emperor by means of a 
negotiation with his enemies \ and they frankly 
- gave him to underfrand, that they would unite 
with him on no other terms, than that of his em- 
bracing the confeflion of Augfburg. They faid s 
they had heard with great mortification of his per- 
iecuting their brethren in his kingdom-, and in 
particular, complained of the law of the fix arti- 
cles, the injuftice of which Melanchthon explained 
to him in a fubmi-Mive letter. Henry was mocked 
2t the freedom of their expoftulation ^ and Gar- 
diner, by flattering his vanity, added fuel to his 
yjfentment. It was not in his power> however, to 
6 prevent 

H E N R f VIII. 6f 

prevent an incident which in a great meafure for- A> ** l sw % 
warded the reformation. Though the king was in 
poiTeffion of the fupremacy, he could not be fat isfied 
until the people fhould be convinced of his right 
to that preheminence ; and Cranmer knowing his 
anxiety on this fubject, told him, that nothing 
wpuld contribute to their undeception, more than a 
free ufe of the fcriptures, by which they would fee 
that the pope's authority was not founded on the 
word of God. Henry no fooner fignified his ap- 
probation of this propofal, than Gardiner employed 
all his art and rhetoric, to prevent fuch a fatal 
blow to the catholic religion. The two prelates 
difputed on the fubject in prefenceof the king, who 
decided in favour of Cranmer, telling the other, 
he was but a novice, who ought not to enter the 
lifts with fuch an experienced general. The truth , - _, 
is, he thought his own intereft coincided with Cran- 
mer's propofitions. He granted letters patent to The king 
Cromwell as his vicegerent, importing, That his p^mitsthe 
fubjedls mould have free and liberal ufe of the Bible tranflated. 6 
tranflated into the Englifh tongue -, and that for 
five years there mould be no impreMion of the Bible 
or any part of it, but only by fuch as he mould ap- 
point. Towards the end of this year, the inhabi- 
tants of Ghent mutinied, and offered to acknow- 
ledge the French king as their fovereign, if he Burnet* 
would protect them from the refentment of the 
emperor. But Francis rejected their propofal, 
which he communicated to Charles, who had by 
this time amufed him fo effectually with the pro- 
mife of reftoring to him the dutchy of Milan, than 
Charles ventured to pafs through his dominions on 
the faith of a fimple fafe- conduct, and even vifited 
him at Paris, where he was received with the 
fame honours which the French payed to their own 

F 2 At 


a. 6.1539. At this very period, Anne of Cleves arrived in 
England, after the match between her and Henry 
had been concluded, under the direction of Crom- 
well. The king no fooner heard fhe had landed at 
Rochefter, than he went thither incognito, to fee his 
future confort, and found her fo different from her 
picture, which had been drawn by Hans Holbein, 
that in the impatience of his difappointment, he 
ibid. iwore they had brought him a Flanders mare. Never- 

thelefs, reflecting that her brother the duke of 
Cleves was the emperor's neighbour in the Low 
Countries, aud his competitor for the fucceffion to 
the dutchy of Guelderland •, that her filler was 
married to the duke of Saxony, chief of the league 
of Smalcalde i and that the emperor was then at 
Paris, endeavouring to detach Francis from the 
He«ry weds incerefts of England ^ he would not run the rifque 
cievTs. of affronting two fuch powerful princes, at a time 
. n when he might (land in need of their affiflance •, 

A. t., 1540; , o * 

and therefore he married the princefs on the fixth 
day of January. Next day Cromwell afked him 
how he liked his new bed-fellow ; and he declared 
to him in confidence, that he liked her worfe than 
ever •, chat he fufpected /he was no maid •» that me 
had uniavoury fmells about her; and, that he be- 
lieved he mould never be able to confummate his 
nuptials. Yet he lived decently with her for five 
months, during which his averfion feemed to in- 
creafe; though /he did not appear much afflicted 
at his difguil. She was naturally dull and phleg- 
matic •, altogether unfkilled in mufic, which was 
always agreeable to Henry ; and ignorant of the 
Englifh language, in which however, /he focn be- 
'came a proficient. 

The parliament meeting on the twelfth day of 
April, Cromwell opened the feffion with a fpeech, 
in which he informed the two houfes, that the 
king, in order to terminate all difputes about reli- 



glon, had appointed commifiioners to examine the A - c « *54©. 
contefted articles, that a ftandard of faith might be He appoints 

o mmi/jio- 

after the truth mould be thus made known to his 

eftablimed upon the word of God alone; and, that 

* . ners to exa- 

mine tne 

people, he was refolved to punifli without mercy all c d °^f^ of 
thofe who mould prefume to prefer theirown opinions religion. 
to the eftabliflied articles of belief. Thofe commiffio- r < _ 
ners being approved by the parliament, received or- cromweM 
ders to begin their enquiry without delay : and, in JJJ?^ 
the mean time, the king created Cromwell earl of 
EfTex. In this felTIon, the order of the knights of 
St. John of Jerufalem was fuppreffed, on pretence 
of their dependence on the pope and the emperor : 
and all their effects in England and Ireland confif- 
cated for the ufe of the king, who allotted three 
thoufand pounds yearly for their maintenance. 

Immediately after the prorogation of this par- 
liament, the fall of Cromwell was decreed. He 
was hated and envied as an upftart by the nobility 
in general, and detefted by all the Roman catho- 
lics, as the inveterate enemy of their religion. The 
king had expreffed great diflatisfaclion at his con- 
duel in effecting this difagreeable marriage •, and 
the duke of Norfolk and Gardiner did not fail to 
inflame his difcontent. They reprefented, that the 
kingdom was rilled with malcontents on the fcore 
of religion ; that they looked upon the vicegerent 
as author of all thofe meafures which they difap- 
proved ; that Cromwell had deceived his majefty 
in the affair of his marriage ; that he had railed an 
immenfe fortune by opprefTion ; and that the king., 
by facrificing him to the refentment of the public, 
would entirely conciliate the affections of his peo- 
ple. This laft argument had great weight with Herbert 
Henry, who was really incenfed in his heart againft 
Cromwell, and thought he had no further ufe for 

his fervice in treating with the league of Smal- 
ts t3 ^ 

calde, as he had by this time determined to make 
peace with the emperor, who he forefaw would 

F 3 break 


a. c. 1540. break with Francis about the dutchy of Milan. On 
Burnet. theie conficjerations, he gave up Cromwell to the 
revenge of his enemies. Upon the meeting of the 
parliament, the duke of Norfolk, at the council - 
table, ar re (led the earl of Eiftx, in the king's name, 
for high treaibn ; and he was immediately fent pri- 
foner to Vclq Tower. His difgrace was no fooner 
known, than all his friends forfook him, except 
Cranmer, who wrote fuch a letter to Henry in his 
behalf, as no other man in the kingdom would have 
prefumed to indite ; but it produced no effect in fa- 
fjromveiiis vour of the unfortunate Cromwell, who, without 
juumted <? f being heard in his own defence, was by a bill of at- 
/on, tainder found guilty of divers herefies and treafons; 

and condemned to fuffer the pains of death, as the 
king fhould think proper to direct. 
uveln^h/* The fall of 'Cromwell was immediately followed 
king and by the diilblution of the marriage between Henry 
£e?M and his new wife : a-diffblution on which he had 
fet his heart, not only on account of his averfion to 
Anne of Cleves, but alfo becaufe he was by this 
time enamoured of Catherine Howard, daughter 
to lord Edmund, brother to the prefent duke of 
"Norfolk. The whole houfe of lords, with a com- 
mittee of the commons, waited upon the king with 
an addrefs, defiringhe would order trial to be made 
of the validity of his marriage •, and his majefty 
complying with their requeft, a commifiion was 
granted for trying it in convocation. They forth- 
with proceeded to the examination of witnefTes, in- 
cluding the depositions of the king and members 
of the privy-council ; a declaration under the hand 
of Cromwell, figned in the Tower,; the evidence 
of the earl of Southampton ; the lord RufTcJ, at 
that time admiral ; Sir Anthony Brown, Sir An- 
thony Denny, doctors Chambers and Butts the 
queen's phyficians, and fome ladies of the chamber. 
The fubftance of the whole amounted to thefe par- 
tictui^s ; That th^ere had been a pre-contract be- 


tween the queen and the marquis of Lorraine : that A ' c * *54 o . 
it did not appear whether thefe fpoufals were made 
by the parties themfelves, or in the words of the 
prefent tenfe : that the king having married her 
againft his will, had not given a pure, inward, and 
complete confent : and, that he had never confum- 
mated the marriage. Thefe frivolous objections 
were ftrongly infilled upon by the popifh party, and 
Cranmer being influenced by the fear of his life, 
yielded his affent ; fo that the convocation unani- 
moufly judged the marriage null ; and on the ninth 
day of July, fentence was given for its diflbiu- 
tion. On the tenth day of July, this fentence was 
notified to both houfes, by whom it was approved ; 
then the king fent the duke of Norfolk, the earl of 
Southampton, and the bifhop of Winchefter, ta in- 
timate the tranfaction to Anne of Cleves, who ex- 
prefTed no fort of diftatisfaetion at the divorce. 
They told her the king would, by letters-patent de- 
clare her his adopted fifter, give her precedency be- 
fore all the ladies in England but his own wife and 
daughter; that an eflate of three thoufand pounds 
a year would be allotted for her maintenance *, and, 
that fhe might either live in England, or return to 
her own country. She chofe to live in England, and 
was prevailed upon to write a letter to her brother, 
approving what had been done. Then the bill for 
annulling the marriage palled both houfes without 
the leaft oppofition. 

This important affair being terminated, the par- Tranfaft?- 
liament, by a new act, mitigated the penalties in JS^tT*" 
one of the fix articles of the ftatute of blood, rela- 
ting to ecclefiaftics who fhould violate their vows of 
chaftity. The commiffioners appointed by the 
king to examine the doctrines or religion, having 
drawn up a long report on that fubject, a ftatute 
vas enacted, implying, That their report mould 
h'Ve the force of a law, as well as every thing that 

F 4 the 


a. a 1549. the king mould ordain on the fubject of religion/ 
Thus, they vetted in the king, that infallibility of 
which they had deprived the pope. This complai- 
iant parliament gave away the liberties of the na- 
tion in every refpect : they firft made the king ab- 
folute mafter of their lives and fortunes, and now 
they fubjeeted their confeiences to his will and 
pleafure •, but this laft act they clogged with a con- 
tradiction, in theie words, Provided nothing fhould 
be done contrary to the Jaws of the realm, They 
pa(Ted another act, ordaining that a marriage, al- 
ready confummated, fnould not be diffolved on ac- 
count of a pre-contract, or any other hindrances 
thanthofe of the divine law. This ftatute, which 
. fo palpably contradicted the king's own conduct 
in the cafes of his wives, was intended as a previous 
flep towards the legitimation of the princefs Eliza- 
beth, and his marriage with Catherine Howard. 
The convocation of the clergy in the province of 
Canterbury, granted one fifth of their revenues, . 
payable in five years to the king, as a mark of 
their gratitude for the pains he had taken to deliver 
the Englifh church from papal tyranny. Notwith- 
itanding this ample gratification, the king demand- 
ed a fubfidy from parliament ; and tho* the mem- 
bers had been ib long accuttomed to behave to- 
wards him with the molt fervile complaifance, they 
could, not help expreffing their furprize at this de- 
mand, confidering the tranquillity of the times, 
and the great funis the king had derived from the 
dififolution of the monafteries. Warm debates 
were maintained on this fubject in the houfe of 
commons : but the partifans of the court repre^ 
femting the great expence the king had incurred by 
putting the fea-coaft in a pofture of defence, tie 
majority acquiefced in this reafon, and vote* 3 
very confiderable fubfidy. 



This condefcending parliament was clofed with A - c - 1 H°* 
an act of amnefty ; from the benefit of which, how- 
ever, the countefs of Salifbury, and Cromwell, 
were excluded, as well as thofe who were convict- 
ed of having denied the king's fupremacy, or of 
having violated any of the articles in the ftatute of 
blood. Cromwell's fortitude feemed to for fake 
him when he was arrefted : being required to fend 
to the king a full account of his tranfaclions in the 
marriage, he concluded his letter in the moft ab- 
ject manner. He fubfcribed himfelf a moft woeful 
prifoner, ready to take the death, when it fhould 
pleafe God and his majefty ; yet (he faid) the frail 
fiefh incited him continually to call to his grace 
for mercy, and grace for his offences . He dated 
the letter " at the Tower, this Wednefday the laft 
" of June, with the heavy heart and trembling 
* 4 hand of your highnefs's moft heavy and moft 
miferable prifoner, and poor flave, Thomas 
Cromwell •," ar?d below the fubfcription he 
wrote " Moft gracious prince, I cry for mercy, 
*' mercy, mercy." He afterwards wrote fuch a 
pathetic letter to the king, that Henry feemed af- 
fected with it, and caufed it to be read thrice over 
in his hearing ; but thefe impreflions were effaced 
by. the beauty of Catherine Howard, and the in» 
finuations of the duke of Norfolk and the bifhop 
of Winchefter ; fo that a warrant was granted for 
his being beheaded on Tower-hill. When he was CwmweWij 
brought to the fcaffold, his regard for his fon beheadcd * 
hindered him from expatiating upon his own in- 
nocence. He thanked God for bringing him to 
that death for his tranfgreflions. He acknowledged 
his offences againft God and his prince, who had 
raifed him from a low degree -, confefled he had 
been feduced, but that now he died in the catholic 
faith. Then he defired the bye-ftanders to pray 
for the king, the prince, and for himfelf; and, 





a. c. 1540. having fpent a little time at his own private devo- 
tion, fubmitted his neck to the executioner, who 
mangled him in a mocking manner. This great 
minifter was the fon of a blackfmith - 9 and, though 
he had not the benefit of a liberal education, he 
raifed himfelf by his natural fagacity and dexterity 
in bufinefs to the higher! offices of the ftate. He 
bore his profperity with great moderation ; was 
particularly grateful to thole who had aflifted him 
in his neceffities ; and fuch was his integrity, that 
his enemies could not fix any (tain of corruption on 
his character. The king is faid to have lamented 
his death ; and the fall of the new queen, who 
did not long furvive Cromwell, together with the 
miferies that fell upon the duke of Norfolk and 
his family in the fequel, were confidered as the 
judgments of heaven upon them for their cruel 
perfecution of this minifter. Walter lord Hun- 
gerford furFered at the fame time for forcery, trea- 
fon, and beftiality. In a few days after Crom- 
well's death, a number of people were executed to- 
gether for very different crimes : fome for having 
denied the king's fupremacy, and others for hav- 
ing maintained the Lutheran doctrines. Thefe laft 
were three priefts of the name of Barnes, Gerard, 
and Jerome. They had been condemned by act of 
parliament, for fpreading herefy, and falfifying the 
holy fcripture i and they fuffered at the flake with 
great conftancy, praying for their perfecutors. 
The king ® n tne eighth day of Auguft the king declared 
declares his his marriage with Catherine Howard, whom he had 
wkhcf, fome time ago privately efpoufed ; and as this 
.therine lady was wholly devoted to her uncle the duke of 
Norfolk, and Gardiner bifhop of Winchefter, the 
partilans of the pope began to flatter themfelves 
with the profpect of a change in matters of reli- 
gion. They marked out Cra; mer as a facrifice. 
Already they began to revile him openly ; and a 



member of parliament publicly declared in the A,c,, 54 ' 
houfe, that he was chief and protector of the inno- 
vators. The commiffioners appointed to draw up 
an expofition of the chriitian doctrine having fmifh- 
ed their work, it was publifhed by the king's or- 
der; and then the world perceived, that, inftead of 
advancing, it checked the progrefs of the reforma- 
tion. Other commilTioners, employed to reform 
the miflaJs, made hardly any other alteration than 
that of razing out the pope's name, when it oc« 
purred •, and every thing feemed to prognofticate 
the fall of Cranmer, though his enemies proceeded 
very gradually in the work of his deftruction, well 
knowing that he was perfonally beloved by his fo- 


During thefe tranfaclions in England, the good c au fes of 
understanding fo lately eftabliflied between the em- ?' fcontent 

o j between 

peror and Francis, Suffered a fudden interruption. Henry * n: » 
While Charles tarried at Paris, he pofitively pro- Fraiicis « 
mifed to bellow the dutchy of Milan on the duke 
pf Orleans ; but postponed the cefTion until he 
Should arrive in the Low Countries, that he might 
not fcem to have acted on compulsion, in which 
cafe the ceSTion would be deemed void. After his 
departure from France, however, he (till found 
neiv pretences for delaying the execution of his pro- 
mife •, and in the mean time fubdued and chaStifed 
the inhabitants of Ghent, who had revolted. Fran- 
cis, finding that he had no intention to part with 
the Milanefe, was fo incenfed at his difappointment 
that he difgraced the chancellor Poyet,, and the 
confrabie Montmorency, who had advifed him to 
trult to the word of the emperor. In the courfe of DllBella ^ 
this year, a rupture had well nigh happened be- 
tween the French and Englifh, on account of a 
bridge that Francis ordered to be built upon a river, 
which divided his dominions from the Englifh ter- 
ritory in Picardy. The garrifon of Calais having 



A. c. 1540. cleftroyed the bridge, the French king began to 
levy forces ; and Henry reinforced the garrifon of 
Calais. That fuch a frivolous caufe might not 
produce a war between the two nations, commif- 
fioners were fent by both kings to examine the 
affair, and terminate the difference in an amicable 
manner ; but the conference proving ineffectual, 
they began mutually to provide for the defence 
of their frontiers. It was likewife in this year that 
pope Paul III. by a bull confirmed the order of 

£.c. »54 T ' A new flame was now on the point of breaking 
out in Europe. The emperor was threatened with 
a war, not only by Francis, but likewife by Soly- 
man emperor of the Turks, who had taken into 
his protection young Stephen Sepufa, who difputed 
the kingdom of Hungary with Ferdinand king of 
the Romans. Charles endeavoured to intimidate 
the Porte from a commiffion of hoftilities, by af- 
fecting an intimate union with the kings of France 
and England : he promifed to erect the Low Coun- 
tries into a kingdom, and bellow it upon the duke 
of Orleans. Francis, who perceived his drift, and 
knew his infincerity, appointed ambaffadors for the 
courts of Conftantinople and Venice, in order to 
difabufe thofe powers ; but as they failed down 
the Po in a boat, they were affaflinated by the di- 
rection of the marquis of Guaft, governor of Ml> 

M« C rai. Ian. The French king complained loudly of this 
outrage ; for which however he received no fa- 
tisfaction from the emperor -, and this was a frefli 
fource of animofuy. Charles, at this time, had 
convoked a diet at Ratifbon ; and, as this was no 
feafon for difturbing the protectants, he granted 
them another refpke called the Interim, that they 
might the more cheat fully furnifh him with fuc- 
cours againft the Infidels. The king of the Ro- 
mans had already inverted Buda, which he hoped 



to reduce before the Turks mould come to its af- A « c **'s<*% 
fiftance : but, the garrifon making a gallant de- 
fence, the Ottoman army came to their relief, 
and obtained a fignal victory over the Germans. 
Neverthelefs, the emperor, inftead of marching Theempe- 
into Hungary, great part of which was now in the dkio^tT 
hands of Solyman, repaired to Italy, and embark- Aigiew. 
ed at Porto Venere with an army of five and twenty 
thoufand men, deftined to act againft Barbarofla, 
who had feized the fovereignty of Algiers. He 
landed in the neighbourhood of that city, on the 
twenty- fecond day of October ; but before he could 
undertake any thing of confequence, a violent tem- 
ped deftroyed the bed part of his fleet, and he 
was obliged to re-imbark in the beginning of 

Mean while, Henry king of England, under- 
ftanding that his nephew James, the Scottish mo- 
narch, was entirely directed by the council of fome 
churchmen devoted to the fee of Rome, began to 
be afraid, that he might be brought over to the 
interefts of the emperor, and at his inftigation di- 
fturb the Englifh dominions. He earneftly defired 
to perfuade James to follow his example in renoun- 
cing the papal authority, and was vain enough to 
believe his own eloquence was fufficient for this 
purpofe. He therefore fent ambafTadors to demand 
an interview at York, and James agreed to the pro- 
pofals : but the Scottifh. clergy, fearing the confe- 
quences of this interview, found means to diiluade 
their fovereign from going to York-, and, after 
Henry had waited for him fome days in that city, 
he received letters of excufe, at which he was 
exceedingly incenfed. The chagrin he felt at this 
difappointment was a meer trifle in companion of 
what now awaited him on his return to London. 
He had, upon all occafions, exprefTed the moft per 
feet fatisfaction in his prefent marriage. He was 

The queen 
accufed of 


A . c. 1541. f captivated with the queen's accomplifhments* 
that when he received the facrament on All Saint's 
day, he thanked God for his felicity, and defired 
his confeffor to join with him in the fame thankfgiv-^ 
ing. This joy however was of very fhort duration : 
while he was at York, a man of the name of Laf- 
feU had waited upon Cranmer at London ; and* 
from the information of his fifter, who had been 
fervant to the dutchefs dowager of Norfolk, gave* 
him a very furprifing account of the queen's incon- 
tinence* He laid fhe had led a very lewd life be- 
fore her marriage, carried on a fcandalous corref- 
pondence with two men called Dierham and Man- 
nock •, and that me continued to indulge herfelf in 
the fame criminal pleafure fince fhe was raifed to 
her prefent greatnefs. Cranmer was equally fur- 
prifed and embarrafied at this intelligence, which 
he communicated to the chancellor and fome other 
members of the privy-council, j who advifed him to 
make the king acquainted with the whole affair, at 
his return to London. The archbifhop knew what 
a rifque he ran* by intermeddling in fuch a delicate 
fubjec~V. with a prince of Henry's difpofition : but 
he likewife knew the danger of fuppreffing fuch in- 
formation. He therefore refolved to commit what 
he had heard to writing, in the form of a memo- 
rial, which he delivered into the king's own hand, 
defiring his majeily to read it in private. Henry 
believed at nrft it was a piece of calumny, and de- 
termined to punifh the authors with the utmoft fe- 
verity. With this view he ordered the keeper of 
the privy-feal to examine LafTels, who repeated the 
fame ftory, and even produced his fifter, by whom 
it was confirmed. Then Deirham and Mannock 
being arretted, confefled that they had carnally 
known the queen ; that one of her principal confi- 
dents in thole ftolen debauches was the lady Roch- 
ford, who had accufed her husband of inceft with 





Anne Boleyn-, that this lady introduced into the A,c,, 5^ 
queen's bed chamber one Culpeper, who had flay- 
ed with her from eleven at night till four o'clock 
in the morning. As the queen had taken Dierham 
into her fervice, it was prefumed that (he intended 
to continue in the fame courfe of life. When (he 
was firft queflioned about thefe particulars, (he de- 
nied the charge •, but afcerwards, underftanding- 
that Dierham and Mannock had difcovered what 
they knew, (he confeiTed that before her marriage 
(he had admitted feveral men to her bed. Henry Herbert, 
was fo affected at this difcovery, that he fhed a flood urnet * 
,*pf tears, and bitterly lamented his misfortune. 
Dierham, Mannock, and Culpeper, were convict- 
ed and executed : but he referred the queen's fate 
to the confideration of the parliament, which he af- 
fembled on the fixteenth day of January. 

The lord chancellor having moved the houfe of 
lords to take the king's cafe into confideration, and 
fend fome of their number to examine the queen - 3 
the archbifhop of Canterbury, the bilhop of Weft- 
minfter, the duke of Suffolk, and the earl of South- 
ampton, were pitched upon for that purpofe. To 
thefe (he repeated her confeflion ; and when they 
made their report, both houfes declared her guilty. 
They then petitioned the king that (he might be 
punifhed with death ; that the fame penalty might 
be inflicted on the lady Rochford, the accomplice 
of her debauches, her grandmother the dutchefi 
dowager of Norfolk, her father and mother, the 
dutchefs of Bridgewater, five other women and 
four men, on account of their having been privy 
to the queen's diffolute life, without making it 
known to his majefty. Henry having confented Attainted 
to the requeft of his parliament, they were con- ^ 
demned to death -by an act of attainder, which at 
the fame time decreed the penalties of treafon againfl 
all thofe who, knowing the debauchery of any fu- 


a.c.; 5 4». |- ure queen, mould not difclofe them immediately; 
againft any young woman who, being follicited 
in marriage by the king, mould deceive him with 
refpect to her virginity ; againft any queen or prin- 
cess of Wales who mould allow herfelf to be de- 
bauched ; againft any man who mould prefume to 
follicit a queen or princefs on fuch a fubject; againft 
all thofe who mould in any fhape affift him in fuch 
addrefifes ; and finally againft any perfon who, know- 
ing the young woman demanded in marriage by 
the king to be no virgin, fhould conceal this cir- 
cumftance from his majefty's knowledge. Henry 
having palled this ftrange act, his wife Catherine 
and lady Rochford were beheaded, the queen ftill 
owning fhe had led a diftblute life before marriage* 
but denying on her falvation that fhe had ever defi- 
led his majefty's couch. The public exclaimed lb 
loudly againft the feverity of the act of parliament, 
by which her parents and relations were condemned, 
that the king did not think proper to execute the 
Sentence upon them, though fome of them were 
long detained in confinement. 

This affair being terminated, the parliament con- 
firmed an act of the irifli parliament, erecting that 
country into a kingdom; and, from this period, 
the Sovereigns of England have affumed the title 
of king of Ireland; whereas they were formerly 

Hcriert, (tiled lords of that ifland. As Henry intended to 
feize the colleges and hofpitals of the kingdom, as 
he had already made himlelf mafter of the mona- 
fteries, this complaifant parliament, in order to pave 
the way to the execution of his defign, parTed an 
act, annulling the particular conftitutions of colleges 
and hofpitals ; and this obftacle being removed, 
fome of them were refigned to his majefty, but a 
fhorter method was taken in the fequel. While th6 
parliament was employed in this manner, the con- 
vocation was divided into parties, touching the new 


tranflation of the Bible; which Gardiner and his ac. i 54i % 
partifans maintained was full of errors \ and that 
therefore the people ought not to read it until it 
mould be corrected. Cranmer, perceiving his in- Theum- 
tention was to gain time, in hope that the king's ^ d nesor ~ 
opinion would change, obtained an order from his reel the 
majefty, referring the correction to the two univer- Blble * 
fities ; and a patent was granted to a London book- 
feller, giving him an exclufive right to print the 
Bible in Englifli. A a. Pub. 

While the king of France attacked the emperor 
in five places at once, without any great fuccefs, 
Henry refolved to take vengeance on the king of 
Scotland for the affront he had fuflained at his 
hands in the affair of the interview -, to compel the 
Scottifli nation to relinquim their connexions with 
the enemies of England ; and to oblige James to 
renounce the papal authority. As a pretext was 
wanting for his committing hoftilities, he pretend- 
ed that the truce had been violated; that certain 
Englifh rebels had been entertained in Scotland ; 
and he publifhed a manifefto, in which he claimed 
that right of fuperiority over the kingdom of Scot- 
land which we have enlarged upon in the reign of 
the firft Edward. James, being apprifed of his 
uncle's intention, began to put himfelf in a poflure 
of defence, and fent two ambafladors to London 
with propofals of accommodation. Thefe were de- 
tained at the Englifh court, under various pre- 
tences, until Henry was ready to take the field, and 
even then they were obliged to attend the army, 
which was fent into their country under the com- 
mand of the duke of Norfolk. Two other Scottifli 
ambaffadors meeting that nobleman on his march, 
were detained as prifoners until he arrived at Ber- 
wick. Mean while king James, hearing of his ap- 
proach, detached a body of ten thoufand men to 
the frontiers, under the command of Gordon, who 
Ng s2. G could 


a. c. 1542. could not, however, prevent the duke's entering 
Scotland, where he ravaged the country bordering 
on the Tweed, and then retreated to Berwick on ac-j 
count of the feverity of the feafon. James, in the 
mean time, affembling an army of fifteen thoufand 
men, with a train of artillery, appointed the lord 
Maxwell general, and refolved to invade England 
on the weftern fide by Solway frith. Thither the 
king went in perfon ; but he foon quitted the field, 
after having bellowed the chief command upon his 
minion Oliver Sinclair, an upftart, v/ho was ex- 
tremely difagreeable to all the nobility. They 
were fo incenfed at his being appointed general, 
that they refufed to ferve under his banner, and the 
whole camp was filled with mutiny and confufion; 
when Sir Thomas Wharton appearing with three 
hundred horfe, they fuppofed it was the van of 
Norfolk's army ; and, being feized with a pannic, 
tiflTarmy" ^^ m tne utm oft trepidation. The Englifh per- 
routed. ceiving their rout, purfued with great diligence; 
and, without the leaft refiftance, took the earls 
of CafTik and Glencairn, the lords Maxwell, Fle- 
ming, Somerville, Oliphant, Gray, and Oliver 
Sinclair, with about two hundred gentlemen, eight 
hundred foldiers, and all their baggage and ar- 
Stow. The news f tn / is difafler affected James fo deep- 

Buchanan, ly> that in a few days he died of grief and morti- 
fication, leaving his new-born daughter Mary heirefs 
of the Scottifh throne. Another fubject of chagrin 
is faid to have alfo contributed to his death. The 
duke of Norfolk having fent an herald about the 
ranfom of the prifoners, he was murdered by one 
Leech, a Lincolnfhire rebel, who was afterwards 
delivered up to the king of Fngland. The pri- 
foners being brought to London, were carried in 
proceflion from the Tower to Weftminfter, where 
the king reproached fome of them with having mif- 


HENRY Vltl. 8 j 

led his nephew by their pernicious coxmfels. Ne- Ac - 154*. 
verthelefs, they were treated with more hofpitalky 
than they had reafon to expect •, and diftributed 
among the principal noblemen, v/ho entertained 
them at their houfes. When the tidings of Mary's H e %' 8 
birth and her father's death arrived at the fame feSing'aV 
time, Henry thought this was a favourable con- unior of 
juncture for effecting an union of the two king- w *ithEjjg4 
doms, by a match between Edward prince of land - 
Wales, and the young queen of Scotland. He or* 
dered his emhTaries to found the difpofitions of the 
prifoners on this fubject * and finding them well 
inclined to fupport fuch a propofal, he fet them at 
liberty, on condition that they fhould return to 
London, in cafe the project mould not fucceed. 

Scotland was left in great confufion by the un- a. C.1543; 
timely death of its monarch. The next heir to 
the crown after young Mary, was James Hamil- 
ton earl of Arran, a man of a moderate genius, 
and quiet difpofition. He favoured the reforma- 
tion •, but was altogether unfit for the management 
of public affairs. On account of his bias towards 
the new religion, he was hated by the clergy, and 
the queen dowager, who was fifter to the duke of 
Guife, and blindly devoted to the papal authority. 
Her bigotry and fuperftition were encouraged by 
David Beaton archbifhop of St. Andrews, a prieft 
of a violent temper, who had perfecuted the refor- 
mers with the utmoft rancour ♦, and obtained a car- 
dinal's hat, as a recompence for his zealous attach- 
ment to the fee of Rome. This prelate, feeing all 
the nobility of the kingdom at variance among 
themfelves, refol'ved to make his advantage of .this 
civil confufion ; and produced a forged will of the 
late king, by which he himfelf was appointed re- 
gent or viceroy during the minority of Mary. He 
v/as fupported in his pretentions to this office by all 
the credit and influence of the queen dowager. On 

G 2 the 


AC. 1543. the other hand, the friends of the reformation in- 
cited the earl of Arran to claim the regency, by 
virtue of his proximity of blood •, 'and thus animat- 
ed, he determined to demand it at the meeting of 
the next parliament 4 , after he fhould have detected 
the forgery of the will produced by Beaton. His 
party gained a confiderable accefiion by the arrival 
of Archibald Douglas earl of Angus, and his bro- 
ther William, who now returned from England, 
after an exile of fifteen years. When the parlia- 
ment affembled, the will was examined, the fraud 
difcovered, and the earl of Arran appointed regent 
of the kingdom. Henry fent Sir Ralph Sadler as 
his ambafiador to this affembly, to propofe the 
match between prince Edward and their young 
queen. Notwithftanding the cardinal's oppofition, 
the propofal was embraced ; the parliament appoint- 
ed the two Douglafes, and fome other perfons, as 
hS with ambafiadors, to negotiate the treaty, which was 
the scot- concluded at London on the firft day of July, im- 
porting, That the young queen fhould be educated 
in Scotland until fhe fhould have attained the tenth 
year of her age : and, that the Scottifh parliament 
fhould fend three hoftages of diftin&ion to refiae 
in England, until the marriage fhould be accom- 

Thefe meafures, however, were defeated by 
the intrigues of Beaton, who, by means of a large 
contribution from the clergy, bribed and cabal- 
led with fuch fuccefs, that the people in general 
exclaimed againft the treaty with England, as an 
union that would end in their own flavery. The 
Englifh ambafiador was infulted by the populace; 
the regent had no longer power to protect him, 
much lefs to fend the hoftages ftipulated in the trea- 
ty. Then he fummoned the prifoners to return to 
England, according to their engagement ; but, none 
o£ them would truft themfejves in the power of 


tifh parlia 
merit « 

Aft. Pub. 

which is 
defeated by 


Henry, except Gilbert Kennedy earl of Caffils, who A c J W* 
prized his honour above his liberty, and returned 
to London, where Henry compared him to Atti- 
lius Regulus •, and was fo pleafed with his punctili- 
ous behaviour, that he difmiffed him without ran- 
fom, after having bellowed r^on him extraordi- 
nary marks of favour and efte^.n : at the fame time, 
he refolved to declare war againft Scotland. Mean 
while, the queen and the cardinal, in order to 
ftrengthen their party againft the intereft of the 
Hamiltons, invited Matthew Stuart earl of Len- 
nox to return from France, where he had refided 
for fome time, promifing that he mould marry the 
queen dowager •, and, in cafe of the infant Mary's 
death, fucceed to the crown in preference to Ar~ 
ran, whole father's marriage was liable to fome 
objections. Allured by this bait, the earl of Len- 
nox returned to Scotland, and levied a body of 
men, in order to refcue the young queen from the 
hands of the regent, who propofed an accommoda- 
tion, which was accordingly effected. The earl of 
Arran, tired of oppofing the queen dowager and car- 
dinal, refolved to unite himfelf with them for the 
future ; but before they would receive him into 
their confidence, he was obliged to abjure the doc- 
trines of the reformation, which he had hitherto 
profeffed. When they gained this important point, 
they had no further occafion for Lennox, whom 
the queen dowager amufed with hopes of the mar- 
riage, while fhe, by letters, intreated the king of 
France to recal him to that kingdom, as a perfon 
whole prefence obstructed the French intereft in 
Scotland. Before thefe letters arrived in France, 
however, the French king had remitted a confide- 
rable fum to Lennox, in order to be distributed 
among his friends in Scotland ; for this was the me- 
thod by which he and Henry fupported factions in 
that country. Lennox, perceiving that the queen 

G 3 had 


a.c. 1543. h ac [ n0 intention to fulfil her promife, divided pare 
of the money among his own friends -, and the car- 
dinal, who expected to have received the largeft 
portion, was fo exafperated at his difappointment, 
that he inftigated > the regent to raife a body of 
forces, and furprife Glafgow, to which Lennox 
had retired with his acquifition. This nobleman 
fufpecting their drift, levied ten thoufand men for 
his own defence, and fortified Glafgow and Dun- 
barton, while the regent proceeded very flowly in 
his endeavours to afTemble an army. At length a 
peace was concluded between the two parties, and 
the chiefs were externally reconciled at Edinburgh, 
from whence they repaired together to Stirling •, but 
Lennox receiving intimation of a confpiracy againft 
him, quitted the court abruptly, and retired to his 
fortrefs of Dunbarton, where he firft learned the 
ill offices the queen dowager had done him with 
the king of France. 

piichasan, While Scotland was agitated with thefe commo- 
tions, the parliament of England meeting in Janu- 
ary, granted a fubfidy to the king, to reimburfe 
him for the expence of the Scottifh war, as well as his 
other occafions. Then they enacted a ftatute, per- 
mitting the nobility, gentry, and merchants to 
have Englifh Bibles in their houfes, together with 
certain other religious books mentioned in the ad, 
for the inftruction of their families. This law, 
which was granted to the follicitations of Cranmer, 
contained a claufe that mitigated the penalties of 
thofe who mould be accufed of herefy ; but the par- 
liament left it in the king's power to annul or 

Herbert change this act as he mould think proper. Imme- 
diately after the fefiion broke up, Henry conclud- 
ed a league with the emperor, which, though con- 
trary to the interefts of England, gratified his fpleen 
againft Francis, whom he now perfectly hated for 
{lis lelfifh difpofuion, as well as for fome farcaftic 




raillery which he had thrown out againft Henry's AC »54r 
perfon and marriages. Charles defired nothing fo Henry con* 
paflionately as an alliance with England, which he k^ueVith 
concluded would counterballance the enmity of the emperor. 
France, and the oppofition of the German protef- 
tants. He had, by this time, forgot the difgrace 
of his aunt Catherine, or at leaft, the fuggeflions 
of his intereft and ambition ftifled thofe of his re- 
fentment. Bonner bifhop of London was fent to 
Spain to manage the negotiation, in which one 
considerable obflacle occurred. The emperor in- 
filled upon Henry's acknowledging his daughter 
Mary as his legitimate offspring •, and the king of 
England obflinately refufed to give him that fatis- 
faction. Yet he promifed to give her a rank in 
the fucceffion, according to the power vefted in 
him by parliament ; and, at laft, Charles was con- 
tented with this verbal promife. The treaty, which 
was concluded at London, contained in fubftance, 
That the emperor and the king of England fhould 
fend ambafTadors, to tell the king of France, that 
as the Turks had invaded Chriftendom at his folli- 
citation, theyexpedted he would bieak off all com- 
munication with thofe Infidels, and repair the da- 
mage they had done in Europe : That he mould 
defift from all hoftilities againft the emperor, re- 
ftore the places he had taken v/idi the aififlance of 
the Mufiulmen, and pay the debts he owed to the 
king of England. The contracting parties more- 
over agreed, That neither peace nor truce mould 
be made with France, but on condition that the 
French king fhould difcharge his obligations to 
Henry ; and, as a fecurity for the future payment 
of the penfion, put into his hands the counties of 
Ponthieu, Bologne, Montreuil, Ardres, and Te- 
rounne i and reftore the dutchy of Burgundy to the 
emperor : That fhould Francis refuie to comply Aa * Pub ' 
with thefe conditions, the two monarchs would ue- 

G 4 claret 


a c. i 543 . c | are , anc } profecute the war againft him, until Hen- 
ry mould be in pofleflion of the crown of France, 
and Charles mafter of Abbeville, Bray, Corbiel, 
Peronne, Hamme, St. Quintin, and Burgundy - 9 
finally they agreed, That each mould attack France 
with five and twenty thoufand men, five thoufand 
Herbert. f which mould be cavalry. 

Henry ef- In the month of July, Henry once more chang- 
poufesCa- ed his condition, by marrying a fixth wife, in the 
Parr. 16 perfon of Catherine Parr, the late lord Latimer's 
widow, a woman of difcretion, already patted the 
meridian of life, who managed his temper with 
prudence and fuccefs. She favoured the reforma- 
tion in her heart : but, fhe knew how dangerous it 
was to contradict the king in religious matters ; and 
therefore fhe would not venture to interpofe in be- 
half of three proteiiants that were burned at Wind- 
for, immediately afier her marriage, at the follici- 
£X*? tation of Gardiner bifhop of Winchefter. That pre- 
iWHon of late, and the other enemies of the reformation, not 
corner. content ed with the deftruclion of thofe, and other 
fuch innocent enthufiafts, eagerly afpired at the ruin 
of Cranmer, whom they conlidered as head and pro- 
tector of all thofe innovators in religion ; and on the 
fuppofition, that the king would bear no contradic- 
tion in articles of faith, they ventured to infinuate to 
his majefty, that herefy would never be weeded out 
of the land, while its protector was fuffered to flou- 
rim. Henry at firfl made no anfwer to thefe insinu- 
ations, becaufe he guelTed their aim, and fuppofed 
his filence would difcourage them from renewing 
their attempts ; but Gardiner, and the duke of 
Norfolk, with other partifans of popery, repeated 
the fame ftrain fo often, that his curiofity was in- 
terefled. He feemed to liften with pleafure to their 
remonftrances, and even received fome articles of 
accufation againft Cranmer, fubferibed with the 
names of his accufers $ for, the duke and the bifhop 



being unwilling to appear as parties in the affair, A - c - 1 543* 
had prevailed upon the canons of Canterbury, and 
fome juftices of the peace in Kent, to prefer thofe 
articles againft the archbiihop. Henry thus infor- 
med, took an opportunity, while he diverted him- 
felf on the river Thames, to flop at Lambeth, ' 
where Cranmer refided ; and that prelate coming 
down to receive his majefty, was ordered to come 
into the barge, where the king converfed with him in 
private. He exprefTed his uneafinefs at the growth of 
herefy, which he faid he was refolved to extirpate, 
by punifhing its fautors and protectors with the ut- 
moft rigour of the law. Cranmer applauded his 
refolution; but intreated him, in the name of God, 
to examine well what was branded with the name 
of herefy, left, in punifhing fuppofed heretics, he 
mould wreak his vengeance on the faithful (ervants 
of the Almighty : then the king told him, that he 
was fuppofed to be the chief protector of the here- 
tics, and put into his hand the articles of accufa- 
tion ; which the archbifhop having perufed with 
great compofure, fell upon his knees, and defir- 
ed he might be brought to trial. He frankly own- 
ed, that with refpect to the law of the fix articles, 
which he had fo flrenuouQy oppofed, his fentiments 
ftill remained unaltered, though he had never fpoke, 
nor acted againft it in any fhape, fince it acquired 
the force of a law. When the king afked if he was 
really married, he anfwered in the affirmative; but 
declared, that as foon as the law of the fix articles 
had pafTed through both houfes, he fent his wife to 
Germany. Henry was fo ftrucfk with the- candour 
and integrity of this truly primitive bifhop, that 
he allured him of his protection, made him ac- 
quainted with the fcheme that was formed for his 
deflruction •, difclofcd to him the names of his ac- 
cufers ; and commanded him to profecute them for 
defamation, Cranmer begged to be excufed j but the 



A. C. 1543 





king infilled upon his proceeding, and defired him 
to nominate the judges. The archbifhop, however, 
proceeded fo coldly in this profecution, that Henry 
feeing it was againft his inclination, allowed him 
to drop it, though he could not help admiring his 
generoficy. Such was the fimplicity of Cranmer's 
heart, that he could not diftinguifh his own ene- 
mies •, and fuch his benevolence, that he could not 
with-hold his afliftance from thofe whom he knew 
to be his enemies. One day, he went to court to 
follicit in favour of a perfon who had craved his in- 
tereft. Henry asked him, if he thought that per- 
fon was his friend, and he replying in the affirma- 
tive, " No (faid the king) he is your inveterate foe, 
and I . order you to call him knave when next 
you fee him." Cranmer begged he might be 
excufed from ufing fuch exprefllons as did not be* 
come the mouth of a bifhop. Henry faid he would 
be obeyed \ but Cranmer found means to avoid the 
meeting •, and the king continued to admire and 
love him for his chriftian meeknefs and integrity. 
On the twenty-third day of December, lord Parr, 
qoeea'sk'm- the queen's brother, was created earl of Effex-, and 
her uncle was honoured with the title of baron Parr, 
and the office of queen's chamberlain. The war 
ftill continued between the emperor and the king of 
France. In the beginning of the campaign Fran- 
cis obtained fome advantages in Flanders, which he 
loft ag;ain when Charles arrived in the Low Coun- 
tries with an army of Spaniards. BarbarofTa, the 
Turkifh admiral, having joined the count d'Eng- 
hien at Marfeilles with one hundred and ten gallies, 
the united fleets,ileered towards Nice, which they at- 
tacked, and reduced the town ; but, the cafble was 
defended fo vigoroufly, that they were obliged to 
aba ado n the enterprize, and BarbarofTa returned in 
the fpring to Turkey. 

of the 

Prop-eft of 
the war be- 
i . -n the 
emperor and 





All the afliftance Charles received from the king A - G - *543» 
of England during this campaign, was a body of 
fix thoufand troops fent over under Sir John Wal- 
lop, who joined the emperor's army in the Low 
Countries ; but the two allies formed the project of 
entering France by Picardy and Champagne in the 
enfuing fummer. Mean while, that nothing might A# C ' t544# 
interrupt the good underftanding re-eftablifhed be- 
tween them, Henry refolved to keep his v/ord with The fuccef- 
regard to the princefs Mary ; and the parliament {j "* "}. ed 
being afTembled in January, pafTed an act, regulat- parliament. 
ing the different degrees of thofe who, after the 
king's death, might pretend to the fucceffion. 
Prince Edward and his pofterity held the firft rank 
in this act of fettlement : the next place was occu- 
pied by the male irTue which the king might have 
either by the reigning queen, or any future lawful 
wife ; the third rank was allotted to the princefs 
Mary and her hTue : and the fourth to Elizabeth 
and her children : but, to convince thefe princefles, 
that they owed this diftinction intirely to their fa- 
trier's favour, this act fubjecled them to any condi- 
tions he mould pleafe to impofe, which mould they 
reject, they were deprived of all right of fucceffion : 
befides, in cafe of difobeying their father, or dying 
without iffue, the king was impowered to regulate 
the order of fucceMirtn according to his own plea- 
fure, either by will or letters patent. By a claufe 
of this ftatute, all the fubjects were obliged to take 
£ new oath, renouncing the authority of the bimop 
of Rome, on pain of incurring heavy penalties, 
which were likewife decreed againft thofe who 
mould violate any articles contained in this act of 
parliament. In this feffion, the title of King of 
England, France, and Ireland, Defender of the 
Faith, and Supreme head of the Anglicane and 
Irifh churches, were infeparably annexed to the 
crown of England, Another act deprived the eccle- 



A.e. 1544-fiaftical courts of the power to opprefs the fubje&s 
on pretence of herefy, by decreeing, That no per- 
fon could be judged on the ftatute of the fix articles, 
before the accufation fhould be approved by a jury 
of twelve men, fworn before the king's commiffio- 
Heibert. ners, to be appointed for that purpofe. Then the 
parliament pafed a ftrange bill, by which the king 
was releafed from all the debts he owed to indi- 
viduals •, and laftly, they granted him a pov/er to 
appoint commiffioners for examining and altering 
the ecclefiaftical conftitutions. About this period, 
the lord Audley dying, was fucceeded in the office 
of chancellor by Thomas Wriothefley, a great 
1 ftickler for the old religion. 

The king of France, underftanding that the em- 
peror and king of England intended to attack him 
i'n the center of his dominions with an army of one 
hundred thoufand men, recalled twelve thoufand 
men from Italy, where they had ferved under the 
young count D'Enghien, who had obtained a fig- 
nal victory over the marquis de Guaft at Cerifoles, 
and would in all probability have fubdued the Mi- 
laneze, had not he been thus difabled from pur- 
fuing his good fortune. Henry, mean while, con- 
tinued to make preparations for this mighty inva- 
iion ; and refolved to render them fubfervient to 
two purpofes. His defign was to humble Scotland 
before he fhould embark for the continent. He 
had no intention to make conquefts, but only to 
compel the Scots, by the terror of his arms, to con- 
fent to the marriage which he had already pro- 
pofed. That people was in no condition to main- 
tain a war •, but cardinal Beaton, who now govern- 
ed them under the name of the regent, was a pre- 
late of fuch violence and obftinacy, that he chofe 
rather to expofe his country to deftru&ion, than 
confent to a match that would ruin his own for - 
Expedition tune. Henry therefore refolved to fend into Scot- 
intoscot- land pa.rt of the forces intended for France; and 
Iand * the 


the care of the expedition was intrufted to the earl A « c - w* 
of Hertford, and John Dudley baron of Lille, the 
admiral of England. The army embarked at New- 
caftle, and landing at Leith, marched directly to 
Edinburgh, which they pillaged and burned, with- 
out meeting the lead oppofition. They did not 
attack the caftle, but returning to Leith, reduced 
that town to afhes ; and reimbarking, returned to 
Berwick. Henry had occafion for his troops in the 
execution of his great project againlt France •, and 
he thought he had done enough to intimidate the 
Scots into his meafures. But, on this occafion he 
deviated from the dictates of found policy. Inftead 
of intimidating the Scots into compliance, he ren^ 
dered himfelf cdious to the whole nation by this 
cruel defcent. He ought either to have conquered 
the whole kingdom, while it was in his power, or 
to have conciliated the affection of the natives by 
the lenity and generofity o£ his conduct, while they 
were at his mercy. He might have made his own 
terms when his troops were in pofTeffion of Edin- 
burgh, before he had driven the Scots to delpair, 
by reducing their capital to afhes. 

Mean while, the earl of Lennox finding himfelf 
abandoned by the French king, whom the queen 
dowager and her relations of the houfe of Guife had 
prepofterTed againft him, began to found the difpo- 
fition of Henry towards himfelf and his intimate 
friend the earl of Glencairn. The king of Eng- 
land lending a willing ear to his propofals, Glen- 
cairn, and the btfhop of Caithnefs, brother to Len- 
nox, with two other perfons, repaired to Carlifie, 
where they treated with Henry's commifiioners ; Henry's 
and engaged in the following conventions : That the wrTof 
they would caufe the true word of God to be preach- Lennox, 
ed in their territories : That to the bed of their 
power they would hinder their young queen from 
being removed out of Scotland, uniefs (he could be 

2 put 


a.c. 1544. p^ into the hands of the king of England : That 
they would employ all their interefl in obtaining 
for Henry the adminiftration and protedtorihip of 
Scotland : and, That the bifhop of Caithnefs and 
Hugh Cunningham mould remain as hoftages in 
England. Henry promifed, on his part, that his 
army mould not fpoil their lands : That the re- 
gency of the kingdom mould be beftowed upon 
Lennox, on condition, that he mould do nothing 
without Henry's advice : That this nobleman 
mould receive out of the crown -revenues a reafon- 
able proportion for the maintenance of that dignity ; 
That, in cafe of Mary's death, the king of Eng^ 
land mould fupport his pretentions to the crown 
againft thofe of the earl of Arran : That Glencairn 
fhould have a penfion of one thoufand crowns : 
and, That Henry's niece the lady Margaret Dou- 
glas mould be married to the earl of Lennox. 
This treaty being figned at Carlifle, the earl repair- 
ed to London, where he confirmed the agreement, 
and promifed to deliver the caftle of Dunbarton, 
and the ifle of Bute, into the hands of the Englifli -, 
Henry engaging to furnifri him with five hundred 
men, and a penfion for himfelf and Striveling go- 
vernor of Dunbarton caftle. Thefe conventions 
being ratified, Lennox failed thither with Cix hun- 
dred Englifli foldiers in thirteen veifels ; but Strive- 
ling preferring his duty to his friend fhip for the 
earl, refufed to admit them into the fortrefs. Thus 
difappointed, they ravaged the ifles of Arran and 
Bute, plundered Kintyre and fome other villages ; 
and failed back to Briftol, while Henry was abroad 
on his expedition. While Lennox was employed in 
this fruitleis attempt, a body of Englifli made them- 
felves mailers of Jedburgh, Kelfo, and Coldingham, 
which laft place they garrifoned before they retired 
to their own country. The cardinal and regent 
raifed about eight thoufand men to retake this 



town*, but, the former hearing, that a detachment A * C - J 5H. 
was on its march from Berwick to the relief of 
the place, was feized with fuch confirmation, that 
he betook himfelf immediately to flight ; the 
greateft part of the army inftantly difbanded, and 
the artillery would have been abandoned to thefirft 
comer, had not the earl of Angus carried it off by 
means of his own vallate. After this difperGon of 
the Scottifh forces, parties of the Engliih ravaged 
the Merfe, Teviotdale, and Lothian, and even com- Herhe Jt . 
pelled the inhabitants to take the oath of allegiance Buchanan, 
to the king of England. 

By this time, the emperor having granted a tole- 
ration to the proteftants, who purchafed this in- 
dulgence with a good fubfidy, he fettled a new re- 
gulation touching the enfuing campaign, with his 
ally the king of England ; and thefe two powers 
agreed to bring above an hundred thoufand men 
into the field, fo as to join in the neighbourhood of 
Paris. Charles reduced Luxemburg, fell into the 
Barrois, where he took Commercy and Ligny •, then 
he entered Champagne, and invefted St. Didier 
about the beginning of July. Henry underltand- Coaiato 
ing, that the imperial army was in motion, ap- Fka * d y. 
pointed his queen regent of the realm in his ab- 
sence, with a proper council, embarked his forces, 
amounting to thirty thoufand ; which landing at 
Calais about Midfummer, the duke of Norfolk 
with a detachment joined the count de Bure, who 
commanded about twelve thoufand Imperialifis ; 
and thefe together undertook the fiege of Mon- 
treuil. If Charles and Henry had not amufed 
themfelves in befieging towns, but marched di- 
rectly to Paris, according to the plan of opera- 
tions, Francis would have been reduced to extre- 
mity ; for, his who'e army did not exceed forty 
thoufand men. Henry arriving at Calais, and un- ^ B4lay, 
dcrftanding that the emperor was employed in the 



a. c - '544- fiege of St. Didier, inftead of advancing towards 
the heart of France, fat down before Boulogne, 
which furrendered on the twenty- fixth day of July. 
From that period the two allies began to diftruftone 
another. They were both guilty of having in- 
fringed the treaty. The emperor, by indirect me- 
thods, propofed terms of peace to Francis, and Hen- 
ry openly granted fafe-conduct to the French ambaf- 
fedors, who came to treat with him on the fame 
fubject. Mean while, Charles having at laft made 
himfelf mafter of St. Didier, fummoned Henry to 
march towards Paris, according to their conven- 
tion •, and the king of England excufed himfelf un- 
til hefhould have reduced Boulogne. The emperor 
had already advanced as far as Chateau- Thierry, 
and filled all Paris with confternation ; but, con- 
cluding, from Henry's anfwer, that the projected 
operations of the campaign would not be put in 
execution, he renewed his fecret negotiation with 
Francis, which had been fufpended ; and conclud- 
ed a feparate peace, which was figned at Crepy on 
the nineteenth day of September, without Henry's 

Herbert, being either included in the treaty, or made ac- 

Mezerai, quainted with the tranfaction. 

Having thus delivered himfelf from the burden of * 
the war, he recalled his troops under the command 
of the count de Bure -, fo that Henry was obliged 
to abandon the fiege of Montreuil, and retire to 
Calais with all expedition, as the army was greatly 
diminifhed by ficknefs, and a draught made for the 
garrifon of Boulogne ; and the dauphin advanced 
againfl him at the head of a numerous army. That 
prince, who did not reach the Boullonois till after 
the retreat of the Englifh, attempted to furprife the 
city by the breaches which were not yet repaired, and 
his troops had actually penetrated into the lower 
town •, but, thofe in the upper p3rt making a vigo- 
rous, fally, obliged the^m to retire in diforder. A 



conference was afterwards opened at Calais by the A . 0,1544. 
commiflioners of both nations, to treat of a pacifi- 
cation *, but the French infilling upon Henry's 
abandoning Boulogne as a preliminary article, the 
negotiation produced no erTeft. The king, at 
his return to England, ordered fortifications to be 
raifed at Gravefend and Tilbury, for the defence 
of the river Thames, and took all the neceffary pre- 
cautions to repei an invafion, which he imagined 
Francis would attempt in his turn. The earl of Hoftiiitieg 
Lennox, the lord Dacres, and Sir Thomas Whar- ^ aiaft the 
ton were fent with a body of forces into Scotland, 
where they tock Dumfries, and plundered the 
country, from whence they carried off a very con- 
fiderable bootv. The fuccefs of this incurfion en- 
couraged Sir Ralph Evers, now created a baron, • 
and Sir Bryan Layton, to make another inroad in 
the winter, when they laid wade all Teviotdale, 
with the fpoils of which they returned in triumph. 
In order to animate their endeavours in the profecti- 
tion of this war, they were indulged with a grant of 
ali the lauds they mould conquer •, and thus encou- 
raged, they renewed their incurfions in the fpring. 
By this time, the earl of Angus had raifed fome 
* ^forces for the defence of his country ; and drawing a.c, 1545; 
the Englifh invaders into an ambufcade at An- 
cram, fell upon them with fuch fury, that all the 
leaders were (lain or taken prifoners, and the whole 
body entirely defeated. Among the prifoners 
was one Read, an alderman of London, who had 
refufed to contribute to a benevolence exacted by 
the king, and for that reafon was imprelfed as a Godwin; 
foldier." Habere, 

In the beginning of the year the marechal de 
Biez encamoed with fourteen thoufand men in the 
neighbourhood of Boulogne, in order to build a 
fort that fhould command the harbour •, but, the 
earl of Hertford, who commanded in the town ? 
Numb. LIII. H making 


a.c. 1544. making a fally with part of the garrifon, compelled 
him to retire with precipitation, leaving behind fome 
artillery, and great part of his baggage. Francis 
now determined to make one great effort againft 
England. He equipped a vaft fleet, and raifed a 
very numerous army, defigning to attack Bou- 
logne both by fea and land. He fent a reinforce- 
ment to the marechal de Biez, with order to build 
that fort which he had been obliged to leave 
undone. Mean while, he himfelf repairing to 
Havre de Grace, which was the rendezvous of his 
Shipping, commanded his admiral Annebaut to fet 
fail for the coaft of England. The French fleet ar- 
rived on the eighteenth day of July at Spithead, 
in fight of Portfmouth, where they were encoun- 
tered by the Enghfh navy, which being greatly in- 
ferior to them in number, after a flight fkirmifh 
retired into the harbour. Then the French made 
The French a defcent upon the ifle of Wight, where they burn- 
fc'nTuot e d a few farms and villages j and afterwards they 
the iiicof landed on the coaft of SufTex, in hope that Henry, 
Wlght * who had come to Portfmouth, would order his 
fleet to quit the harbour, and fail to the afiiftance 
of the country. But, Annebaut being difappointed 
in his expectation, and rinding that excellent pre- 
cautions had been taken for the fecurity of the coaft, 
he watered on the ifle of Wight, and retired to- 
wards Boulogne, where he fet on more four thou- 
fand foldiers with all the pioneers which had been 
embarked for the expedition. Then he fet fail 
again for the Englilh coaft 5 and Henry's fleet be- 
ing by this time augmented, put to fea to give them 
battle : they met in a little time, and engaged each 
other with equal fury -, but, night parting them, 
after they had fought two hours, the French re- 
tired to Havre de Grace, and the Englifh admiral 
fleering towards Normandy, ravaged the coafts of 
that province. 



The principal aim of Francis was the reduction A - c - '545» 
Of Boulogne : he had hired ten thoufand Land- 
fquenets for that fervice, and bellowed the com- 
mand of his whole army upon the marechal de 
Biez, who encamped in the neighbourhood of the 
fort, which he had undertaken to build at Portet. 
This work, however, advanced very flowiy, thro* an d a fnfit- 
the ignorance of the marechal and his engineer. At fefs attempt- 
length being alarmed with a report that Henry had j gnc. 
likewife engaged a ftrong body of Landfquenets iri 
his fervice, and intended to fend over an army for 
the relief of Boulogne, he left the fort unfinifhedj 
and took poft on the mountain of St. Lambert, that 
he might prevent the enemy from throwing fuccours 
into the town. No enemy appeared ; for although' 
Henry had actually enlifted ten thoufand Land- 
fquenets, they came no farther than Liege, where 
finding themfelves difappointed in the expectation 
of their levy- money, they returned to their own 
country, whither alio they carried theEnglifh com- 
mifiioriers, whom they purpofed to detain until they 
fhould receive proper fatisf action. While the French 
army lay encamped at St. Lambert, the duke of Or- 
leans died at Chateau- Montier, to the unfpeakable 
regret of his father Francis, whofe peace with the 
emperor, in a great meafure, depended upon the life 
of that young prince. Skirmifhes were daily fought 
between parties of the Englifh garrifon of Boulogne 
and the French army, in one of which the duke 
d'Aumale, afterwards duke of Guife, received a 
furprifing wound from a lance, which, penetrating 
at the corner of his eye, advanced half a foot with- 
in his fkull, and, the lance breaking, the head of it 
remained in that pofition. It was withdrawn with bu Bills?, 
great difficulty, and the wound cured by the admir- 
able (kill of Ambrofe Pare, furgeon to the king of 
France , but a dreadful fear was left on the face of 

H 2 thti 




a. c. 1545, t h e duk^ w h thence acquired the epithet of Balafre 
or Slafhed Face. 

The feafon being now pretty far advanced, the 
marechal de Biez was ordered to ravage the terri- 
tory of Oye, belonging to the Englifh, in which he 
accordingly reduced a flight fortification; but he 
was foon obliged to quit his ground on account 
of the rains, and the low marfhy fituation of the 
country. Such were the tranfadlions of a cam- 
paign, which Francis began with an army of two 
hundred thoufand men, railed and maintained at a 
prodigious expence. The French king feeing all 
his meafures had mifcarried, that his kingdom was 
exhaufted, and himfelf threatened with a new war 
by the emperor, as the conditions of the laft treaty 
werediMolved by the death of the duke of Orleans, 
began to be extremely defirous of reconciling him- 
felf with England : but, as he did not choofe to be 
a fuitor in his own name to Henry, he took fuch 
meafures, that the princes of the league of Smal- 
calde offered themfelves as mediators. This inter- 
pofition appeared the more natural, as they were 
menaced by the emperor, who had entered into a ne- 
gotiation with the Turks, and could not be fuppofed 
to find a better expedient for their own fkfety than 
that of compromifmg the difference between Francis 
and Henry, and folliciting the protection of thefe two 
princes. They accordingly fent envoys into France 
and England, with propofals of mediation. Thefe 
were well received at both courts : a congrefs was 
opened between Ardres and Guifnes; but, Francis 
demanding that Boulogne fhould be reftored, and 
the Scots comprehended in the treaty, Henry re- 
fufed to comply with thefe articles ; and the nego- 
tiation proved ineffectual. The king of England, 
however, in hope of over-awing Francis into more 
condefcenfion, fent the biihops of Winchefter and 
3 Weftminftejr 

congrefs be 
tween Ar- 
dres and 


Weftminfter on an embafify to the emperor, as if he A,c - J 545. 
had been inclined to a reconciliation with Charles. 
On the other hand Francis fent a body of five thou - 
fand men into Scotland, under the command of the 
count de Montgomeri, that a powerful diverfion 
might be made upon the Englifh frontiers. The 
Scottifh army thus reinforced amounted to fifteen 
thoufand men, advanced towards the Tweed ; and, 
fmall parties patting the river, made fhort incurfions 
into the territories of England : but the French ge- 
neral could not perfuade his allies to venture them- 
felves wholly in the enemy's country. On the con- 
trary, hearing the earl of Hertford was on his 
march to give them battle, they retired with great 
diligence, and in a few days difperfed. The pro- 
tectants of Germany began to be very roughly- 
handled by the emperor, who told them in the diet 
at Ratifbon, that they had no favour to expect, 
unlefs they, would fubmit themfelves entirely to the 
council of Trent, which the pope intended to open 
on the thirteenth day of December, on the fpecious 
pretences of extirpating herefy, reforming church- 
difcipline, and eftablifhing a folid peace among the siwdao, 

c fy\ • /y j Burnet. 

princes or Chnltendom. 

The parliament of England, meeting on the Herbert « 
twenty-third day of November, pafled an act, fup- 
prefling all colleges and hofpitals, and appropriat- 
ing their effects to the king's ufe, on pretence that 
the purpofes of their foundations had been hitherto 
perverted : they likewife voted a confiderable fum 
to indemnify his majefty for the expence of his 
wars with France and Scotland -, and the clergy 
granted a fubfidy for the fame purpofe. The war 
was carried on even in the winter feafon : the earl 
of Surrey, fon to the duke of Norfolk, who com- 
manded at Boulogne, being informed of a convoy 
which the French conducted to the fort of Outreau, 
attacked it with part of his garrifon, but was de- 

H 3 feated 



a. c. 154.6. f ea ted and obliged to retreat in great con fufion ; and 
Henry was fo mortified at this check, that he re- 
called the earl, and lent the lord Grey to com mane) 
in his room. At the fame time the king, hearing 
the French defigned to cut off the communication 
between Boulogne and Calais, ordered the earl of 
Hertford, with ten thoufand men, to go and take 
poll at Ambleville, where he built two forts to fe- 
cure the communication. Notwithstanding thefe 
hoftilities both kings pafifionately defired an accom- 
Treaty of rnodation : Francis perceived that the reduction of 
tleen ' Boulogne was a much more difficult tafk than he 
| ra " ce * nd had imagined ; and he faw himfelf upon the eve of 
a war with the emperor, in which cafe he mould want 
the affiftance of fuch an ally as the king of England. 
Henry, en the other hand, was become fo corpulent 
that he could not afcend the fteps of the (lair that 
led up to his chamber, without the utmoft diffi- 
culty. This unwieldinefs rendered him indolent 
and unfit for managing the adminifl ration ; and grew 
upon him fo fail that he believed it would foon put 
a period to his life : fo that he was unwilling to 
leave an expenfive war upon the hands of his infant 
fucceflbr. Befides, he dreaded the power and am- 
bition of the emperor, and defigns of the pope, 
againft which he wifhed to raife a bulwark, by ma- 
king an alliance with the king of France and the 
proteftants of Germany. Both parties being thus 
favourably difpofed, the plenipotentiaries of France 
and England opened a congrefs at Campes between 
Guifnes and Ardres. In the beginning of June, 
they concluded a treaty, importing, That Francis 
fhould pay to Henry at a certain day two millions 
of golden crowns, in lieu of the arrears of his pen- 
fion, and the money expended in the fiege of Bou- 
logne, which town Henry fhould keep in his own 
hands, until he fhould receive payment of all that 
was due to him from the king of France •, but, 

7 * thofe 


thofe debts being difcharged, Boulogne, with its Ai c> '54 6 . 

territory, fhould be reftored to its former owner. 

The emperor was comprehended in this treaty as R y*»«-. 

well as the Sects, on condition that they mould 

give no new caufe of provocation ; and both mo- 

narchs agreed, that certain difputes concerning the 

legality of demands on either fide, fhould be dif- 

cuffed and determined by commiflloners appointed 

for that purpofe. At the publication of this peace 

in London there was a folemn prccefTion, in which 

all the rich ornaments, plate, and jewels, belonging 

to the churches, were exhibited with great oftenta- 

tion : but this was the laft time they made fuch a 

public appearance •, for, foon after, the king feized 

the whole for his own occafions, by virtue of his fo- 

vereign authority. 

The war had proved fo expenfive, that, notwith- 
(landing this acceffion to the fubfidies granted in 
parliament and convocation, and the fpoils of cha- 
pels, colleges, and hofpitals, he was obliged to inv 
pofe a new tax upon his fubjecls, under the title of 
Benevolence. The univerfities of Oxford and Cam- 
bridge, alarmed at the act by which the colleges 
were granted to his majefty, prefented petitions, 
imploring his favour and protection ;, and, altera 
long deliberation, he confirmed their charters and 
foundations, to which he added Trinity College in 
Cambridge at his own expence. Before the con- 
clufion of the peace the proteftants of Germany 
lent prince Philip, brother of the elector palatine, 
to demand fuccours from Henry ; and, in parti- 
cular, K> follicit a fupply of one hundred thouland 
crowns for the defence of the league : but, inftead 
of money he fent them feven prcpofitions, con- 
taining the terms upon which he was willing to en- 
gage in a defenfive league with the proteftants. In 
the mean time the emperor and pope formed an 
alliance for their deitruction : his holineis iupplied 

H 4 him 


a. c. : 54 6. fc m w ' t j 1 m g ne y an d a n- r ong body of troops under 
The empe- the command of Octavian Farnefe. The protef- 
aglin/the tants armed in their own defence, under the elector 
proteftants f Saxony and the landgrave of Hede ; but nei— 
owny!" ther fide cared to hazard an engagement. At length, 
the king of the Romans, falling into the territories 
of the elector of Saxony, that prince was obliged to 
go to the relief of his own fubjects y and, the land- 
grave being weakened by his departure, retired into 
* his own dominions : (o that the emperor being left 
matter of the field, reduced Frankfort, Ulm, and 
sicidan. feveral other towns of the league, where he found 

money for the maintenance of his army. 
^Scotland While the proteftants in Germany took arms in 
defence of their doctrine, thofe who favoured the 
reformation in Scotland were per let u ted by cardinal 
Beaton, under the regent's authority. Several per- 
fons were condemned to the flames for herefy; and 
among the reft, a minifter of the name of Wifhart, 
who had diflinguifhed himfelf by his piety and 
learning, and was univerfally beloved for the in- 
tegrity of his heart, and the innocence of his man- 
ners. He was burned at St. Andrew's, in fight of 
the barbarous primate, who had rejected the inters- 
cetfion of the regent and many other noblemen •, 
and now feafted his eyes with the execution of this 
unfortunate man from a window of his own palace. 
Wifliart fufTered with admirable conftancy ; but the 
zealots of his perfuafion, not contented with descri- 
bing him as a primitive martyr, in point of courage 
and refignation, endeavoured to raife him to the 
dignity of a prophet, by alledging that he predicted 
the fate of his perfecuior, who, in a few. days after 
his death, was aiTaffinated hy Norman Lefley and 
Buchanan, his aflbciaies. 

In England the reformation fcemed neither to 
advance nor gain ground. The king dictated in 
all matters of faith, and neither party dur|t avow 




the leaft deviation from his opinions. For fome A,c - 'S* 6, 
time he had been incommoded by an ulcer in his 
leg ; the pain of which, added to his corpulence 
and other infirmities, rendered him fo peevifh, and 
increafed his natural irafcibility to fuch a degree, 
that fcarce any perfon approached him without fear 
and trembling. In matters of religion he was ever 
impatient of contradiction -, but, by this time his 
temper was fo irritated, that thofe who prefumed to 
differ from him in opinion could expect no mercy. 
Shaxton, who had refigned the bifhopric of Salif- 
bury, and flill remained in prifon for having refufed 
to conform to the fix articles, being now accufed 
of denying the real prefence in the facrament, the 
king ordered that he mould be profecuted with the 
utmoft rigour of the law ; and he was condemned to 
the flake : but he faved his life by figning his re- 
cantation, and, in the fequel, became a cruel perfe- 
cutor of the proteftants. Anne Afkew, a woman AnneA/kew 
of good birth and uncommon talents, who was well smithfieid. 
known to many perfons at court, being convicted 
of the fame crime, chofe rather to fuffer death than 
purchafe pardon at the expence of fuch abjuration. 
She was fuppofed to be favoured by fome ladies of 
high rank, and even to have maintained fome fort 
of religious correfpondence with the queen ; fo that 
chancellor Wriothefley, hoping fhe might difcover 
fomething that would furnifh matter of impeachment 
againfl that princefs, the earl of Hertford, or his 
countefs, who favoured the reformation, caufed 
this poor woman to be put to the rack •, and is 
even faid to have manually affifted in augment- 
ing the torture which, though adminiflered with 
unufual violence, (he endured with the mofl amazing 
fortitude. Her bones were diflocated in fuch a 
manner, that they were obliged to carry her in 
a chair to the flake, where fhe fuffered with four 
men condemned on the fame account , and the 



a. c. 1546. a poftate Shaxton attended them to the place, where 
he preached a fermon, reproaching them in the 
harmed terms for their wilfuinefs and herefy. 
Another at- The enemies of the reformation perceiving the 
tempt to king was now more furioufly than ever incenfed 
Oanmer. againft the facramentanans, made another effort to 
deftroy Cranmer. They renewed their complaints 
againft the archbifhop, as the protector of that per- 
nicious fe& ; and told Henry, that were he once 
committed to the Tower, fuch proofs would appear 
againft him as would aftonifh his majefty. The 
king loved Cranmer with an affection which feem- 
ed to contradict every other part of his character ; 
and he now refented the prefumption of thofe who 
attempted to ruin a man, in whofe favour he had 
fo often interpofed. Neverthelefs, he diffembled 
his fentiments, received the articles of his accufa- 
tion, and permitted that he fhould next day be 
examined in council. In the night, however, he 
fent privately for Cranmer, told him what had 
patted, and defired to know in what manner he pro- 
pofed to defend himfelf The archbifhop thanked 
the king for his great goodnefs in making him pre- 
vioufly acquainted with the defign of his enemies, 
and humbly intreated him to appoint fuch judges 
for his trial as mould understand the fubject on 
which he would be tried. Henry, fmilmg at his 
iimplicity, told him he v/as a fool to make fo light 
of his own fafety •, that, if he was once in prifon, 
they would find abundance of falfe witneffes to ruin 
him ; and that, fince he could not take care of him- 
felf, he (the king) would look after his affairs. He 
directed him to appear before the council whm 
fummoned, and plead his privilege as privy coun- 
fellor, that his accufers might be brought before 
his face ; that in cafe they mould infift upon com- 
mitting him to the Tower, he mould appeal per- 
fonaliy to the king, and produce his majefty's feal 



ring, which he then took from his finger, and de- A,c » 's* 6 * 
livered to Cranmer. Next morning, being fum- 
moned to appear before the council, and going to 
the place where they fat, he was kept waiting in a 
lobby among fervants, to the aftonifhment of all 
the fpectators, until doctor Butts, the king's phy- 
fician, having feen him by accident, communicated 
this circumftance to Henry, who forthwith fent an 
order that he mould be admitted. When he ap- 
peared before the board, they gave him to under- 
ftand they had received divers informations, affirm- 
ing that all the herefies in England fprang from 
him and his chaplains. He, in his anfwer, con- 
formed to the king's direction ; and, perceiving 
them bent upon committing him to the Tower, 
told them he was forry to be fo ufed by thofe with 
whom he had fat fo long at the fame board. So 
faying, he prefented the ring, at fight of which they 
were aftonifhed and confounded, and repaired in a 
body to the king, who chid them feverely for hav- 
ing treated the primate of England in fuch an un- 
worthy manner. He faid, he though the had a 
wifer council than now he found they were. He 
He laid his hand upon his breaft, and declared, 
by the faith he owed to God, that he believed 
the archbifhop was the moft faithful of all his 
fubjecls. The duke of Norfolk endeavoured to 
excufe their conduct, by faying that all they intend- 
ed was a trial, by which the archbifnop's innocence 
would have been vindicated, fo as to free him from 
all future afperfions. Henry replied with a frown, 
he would not fuffer perfons who were fo dear to 
him to be handled in that fafhion : he faid he 
knew their factions and malice, and was refolved 
to extinguifh the one and punifh the other without 
mercy. In the mean time he commanded them 
to be reconciled to Cranmer, and the ceremony was 
performed in his pre fence. 



a. c. 1546. 'phg pop^ party were not fo difcouraged by this 
theriL?«" mifcarriage, but that they attempted another ftroke 
ganger of be- of flill greater importance. The queen was a favourer 
icgruiaed. Q £ t ^Q reformation ; and fermons were often preach- 
ed in her apartments by miniflers of that perfuafion. 
The king was apprifed of thefe particulars, at which 
he connived. He was even indulgent enough to bear 
her difputing with him on points of religion ; and 
fometimes her zeal got the better of her difcretion. 
One evening fne had proceeded fo far, that he was 
exafperated at her petulance : perhaps his vanity was 
mortified by her foiling him in the way of argu- 
ment. When me quitted the apartment, he com- 
plained of her prefumption to Gardiner, who fed his 
refentment with malicious infinuations •, and, afTo- 
ciating the chancellor in his defign, reprefented the 
queen and her principal ladies as heretics who fa- 
voured the innovators, and had correfponded with 
Anne Afkew, They even affirmed they were trai- 
tors as well as heretics, and inflamed Henry's paffi- 
ons in fuch an artful manner, that he fubfcribed 
certain articles againft the queen, intended as the 
foundation of an impeachment. The chancellor, 
chancing to drop this paper, it was found by a 
perfon who delivered it to Catherine. She no fooner 
faw the king's fubfcription, than (he concluded her- 
felf ruined, and was overwhelmed with fear and 
confirmation. The agitation of her mind produ- 
ced violent fits, of which Henry being informed, 
vifited her in her chamber, and fpoke to her with 
fuch exprefTions of tendernefs as greatly contributed 
to her recovery. Next night fhe waited upon the 
king in his apartment j and he turning the conver- 
fation upon religious difputes, fhe faid, that, confci- 
ous of the weaknefs of her fex, fhe, as in duty 
bound, would fubmit in thefe and all other points 
to his fuperior judgment. Henry, flill piqued at 
her former oppofition, replied, " Not fo, by St. 
*' Mary ! you are become a doctor, Kate, to in- 

« ftrufta 


" ftruct, not to be inftructed." She then very art- A.c. i 54 6, 
fully allured him, that fhe mould never have pre- 
fumed to argue with him on any fubject, except to 
amufe the pain of his infirmities, or with a view to 
profit by his fuperior learning. Hearing this de- 
claration, " Is it even fo, fweetheart (cried he) then 
f? we are perfect friends again." He, at parting, 
embraced her with great cordiality, alluring her 
fhe might depend upon his affection. Next day, 
while he walked with her in the garden, the chan- 
cellor appeared with the guard afiembled, to con- 
duct her and feveral other ladies to the Tower. 
When the king, ftepping afide with him, was heard 
to call him knave, fool, bead, and ordered him 
to quit his prefence. The queen, who knew not his 
bufinefs, interceded in his favour •, and Henry ex- 
claimed, " Poor foul, thou little knoweft how ill 
*' he deferves thy good offices !" Henry was totally Herbert. 
alienated from the bifhopof Winchefler by his con- Biu-net, 
duct on thisoccafion. Heexpelled him from thecoun- 
cil ; and tho' that prelate evaded further difgrace and 
punifhment by the moil abject fubmiffion, he could 
never retrieve any fhare of his fovereign's favour. 

The proteftants had dill more caufe to triumph 
in the ruin of the duke of Norfolk, who had been 
their moil powerful and implacable enemy. The 
dtike was a nobleman who had ferved the king with 
talents and fidelity, and his fon the earl of Surrey 
was a young nobleman of great courage and viva- 
city, though not without a tincture of pride and af- 
fectation. The family was not only powerful in 
its own ftrength, but rendered ftill more important 
by being at the head of the popilh party. Of courfe 
it became formidable to the earl of Hertford and 
Sir Thomas Seymour, who pretended to the ma- 
nagement of affairs, in cafe of the king's deceafe. 
They knew the enmity which the Howards bore 
{hem, and dreaded their competition in a minority. 



a, c. 1546. They perfuaded Henry that the earl of Surrey af= 
pired at a marriage with the princefs Mary, in which 
cafe he might embroil the government of young 
Edward. They even hinted he had defigns upon 
the crown, and bore the arms of Edward the Con- 
feflbr, without any badge of diftinction or diminu- 
tion. This was a firing that Henry never heard 
touched without emotion. He refolved to facrifice 
the family of Norfolk to the fecurity of the fuccef- 
fion. That unhappy family was divided in itfelf. 
The dutchefs, who had lived fome years in a ftate 
of feparation from her hufband, turned informer 
againft him : his fuppofed concubine* Mrs. Hol- 
land, acted the fame treacherous part. His daugh- 
ter Mary, dutchefs dowager of Richmond, was 
at variance with her brother the earl of Surrey* and 
enlifted herfelf among the number of his accufers, 
the chief of whom was Sir Richard Southwell, who 
charged him with infidelity to the king. The earl 
denied the charge, and challenged Southwell to 
fingle combat : indeed the whole imputation brought 
againft this noble family amounted to no more 
than fome hafty exprefllons of difcontent, and the 
earl's bearing the arms of Edward the Confefibr, 
while his father ufed thofe of England, with a di- 
ftinction of labels of filver, which were peculiar to 
the prince of Wales. Thefe armorial bearings had 
been authorifed by the heralds ; and, for a feries of 
years, obferved by the king, without giving of- 
fence : but, now that a pretence was wanting for 
the ruin of the Howards, they were deemed fuffi- 
cient grounds for an attainder. The earl of Surrey 
was tried by a common jury, convicted, notwith- 
ilanding the excellent defence he made, condemn- 
ed, and beheaded on Tower- hill. The father en- 
deavoured to mollify the king by letters and fub- 
miffions ; but Henry's heart was rarely fubjecl: to 
tender lmpreffions. The parliament meeting on 



the fourteenth day of January, a bill of attainder AC - *$& 
.was brought againft the duke of Norfolk, who The duke of 
could not have been convicted on a fair hearing be- t a ° n r t ° d a * d ~ 
fore his peers •, and this patting, received the royal condemned 
alTentfrom the lord chancellor, the earl of Hertford, t0 death * 
and the lords St. John and RufTel, joined in com- 
miflion under the great feal for that purpofe. The 
death warrant was immediately fent to the lieute- 
nant of the Tower, and the duke would have been 
beheaded next morning, had not an event of greater 
confequence to the kingdom intervened, and pre- 
vented the execution. 

Henry had for fome time perceived himfelf fad 
approaching the goal of life. On the eleventh day 
of December he had eftablifhed the noble founda- 
tion of Trinity College in Cambridge: and on the „ 
thirtieth day of the fame month, he made his will, m ake«hia 
bequeathing the crown to his fon prince Edward witt - 
and his iffue *, failing which, to his daughters Ma- 
ry and Elizabeth-, in default of whom and their 
ifTue, to the heirs of his nieces Frances and Eleanor, 
daughters of his filter Mary late queen of France ; 
and after them, to the next lawful heir : fo that 
the children of his elded fifter Margaret queen of 
Scotland, were excluded from their rank in the fuc- 
ceffion. He willed that his own daughters mould 
forfeit their right of fucceflion, fhould they marry 
without confent of the privy-council. In the mean 
time, to each of them he left ten thoufand pounds, 
by way of dower, and three thoufand for their fub- 
fiftence, until they mould be married. The queen 
was intitled to three thoufand pounds in plate, and 
one thouland in money over and above her jointure. 
He left fix hundred pounds a- year in land, to the 
dean and chapter of Windfor, for the maintenance 
of thirteen poor knights, and other pious ufes. 
His executors were directed to pay his debts, re- 
pair any injuries he might have unknowingly com- 


A. c. 1546. mitted, and confirm all his grants and promifes not 
perfected at the time of his deceafe. Legacies were 
left to each of his executors, and many of his faith- 
ful fervants. On the third day of January, he 
pafTed a grant of St. Bartholomew's Hofpital, with 
the fcite of Chrift's church, and five hundred marks 
a-year to the city of London. Though Henry be- 
lieved his malady was incurable, perhaps he did not 
think death was fo very near ; and no perfon would 
venture to tell him his fituation, until Sir An- 
thony Denny, out of chriftian companion, ex- 
horted him to take care of his foul, as he, in all 
probability, had not many hours of life to enjoy. 
He thanked him for his charitable candour, own- 
ed he had been a great finner •, but, expreffed his 
confidence in the mercies of Chrift. When Denny 
propofed a ghoftly director, he defired him to fend 
for archbilhop Cranmer, who had retired to Croy- 
don, that he might not be prefent, nor concern- 
ed in the fcandalous bill of attainder againft the 
duke of Norfolk who had always been his enemy. 
Before he reached the palace, Henry was fpeechlefs, 
though not infenfible ; for, when the archbifhop 
defired him to make fome fign of his dying in the 
faith of Chrift, he fqueezed his hand with feem- 
His death, j n g f erV our, and in a few minutes expired, on the 
a. c. 1547. twenty-eighth day of January, in the fix and 
fiftieth year of his age, after a reign of thirty fe- 
ven vears and nine months. The death of the 


king happening between the date of the warrant 
Herbert, and the execution, the duke of Norfolk was fav- 
Bumet. ed by this providential interpofition •, though there 
feems to have been fome difpute in the council 
about his fate, for they concealed his majefty's 
deceafe for three days •, and then the lord chan- 
cellor declared the parliament difiblved. 
andcharac- Henry VIII. before he became corpulent, was a 
prince of a goodly perfonage, and commanding 



afpect, rather imperious than dignified. He excel- s A - c - ( 547* 
led in all the exercifes of youth, and pofleffed a 
good understanding, which was not much improv- 
ed by the nature of his education. Initead of learn- 
ing that philofophy which opens the mind, and ex- 
tends the qualities of the heart, he was confined to 
the fludy of gloomy and fcholaftic difquifitions, 
which ferved to cramp the ideas, and pervert the 
faculties of reafon, qualifying him for the difputant 
of a cloifter, rather than the law- giver of a people. 
In the firft years of his reign, his pride and vanity 
feemed to domineer over ail his other pafnons -, 
though from the beginning he was impetuous, 
headftrong, impatient of contradiction and advice. 
He was rafh, arrogant, prodigal, vain-glorious, pe- 
dantic, and fuperftitious. He delighted in pomp 
and pegeantry, the baubles of a weak mind. His 
paffions, foothed by adulation, rejected all reftraint: 
and as he was an utter rlranger to the finer feelings 
of the foul, he gratified them at the expence of 
juftice and humanity, without remorfe or com- 
punction. He wrefted the fupremacy from the bi- 
fhop of Rome, partly on confcientious motives, 
and partly for reafons of ftate and convenience. 
He fuppreffed the monafteries in order to fupply 
his extravagance with their fpoils •, but he would 
not have made thofe acquifitions lb eafily, had not 
they been productive of advantage to his nobility, 
and agreeable to the nation in general. He was 
frequently at war-, but the greatelt conqueft he ob- 
tained, was over his own parliament and people. 
Religious diiputes had divided them into two tac- 
tions. As he had it in his power to make either fcale 
preponderate, each courted his favour with the molt 
obfequiousfubmiffion, and in trimming the ballance, 
he kept them both in fubjection. In accuftoming 
themfelves to thefe abject compliances, they dege- 
nerated into flaves $ and he from their prostitution 
N g 5$. I acquir- 


-A. c. $54f. acquired the mcft defpotic authority. He became 
rapacious, arbitrary, froward, fretful, and fo cruel, 
that he feemed to delight in the blood of his fubje&s. 
He never betrayed the leaftfymptoms of any tender- 
nefs in his difpofition; and, as we have already ob- 
ferved, his kindnefs to Cranmer was an inconfif- 
tency in his character. He feemed to live in defi- 
ance of cenfure whether ecclefiaftical or fecular \ he 
died in apprehenfion of futurity ; and was buried at 
Wiiidfor with idle proceflions, and childifh pagean- 
try *, which in thofe days palled for real tafte and 

* Henry, by bis firft wife Catherine zabeth Blount widow, of Sir Gilbert 

of Spain, had two fans, who died m Taillebois, he had Henry Fitzroy* 

t^eir infancy, and a daughter Mary, created knight of the garter, earl of 

who fucceeded to the throne of Eng- Nottingham, duke of Richmond and 

land. Anne Boleyn was mother of Somerfet, warden of the Scotti/h 

Elizabeth, and a male child fHll-bom. marches, admiral of England, and Jod 

By jane Seymour he had a fon named lieutenant of Ireland. He was a young 

Edward, his immediate fucceffor. Anne piince of promifing part?, and died in 

of Cieves, Catherine Howard, and the feventeenth year of his age, 
Catherine Parr, had no ifTue, By Eli- 


C 115] 


HENRY VIII. was fucceeded on the throne of A c - W- 
England by his only Ton Edward VI. now in Edward vi. 
'the tenth year of his age. At the time of his fa- faccecds to 
ther's death he refided at Hertford with his fitter 
Elizabeth, from whence he was conducted by his 
uncle the earl of Hertford, and Sir Thomas Brown, 
to the Tower of London, where he was received by 
the council in a body, and proclaimed king of Eng- 
land. Next day the late king's will being opened, 
it appeared that Edward's majority was fixed at the 
age of fifteen : that * fixteen perfons were nominat- 
ed as executors of the will, regents of the kingdom, 
and tutors to the young king *, and that thefe, or 
the majority of them, were impowered to regulate 
the affairs of the adminiftration. They likewife 
found another council appointed, to be aiding and 
afllfting to the executors when called upon for their 
advice -f. Henry's will being read in public, the 
regents and counfellors immediately took poffeffion 
of their feveral offices. Then fome of the mem- 

* Thefe were archbifhop Cranmer, Wotton treasurer of Calais, do&or 

lordWriothefly chancellor, lord St. John Wotton dean of Canterbury and York; 

fteward of the houfhold, lord Ruffel Stephen Gardener was expunged from 

keeper of the privy feal, earl of Hert- the will by the king's own hand, 

ford lord chamberlain, thclord vifcount -hThecouncil confifted of the earls of 

de Lifle, Cuthbert Tonftal bifhop of Arundel and Effex, Sir Thomas Che* 

Durham, Sir Anthony Brown mafter ney treafurer, Sir John Gage comp- 

of the horfe, Sir William Paget fecre- troller of the houfhold, Sir Anthony 

tary of ftate, fir Edward Northe chan- Wingfield chamberlain, Sir William 

teller of the court cf augmentations, Petri fecretary of ftate, Sir Richard 

fir Edward Montague chief juftice of Rich, Sir John Baker, Sir Ralph 

the common pleas, Mr. Brom'ey one Sadler, Sir Thomas Seymour, Sir 

of the twelve judges, Sir Anthony Richard Southwell, and Sir Edward 

Denny, Sir William Herbert gentle- Pickham, Hayward, Herbert, 
snan of the privy-chamber, Sir Edward 

I 2 bers 


4. c. 1547. b ers obferving, that it would be troublefome to the 
people, and efpecially to foreign minifters, to addrefs 
themfelves to fixteen different perfons of equal autho- 
rity, propofed, that one of the number mould be 
chofen as chief and prefident, under the title of Pro- 
tector. This propofal was vehemently oppofed by 
the chancellor, who forefaw the choice would fall 
upon the earl of Hertford, with whom he had been 
long at variance on account of religion. His ob^ 
The earl of jedtions, however, were over-ruled. That nobleman 
Hertford was cno f en pj-ctector of the realm, and governor of 

ehofen pro- r ' p 

teftor. the king's perfon, on this exprefs condition, That 
he fhculd do nothing without the confent of the 
other regents. While preparations were making for 
the funeral of Henry, and the coronation of his 
fucceflbr, the regency took an extraordinary flep, 
on pretence of fulfilling the intentions of the late 
king, who had refoived to make fome promotions 

Hayward. among his courtiers. Evidence was examined 
touching the particulars of Henry's defign, and in 

And created confluence of their depofitions, the earl of Hert- 

dui:eof so- ford was created duke of Somerfet ; the earl of Ef- 
fex made marquis of Northampton •, the title of earl 
of Warwick was conferred upon Dudley lord vif- 
count de Lifle ; chancellor Wriothefley was pro- 
moted to the earldom of Southampton ; Sir Tho- 
mas Seymour was created baron Sudley ; and Rich- 
ard Willoughby, and Sheffield, were erected into 

Aft. pub. |3 aron s of the fame appellations. At the fame time 
the duke of Somerfet was created treafurer and 
marechal, vacant by the condemnation of the duke 
of Norfolk ; and his brother the new baron Sudley 
was appointed admiral of England. After the ob- 
fequies of the late king, they proceeded to the co- 
ronation of Edward, which was performed on the 
twentieth day of February ; and on this occafion 
pn amnefty was publifhed, from which however, 



T *> 


the duke of Norfolk, cardinal Pole, Edward Court- A c - *s*t 
ney, eldeft fon of the marquis of Exeter, and three 
other perfons v/ere excluded. 

The lord chancellor being a man of a fiery, am- 
bitious, turbulent difpofition, whole politics and re- 
ligion v/ere very different from thofe of the protector, 
this laft refolved to feize the firft opportunity to ex- 
pel him from the regency ; and he foon fu mimed 
him with a pretence. He granted a commifnon 
under the great feal to certain fubflitutes, to hear 
and decide caufes in chancery in the fame manner 
as if he himfelf were prefent. And this ftep he 
took of his own fimple authority, without the con- 
fent of the king or other regents. The council be- 
ing apprifed of the affair, ordered the judges of the 
realm to give their opinions on the fubject y and 
they unanimoufly deciared, that the chancellor 
could not delegate his power to any other perfons, 
without the content of the king and regency ; other- 
wife he forfeited his office, and became liable to 
fine and imprifonment. When he was made ac-„.„ Pi j 

a _ Hut. or the 

qnainted with this declaration in full council, he Reform, 
inveighed againfc the judges, and even reviled the 
council and proteclor. In a word, his behaviour 
incenfed the members to luch a degree, that he was 
confined to his own houfe, and deprived of the great 
feal, which was put into the hands of the lord St. 
John, until another chancellor could be appointed: 
but, the earl of Southampton was afterwards re- 
leafed, on his giving fecurity for the payment of the 
fine to which he mould be condemned. Somerfet 
having removed this troublefome opponent, gave 
his coljegues to underftand, that the French ambaf- 
fadcr, and other foreign envoys, defired to be fa- 
tisfred concerning the extent of his power, before 
they would treat with him on the fubjecls of their 
feveral embafiies 5 and therefore, it would be necef- 
fary that his proteclorfiiip mould be eftabliftied by 

I 3 patent, 



A c - ! 54/- patent. They thought the propofal was reafonable, 
He covins an d joined him in a petition to the king, who by 
his authority patent conitituted the duke cf Somerfet governor 
of his perfon, and protestor of his realm and fub- 
jects. All the executors, except the earl of South- 
ampton, were with the twelve additional counfel- 
lors, afligned to him for a council ; but they v/ere 
reftrained from doing any thing without his confent 
and advice •, whereas he was impowered to fwear of 
the council any perfon he mould think proper for 
that flation, and in conjunction with any number 
of the counfellors which he might choofe, to con- 
vene, annul, or change whatever they mould think 
proper to alter or abolifh. Thus he made himfelf 
abfolutely matter of the government, though in fo 
doing, he intailed upon himfelf the hatred and en- 
vy of many ether noblemen, by which he fuffered 
feverely in the fequel. 

Since the death of Henry, two new treaties had 
been concluded with France. The firft was a re- 
newal of alliance between Frahcis and Edward ; 
and the other related to the limits of the territory 
of Boulogne, and the fortifications which the two 
kings had erected in the neighbourhood of that 
place. It was agreed, that the Englifh might 
rinifh the works they had begun at Boulemberg, 
Blacknefs, and Ambleteufe : and, That the French 
fhould have the fame liberty with refpect to thofe at 
St. Etienne ; but difcontinue their works at Portet 
and La Pointe. But, Francis dying before the ra- 
tification of this treaty, the politics of the court of 
France aflumed another afpect under HenryTI. his 
fucceflbr. The protector of England was no fooner 
informed of the death of Francis, than he difpatched 
a courier to Nicholas Wotton the Engliili ambaf- 
fador at Paris, directing him to receive the ratifi- 
cation of the new king, and fee him fwear to the 
obfei vance of the treaties. By this time the inte- 
4 «ft 

Death of 
Francis kin 
of France. 

A&. Pub. 



reft of the cardinal of Lorraine, and the duke of A - Cl ^?. 
Guife, predominated at the court cf France •, and 
being devoted to the old religion, they exerted all 
their power in preventing the marriage between 
young Edward and their niece the queen of Scot- 
land. They perfuaded Henry, that it was his in- 
tereft to recover Boulogne at any rate j and there- 
fore he not only refufed to ratify the treaties, but 
even difowned the ambaflador whom his father had 
fent to London. Thus the unfettled limits of the 
territory of Boulogne, and the new fortifications, 
remained a fubject of contention between the two 
crowns ; and from Henry's refufing to confirm the 
alliance, it plainly appeared his intention was to in- 
fringe the treaty. 

The eyes of Henry VIII. V/ere no fooner clofed, The protef. 
than the friends of the reformation congratulated S princi- 
themfelves on the event. They no longer fuppref- pies. 
fed their fentiments on religion •, but maintained 
their doctrines openly in preaching and teaching, 
even while the laws continued againft them in full 
force. Indeed, at this juncture they had very little 
to fear from their adverfaries. The king himfelf 
was bred up in the reformed religion by his precep- 
tor doctor Coxe, and had already given furprifing 
proofs of genius, capacity, and an amiable difpofi- 
tion, averfe to cruelty and perfecution. The pro- 
tector profeffed the fame doctrines, which v/ere 
efpoufed by Cranmer of Canterbury, Holgate of 
York, Holbech of Lincoln, Goodrick of Ely, doc- 
tor Ridley, and Latimer, who was by this time re- 
leafed from prifon* The proteftarits in Germany 
had received a private fupply of fifty thoufand « 

crowns from the regency, which refolved to feize 
this favourable conjuncture for promoting the re- 
formation. With this view they appointed vifitors 
to examine all the churches, and impowexed them 

I 4 t0 


a. c. 7547. to abolifh certain grofs abufes which had crept into 
Hayward. the worfhip, particularly that of images. 

The next affair that engroffed the protector's at- 
tention was the war with Scotland. Henry had on 
his death -bed laid ftrong injunctions upon his exe- 
cutors to effect, if poflible, the match between Ed- 
ward and Mary •, and as the French party prevailed 
in Scotland, there was no profpect of executing 
what he had fo much at heart, in any other way 
but by force of arms ; the protector therefore be- 
gan to make preparations for profecuting the war 
in Scotland, while the French king declared, that 
he would not abandon his antient allies in their di- 
ftrefs. At the defire of the French ambafifador, the 
duke of Scmerfet confented to try the effect of a 
negotiation, before hcflilities mould be commenced. 
Conferences v/ere opened on the fourth day of 
Auguft ; and Tonftal, chief of the Englifh pleni- 
potentiaries, was directed to break up the congrefs 
immediately, if the Scottilh ambaflfadors had no 
power to confent to the marriage. Accordingly, as 
no fuch power was vefted in them, the negotiation 
„, proved fruitlefs. The protector therefore entered 

The protec- r , r 

toe inarches Scotland in the beginning ot September with an ar- 
ian°d Scot " ™y °f frft een thoufand infantry, and three thoufand 
horfe, well appointed, provided with a train of ar- 
tillery. John Dudley earl of Warwick was the pro- 
tector's lieutenant 5 and the cavalry was command- 
ed by lord Gray, lord Dacres, and Sir Francis Bry- 
an. The regent of Scotland, alarmed at this inva- 
fion, ordered the fire-crofs to be carried through 
all parts of the realm, and made proclamation, that 
all men above fix teen years of age, and under fixty, 
mould refort to Mufleburgh with arms and provi- 
fion. Thus fummoned, a great number appeared 
at the place of rendezvous ; Co that the. regent dif- 
miiled a great fuperfiuity, after having retained an 
© army 

E D W A R D VL 121 

army of thirty thoufand men, well ftipplied with A,c - 1 547* 
arms, ammunition, and ordnance. They took poft 
near Mufleburgh within four miles of Edinburgh, 
in order to attack the Englifh in their march -, and 
the duke of Somerfet encamped at the village of 
Preftonpans, at the diftance of about two miles 
from their front. While the two armies lay in this 
fituation, the Scottifh regent detached beft part of 
his cavalry to infult the Englifh quarters; and thefe 
being encountered by the lord Gray, and Sir Francis 
Bryan, were totally defeated, after an obftinate and 
furious engagement, in which the lord Home, and 
about eight hundred Scots, were left dtad upon the 
field. Next day a trumpeter came with an info^ 
lent meffage from the Scottifh general, permitting 
the protector to retire in peace to his own country ; 
and propofing from the lord Huntley, that the 
quarrel mould be decided by twenty againfl twen- 
ty, ten againfl ten, or by fmgle combat between 
himfelf and the duke of Somerfet. A proper an- 
fwer was made to this bravado by the protector ; 
and the earl of Warwick begged leave, that he 
might be allowed to accept of Huntley's challenge : 
but the duke would not grant his permiffion ; and 
it afterwards appeared that Huntley had fent no 
fuch mefTage. Before the protector would engage 
the enemy, he fent a letter to the Scottifh re- 
gent, alluring him his intention was not to hurt 
the realm of Scotland, but rather to defend it, by 
promoting an union of the two kingdoms on fair • 
and honourable terms, by virtue of the marriage to 
which the Scottifh parliament had agreed in the 
moft folemn manner. He pointed out the advan- 
tages that would accrue to Scotland from fuch 
a match. He propofed, that if all the nobility of 
the kingdom were not inclined to a peace upon 
fuch terms, hoftiiities fhould ceafe until the queen 
mould be of age to choofe for herfelf. 



a.c. 1547. The regent communicated thefe honourable pro* 
pofals to his brother John archbifhop of St. An- 
drews, and a few other individuals, who being e- 
lated with the hope of victory, advifed him to con- 
ceal them from the reft of the nobility ; and in the 
mean time diffufed a report through the whole ar- 
my, that the Englifh were come to carry off the 
queen, and enflave the country. The foldiers be- 
lieved this infinuation, and took to their arms in a 
tumultuary manner. Underftanding that the Eng- 
glifh were in motion, they paffed the river Efk, 
and took pofTellion of a riling- ground, while the 
protector wheeled about, and encamped upon the 
hill of Pinkencleuch, near the fide of the Frith, 
where their fleet lay at anchor. The enemy ima- 
gining he intended to reimbark, quitted their ad- 
vantageous ground, in order to attack them, and 
this precipitate ftep was the caufe of their deftruc- 
tion. The Englifh began to be in want of provi- 
fion ; and had the Scots maintained their poft, the 
protector could not have retreated without expofing 
his army to the moil imminent danger. But, the 
irripetuofity of the enemy faved him the rifque of 
any fuch difafter. On the tenth day of September 
they divided their forces into three bodies. The 
firfr, under the command of the earl of Angus, was 
flanked on the right with four or five pieces of ar- 
tillery, and on the left with about four hundred 
horfemen. The fecond line was commanded by 
the regent. The third by the earl of Argyle, who 
had brought into the field four thoufand Highlan- 
ders ; and thefe were difpofed on the left flanks of 
the fecond and third bodies. The protector feeing 
them abandon their poft, congratulated himfelf 
upon the event •, and caufed his army to be 
-drawn up in order of battle. The van was* com- 
manded by the earl of Warwick, and took poft on 
the fide of the hill, where the great artillery was 


E D W A R D VI. n 3 

polled. The main body, under the general, was A - c '547. 
drawn up partly on the hill, and partly on the plain, 
and the rear was extended on the plain, at fome di- 
ftance from the van and center. The lord Gray, who 
commanded the men at arms, was pofted on the left 
wing, fo as to flank the Scots j but, forbidden to 
charge until the front of both armies mould be en- 
gaged. The enemy advancing along the more, 
were galled from an Englifh galley, the mot of 
which killed the lord Graham, and threw the High- 
landers into confufion. The lord Gray perceiving 
their diforder, advanced immediately to charge the 
enemy's van in flank ; but, met with fuch a warm 
reception from their fpearmen, that he himfelf was 
dangeroufly wounded ; and as the action happened 
in broken ground, his men at arms were actually 
routed, and the ftandard in great danger of being 
loft. Had the Scots been furnifhed with horfe to 
purfue this advantage, in all probability, the Eng- 
lifh would have been intirely defeated \ tho' the wind 
and fun were full in the faces of the enemy ; but, 
as they were deftitute of cavalry, the lord Gray had 
time to rally his horfe behind his infantry. The 
earl of Warwick detached Sir Peter Mewcas, and 
Peter Gamboa, a Spanifh officer, with all the muf- 
quetry to attack the Scots, whoie Highland archers 
were not yet come up. The Englifh mufquetry ad- 
vancing to a flough, where the horfe had been dif- 
cornfited, fired in the faces of the enemy. Thefe 
were fuftained by the archers, who fnot their arrows 
over the heads of the mufqueteers ; at the fame 
time, the artillery planted on the hill on the left, 
and the ordnance of the galley anchored clofe to the 
fhore on the left, made fuch havock amongft them, 
that they fell in heaps, without having it in their 
power to annoy their enemies. In this diilrefs, their 
van fell back a little, in hope of drawing the Eng- 
lifh over the flough and broken ground, that they 



a. c. 1547. might have an opportunity of acting hand to hand 3 
Defeats the but the Highlanders in the fecond line, imagining 
Mufle-' tne * r fr° nt was defeated, betook themfelves to flight 
burgh. in a body : and this circumftance overwhelmed their 
whole army with confternation. Diforder and rout 
immediately enfued. The Scots threw down their 
arms, and fled in the utmoft confufion. Then the 
Englifh cavalry being rallied, fell in among the fu- 
gitives, and meeting with no refiftance, made fuch 
a terrible carnage, that they lay like fheep in a field 
of pafture. The whole furface of the ground was 
fire wed with fpears and fwords ; the river Efk, and 
feveral petty brooks were fwelled with the blood of 
the flain, which amounted to fourteen thoufand, in - 
fomuch, that when the flaughter was over, the very 
foldiers were afhamed of their own cruelty - 9 for the 
Englifh did not lofe above fifty horfemen, and 
their infantry did not flrike a ftroke. About three, 
thoufand ecclefiaflics, who made a feparate body 
for themfelves, were mafTacred without mercy. 
Fifteen hundred of the vanquifhed were taken pri- 
foners, and among thefe the earl of Huntley, the 
lords Yefter, Hamilton, and Wemys, together v/ith 
the mailer of Sempil. Nor was this the only over- 
throw which the Scots fuftained in the courfe of 
this year. While the regent's attention was wholly 
turned againft the duke of Somerfet, the lord Whar- 
ton, and the earl of Lennox entering Scotland by 
the weftern Marches, took feveral forts, and ravag- 
ed the whole country ; fo that the earl of BothwelJ, 
and many gentlemen of Teviotdale and the Merfe, 
rather than be continually harrafled by thefe depre- 
dations, fubmitted unto the king of England, and 
were received into his protection. The duke of 
Somerfet, had he taken advantage of the confterna- 
tion which filled all Scotland immediately after the 
battle of Mufsleburgh or Pinkey, might have fub- 
dued the whole country without any further oppo- 


E D W A R D VI. 125 

fition. But, he was prevented from reaping the A - c - x 547. 
fruits of his fuccefs by the intrigues of his brother 
in England. Having gathered the fpoils of the 
field, in which he found thirty thoufand jacks and 
fwords, and thirty pieces of cannon that were tranf- 
ported to England, he ordered his navy to fcour the 
Frith, in which they took or deftroyed a great num- 
ber of Scottifh veiTels, Then he plundered and 
burned Leith, and all the neighbouring villages on 
the fea-coaft, made an unfuccefsful attempt on the 
caftle of Edinburgh, fortified the ifland of St. Co- 
lli mba in the Frith, and the caflie of Broughty in 
the mouth of the Tay ; and the feafon being far ad- 
vanced, returned to England, where he was grati- H . 
fied by the king with lands to the value of five nun- Buchanan, 
dred pounds a-year. Burnet * 

He acquired great popularity by this profperous 
expedition, but at the fame time attracted the envy 
of divers noblemen : nor did he feem to bear his 
fortune with moderation ; for he obtained a patent 
under the great feal, to fit in parliament en the 
right hand of the throne under the cloth of date, 
and to enjoy all the honours and privileges that at 
any time any of the uncles of the kings of Eng- 
land had poifelTed. In his abfence the vifitors had 
performed their task without oppofition, except 
from Gardiner and Bonner, who refufed to obey 
the order of council, alledging it was contrary to 
the agreement by which they had engaged to make 
no change in religion during the king's minority. 
Thefe prelates being examined in council, and per- Therefor* 
filling in their obitinacy, were committed to pri mation 
fon. Gardiner expoftulated with the protector in a ce 'd byThe 
letter, and the princefs Mary wrote to him on the P rote &or. 
iamefubject; but, the duke was bent upon pro- 
tecting the reformation, and therefore payed very 
little regard to their remonftrances. The lord Rich Aa>p u &, 
was created chancellors and the parliament meeting 



a. c. 1547. on the fourth day of November, manifefted the ut- 
And con- moft attachment to the protector. They repealed 

thT ed ? y a ^ t ^ ie ac ^ s toucmn g high-treafon, which had paf- 
mcflt. fed fince the reign of the third Edward *, all acts of 
felony fpecified fince the rupture with the pope ; the 
ftatute which veiled the king's proclamation with 
the power of an act of parliament ; two acts paf- 
fed again ft the Lollards ; and the famous ftatute of 
the fix articles. The king's fupremacy was con- 
firmed a-new, and the pains of treafon were decreed 
againft thofe heirs of the crown mentioned in Hen- 
ry's will, who fhould attempt to difturb the order 
of the fucceflion : their adherents and abettors were 
likewife fubjected to the fame penalties. The be- 
nefit of the clergy, and the privileges of fanctuary 
were reftored *, from thefe however, afTaffins and 
four forts of thieves were excluded. It was decreed, 
That the act impowering Henry's fucceffor to an- 
nul the laws made in his minority, mould take 
place with regard to what mould be done hereafter, 
but not in that which had been already tranfacted. 
Private maffes were prohibited, and the people per- 
mitted to receive the communion in both fpecies. 
The king was impov/ered to fill vacant bifhoprics ; 
fo that fham elections were intirely aboiifhed. The 
cognizance of matrimonial and teftamentary caufes 
was transferred from the ecclefiaftical courts to thofe 
of the regal jurifdiction ; and they paffed a law, en- 
acting, That if any common perfon mould refrain 
from working, or at leaft from offering to work 
for the fpace of three days, he mould be branded 
in the face with a red hot iron, and become the 
flave of the informer. This rigorous decree was 
levelled againft the monks, who fince the diffolu- 
tion of the monafteries, inftead of working for their 
livelihood, ftrolled from family to family, and en- 
deavoured to breed difturbance in the ftace. Never- 
thelefs, this law was not rigoroufly executed, and 


E D W A R D VI. 127 

foon repealed by a fubfequent parliament. Finally, A « c - 1 547» 
they granted to Edward all the foundations for 
chantries, chapels, and colleges, of which Henry 
had not already taken pofTeflion. This act met 
with great oppofition from feveral prelates, and 
from Cranmer in particular. He hoped to find 
fome opportunity of converting thofe benefactions 
to religious purpofes ; whereas, by being in the 
hands of the king, the church would be deprived 
of them for ever. But, he was not able to carry 
his point. The nobility thirfted after the effects of 
the church, and thefe they eafily obtained from the 
court : and the executors of Henry's will wanted 
money to pay his debts and legacies. The fefTion 
was concluded with an act of amnefty, from which 
however, the prifoners in the Tower were exclud- 
ed ; but as Gardiner had been confined in the 
Fleet, he enjoyed the benefit of the ftatute. 

Among thofe who envied the protector, was his 
own brother Thomas the admiral, a man of un- 
common talents, though proud, turbulent, and un- 
traceable. He could not endure the difunftion 
which king Henry had made between him and his 
elder brother, with whom he thought himfelf equally 
intitled to a fnare in the adminiltration. He had 
addrefled himfelf to the princefs Elizabeth on the 
fubjeft of marriage ; but feeing no profpect of fuc- 
ceeding in that purfuit, he infinuated himfelf into 
the affection of the queen dowager, who gave him 
her hand in private, immediately after the death of 
her former hufband. He found means to obtain 
from the king a letter, exprefling his defire that 
luch a match fhould be effected ; and then he pub - 
HOied his marriage, in open defiance of the protec- 
tor. His next ilep was to cabal and make a party intrigues of 
among the nobility, who, as they hated his brother, ^infthif 
fomented his ambition. He bribed the king's do- brother the 
meftics to his intereft 5 and young Edward fre- proteaer * 



a. c. 1549. quently went to his houfe, on pretence of vlfiting 
his Step-mother. There he ingratiated himfelf with 
his fovereign, by an affected affability, officious 
complaifance, and fupplying him with money to 
distribute among his Servants and favourites, with- 
out the knowledge of his governor. The protector 
being informed of thefe infiduous proceedings, ex- 
postulated with him on the bafenefs of his conduct, 
and he anfwered in fuch a manner as gave the duke 
to understand, he had nothing to hope from his 
brotherly affection. In the protector's abfence, he 
redoubled all his art and infinuation, and obtained 
a new patent for admiral, with an additional ap- 
pointment. Sir William Paget perceiving the 
progrefs he daily made in the king's affection, 
wrote to the duke on the fubject ; and he finifhed 
the campaign in Scotland with all poffible difpatch, 
that he might return in time to counterwork his 
machinations. But, before he arrived in England, 
the admiral had engaged in his party fome privy 
counfellors, feveral noblemen of diitiriction, and a 
great number of the members of the lower houfe of 
parliament. He prevailed upon the king to write 
a letter to the two houfes with his own hand, de- 
fi ring the admirai might be appointed his governor; 
but, before this was delivered, the council being ap- 
prized of his defign, fent deputies to affure him, if 
he did not clefift, they would deprive him of his 
office, lend him prifoner to the Tower, and profe- 
cute him on the laft act of parliament, by which he 
was fubjected to the penalty of high treafon, for at- 
tempting to dilturb the order of government. Thus 
intimidated, he humbled him/elf before the coun- 
cil -, and was leemingly reconciled to the protector. 
Yet he Still nourished the fame defign in fecret ; and 

Bumet. his brother fuipecting his Sentiments, employed fpies 
to inform him of all his fecret tranfactions. 


£ D W A R D. VI. 129 

In the courfe of this year the emperor defeated AkC - 
and took John Frederick, elector of Saxony, whofe 
territories and electorate he bellowed upon that 
prince's couMn Mauric^ who had aflifted him againlt 
his own relations. The landgrave of He fife made 
his peace with Charles, and repaired to his court on 
the faith of a fafe-conduct : notwithstanding which 
he was arretted ; the emperpr juftifying this out- 
rage by a word inferted in the fafe-conducl on pur- 
pofe to trapan the landgrave. The proteftants, thus Troubles of 
deprived of their chief, were obliged to fubmit to k*nt*Tn~ 
whatever terms the emperor thought fit to impofe. Germany. 
The archbifhop of Cologne, who had embraced that 
religion, faw hi mfelf compelled to renounce the dou- 
ble dignity of archbilhop and elector. The pope Aa - Pul? » 
himfelf became jealous of the emperor's profperity, 
and removed the council from Trent to Bologna ; 
while great numbers of the proteftants fled for re- 
fuge into England, where the mod remarkable men 
among them received penfionsfrom the miniftry of 
Edward. In the beginning of the next year the A » c. 154^ 
council made feveral alterations in the ceremonies of 
religion. It forbade the ufe of candles on Candle- sieidan, 
mas-day, palms on Palm-Sunday, and creeping to 
the crofs on Good Friday. It left the people at 
liberty to practife or lay afide auricular confeffion - 9 
and ordered all the images to be removed from 
churches. All the popifh parity were alarmed at 
thefe changes, which produced great murmuring* 
amongfl the priefts and people of the old religion ; 
and when the proclamation that confirmed thefe 
changes was publifhed, Gardiner inveighed againfl 
it openly, on his old maxim, that there mould be 
no innovation during the king's minority. Being 
fummoned again before the council, he fub'mitted 
to the authority of the board, and was ordered to 
preach - a fermon at St. Paul's, maintaining that the 
king's authority was the fame before as after his 
N° z$* K majority. 


a. c. 1548. majority. He performed this tafk fo little to the 
fatisfaction of the regency, that they committed 
him to the Tower •, and this act of feverity intimi- 
dated the whole party to fuch a degree, that they 
conformed to the new ordinance, without further 

Bamn. hefitation. 

The protector had offered a truce for ten years 
to the regent of Scotland ; but that nobleman being 
entirely governed by French councils, rejected his 
proposals, in hope of being previoufly fuccoured by 
the king of France ; fo that the duke of Somerfet, 
being obliged to continue the war, took a number 
of Landfquenets into his pay, and appointed the 

fnSaSnd ear * °f Shrewsbury his lieutenant. The regent of 
' Scotland opened the campaign with the fiege of 
Broughty-caftle, which he could not reduce 5 while 
the Englifh troops fortified Haddington and Lau- 
der, and made incurfions to the gates of Edinburgh. 
In the monthx)f May the regent, receiving a rein- 
forcement of Cix thoufand men, and fome artillery 
from France, under the command of Defik d'Ef- 
panvilliers, reinvefled Broughty, which he took, 
putting all the garrifon to the fword. The queen- 
mother pafiionately defired that young Mary mould 
be educated in the French court, where her two 
brothers had fuch influence ; and the king of France, 
in order to facilitate the confent of the regent, 
created him duke of Chateleraut, with a yearly re- 
venue of two thoufand livres. Thus gratified, he 
allowed the young queen to be put on board of the 
fleet which brought over the foldiers; and this 
failing north about round the Orkneys and Ireland, 
landed her fafely at Bretagne, from whence fhe was 
conducted to Paris. The French mips made this 
circuit in order to avoid the Englifh navy under ad- 
miral Seymour, who cruized in the frith of Edin- 
burgh, and landed in feveral parts of Fife ; but 
was, by the gallantry of Dun, repulfed with dif- 


EDWARD VI; i 3 t 

grace. By this time the Scots and French under- a, 0,154s* 
took the fiege of Haddington, and carried on their 
operations vigoroufly, until the Englilh forces ap- 
proaching under the command of the earl of Shrew- 
fbury, they abandoned the enterprize. The earl, 
having thrown into the place a fupply of men, pro- 
vifion, and ammunition, advanced to Mufsleburgh, 
where the enemy lay intrenched, and offered them 
battle; which they not choofing to accept, he 
fuddenly retired to England. Immediately after 
his departure, Defie, the French general, attempted 
to furprife Haddington ; but the garrifon, being 
feafonably alarmed, obliged him to retreat with 
great lofs and precipitation, even after part of his 
troops had entered the town. The Englifh in this 
place were occafionally relieved by the garrifon of 
Berwick, until Sir Thomas Palmer, with fifteen 
hundred horfe, was routed and taken 3 the greater 
part of his followers being flain. In order to com- 
penfate for this difafter, the lord Gray entered Scot- 
land by the Weft, and ravaged Teviotdale and Lid- 
defdale, from whence he carried off great booty. 
At length, the protector, perceiving that he could 
not maintain Haddington, ^without expoling his 
troops to unnecefTary danger, detached the earl of 
Rutland with fix thoufand men to demolish the for- 
tifications, and bring off the artillery. This fer- 
vice was performed without lofs : and the earl, in 
his retreat to Berwick, laid wafte the country ; but, 
at the fame time, the Scots took the caftie of Hume 
by.furprize, and all the Englilh in the place were 
either killed or taken. 

At this conjuncture a quarrel happened between 
the pope and the emperor. Charles protefted againft 
the tranflation of the council to Bologna •, and the 
pope rejected his proteft. Then the emperor, to 
fhew his independence, propofed articles of accom- 
modation to the proteftants. Thefe were known 

K 2 by 


a. c. 154S. by the appellation of Interim, becaufe they were 
~, no other than expedients to be ufed, unci! a council 

ror -rams could be held in fome town of Germany. Though 
in C favour™ l ^ e expreffions were foftened, they at bottom Con- 
or the pro- tained almofl all the doctrines of the Roman church : 
teftants. y et t ^ e y a ]| ovvec | tnat a man ? s marriage mould be no- 

Slcidan. objection to his receiving the order of priefthood ; 
and that the communion, in both fpecies, mould 
not be with-held from thofe who might demand it 
in that manner. This Interim was prefented in a 
diet convoked at Augsburg, and enacted into a de- 
cree, notwithstanding the proteils of feveral towns 
of the empire. While the emperor thus endeavour- 
ed to crufh the reformation in Germany, it gained 
ground every day in England under the protection 
of Cranmer and the miniilry. The parliament 
meeting on the twenty-fourth day of November, 
enacted a flatute, by which priefts were permitted 
to marry ; and by another confirmed the new li- 
Hift of the tur g v 5 on which commiflioners had been employed 
Retorma- in the fummer. This is nearly the fame liturgy 
tmn. which is now ufed in the church of England. 

The protector had nothing more at heart than 
the progrefs of this work, though he was obliged 
to proceed gradually, becaufe the greateft part of 
the inferior clergy was ftill attached to the old reli- 
gion, and he himfelf had a great number of enemies, 
among whom his own brother was the moll violent 
A.c. 1549- and dangerous. The queen dowager, having died 
in September of the preceding year, the admiral re- 
newed his addreifes to the princefs Elizabeth-, but 
as the will of the late king exprefly excluded her 
from the fucceffion, mould fhe marry without the 
confent of her father's executors, he contrived a 
fcheme for gratifying his ambition in another man- 
ner. He is laid to have formed the defign of ma- 
king himfelf mailer of the king's perfon, and feizing 
the reins of government into his own hands : for the 

2 execution 

EDWARD VI. \i 5 j 

execution of which project he had affembled two A c - l i* 9 * 
thoufand men in different places. The council, 
having received fome intimation of his practices 
againft the government, committed him prifoner to 
the Tower, and appointed commiflioners to take 
the depofuions of his accufers. Thefe taxed him 
with having confpired againft the adminiftration, 
protected pirates, and committed acts of violence 
againft the fubjects of different ftates, which were 
at peace with England. The protector, perceiving 
that his authority would be precarious as long as 
his brother had any fhare in the government, ex- 
horted him to refign his office and retire from court; 
but finding him deaf to his remonftrance, he reiblv- 
ed to facrifice him to his own fafety. His accusa- 
tion was reduced to three and thirty articles; and 
certain members of the council were fent to inter- 


rogate him on the particulars. He refnfed to an- 
fwer, demanding a legal trial, and that he might 
be brought face to face with his accufers. Next 
day the council repaired to the Tower in a body, 
when he ftiil infifted on his former demand, which, 
however, was not granted. Then he defired they 
would leave the articles of his accufation, that he 
might examine them at his leifure, and prepare for 
his defence : this requeft was likewife denied. The 
council then refolved, that he fhould be condemned 
in parliament by an ad of attainder. In the mean 
time it appointed commiiTioners to hear what he 
had to fay in his own defence. The king was per- 
fuaded to fignify his difapprobation or the admiral ; 
and, the commifTioners making their report, a bill 
of attainder was brought into the houfe of peers. It T head 

accufed him of an attempt to feize the p:rfon of ^ l o ^°"^" 
the k ; ng, and the government of the realm •, of treafbn, 
laying up great (tore of provifion and money -, of * dtehead- 
endeavouring to efpoufe the lady Elizabeth, and of 
perfuading the king in his tender age to take upon 

K 3 himfelf 


a. c. 1549. himfelf the adminiftration of affairs. The bill paflecf 
both houfes with very little oppofition ; and receiv- 
ed the royal affent. The admiral was beheaded on 
the tenth day of March, contrary to the fenfe of the 

Haywooa. nation in general, who thought the articles of accu^ 

Hereford, fation frivolous in themfelves •, and that the admi* 
ral had been cruelly dealt with, in being condemned 
upon fuch allegations, without having an opportu- 
nity of making a defence, or confronting his accu- 
fers. But the chief odium fell upon the protector, 
whofe character is not to be vindicated from the 

RcformJ he imputation of cruelty and injuftice in the affair of 

*i°n. this profecution. 

The king having received a fubfidy from the 
clergy and the commons, for the conqueft of Scot- 
land, the parliament was prorogued till November. 
The new liturgy was received in all the churches, 
and met with no oppofition but from the princefs 
Mary, whom the king and council refolved to hum- 
ble : but the emperor interceded in her behalf, and, 
rather than difoblige that potentate, they allowed 

Two per- her to enjoy her own religion in peace. The re- 

for hercr nt formers now began to perfecute in their turn : Joan 
Bocher, an ignorant woman, being convicted of 
herefy, becaufe me adhered to the feet of the ana- 
baptifts, was condemned to the flames, though the 
young king refufed to fign the death-warrant, until 
he was prelTed by Cranmer ; and then vanquifhed 
by his importunity, declared that if he did wrong, 
the fin fhould be upon the head of the archbifhop. 
In the fequel, another perfon was burned for the 
fame crime in Smithfield. 

At this juncture the kingdom was expofed to very 
- dangerous commotions, which had been brewing 
fince the late reign. When the monasteries were 
fupprerTed, a prodigious number of monks were 
obliged to earn their fubfiftence by their labour $ 
fo that every fpecies of bufinefs was overftocked. 



The lands of the monafteries had been formerly a, c. 1549., 
farmed out to common people, fo as to employ a 
great number of hands ; and, the rents being mode- 
rate, they were enabled to maintain their families 
on the profits of agriculture : but now, thefe lands 
being pofTerTed by the nobility, the rents were 
raifed; and the farmers, perceiving that wool was 
a better commodity than corn, turned all their 
fields into pafture- ground. This practice was at- 
tended with divers inconveniences. The price of 
meal increafed, to the unfpeakable hardfhip of the 
lower clafs of people >, and, as few hands were re- 
quired to manage pafture-grounds, a great number 
of poor people was utterly deprived of fubfiftence; 
while the nation was rilled with murmurs and com- 
plaints againft the nobility, who were the fources of 
this misfortune. The protector efpoufed the caufe 
of the fufFerers : he appointed commiffioners to 

m examine whether or not the pofTeflbrs of church- 
lands fulfilled the conditions on v/hich thofe lands 
had been fold by the crown ; he demolifhed a royal 

„ park at Hampton- court, of which the inhabitants 
of that diftricl: complained, and took feveral other 
fteps for the relief of the common people. This 
conduct intailed upon him the hatred of the nobi- 
lity. In the laft fefiion of parliament the lords had 
projected an act, impowering the poiTerTors of 
church-lands to farm them in any manner they 
mould think proper % but the bill was rejected by 
the lower houfe. Neverthelels, the lords continued 
to inclofe their grounds, and the peafants imagined 
their defign was to reduce them again into fervitude. 
On this iuppofition, the common people of Wilt- 
fhire and Somerfetfhire, aiTembling in a great body, 
began to pull down the inclofures ; but they were 
foon difperfed by Sir William Herbert, afterwards 
earl of Pembroke. Infurrections happened at the 
fame time in Suffex, Hampfhire, Kent) Gloucefter- 

K 4 mire, 

i 3 6 HIS TOR Y of ENGLAND. 

AC 1549. fhire, Warwickshire, Effex, Hertfordshire, Leice- 
l n ^-^ e _ fterfhire, Worceflerfhire, and Rutlandlhire: thefc 
rent parts of however were appeafed by the interpofition of mo- 
EngUnd. d erate perfons. 

This ilorm was fcarce overblown, when ftill more 
dangerous commotions were excited in Oxfordfhire, 
Devonmire, Norfolk, and Yorkshire. Into the 
firft of thefe counties the proteclor detached the 
lord Gray with fifteen hundred horfe and foot, who, 
falling upon them, flew a great number-, and of 
the. prifoners divers were executed. The infurgents 
of Devonshire, amounting to the number of ten 
thoufand, were headed by one Humphrey Arundel, 
an experienced icJdier, and encouraged by the fer- 
mons of fomeecclefiaitical incendiaries. They fent 
a fee of articles to the king, demanding that curates 
fhould adminifter baptifm at ail times of neceffity : 
That their children might be confirmed by the 
biihops whenlbever they mould refort unto him : 
That the mafs mould be celebrated without any 
man's communication with the prieft : That they 
might have a referve of the Lord's body in their 
•churches : That they might have holy bread and 
holy water : That God's U: euce*imight be laid and 
fung with an audible voice in the choir : That priefls 
fhould live in celibacy : and, That the fix articles 
fhould be ufed as they were in the time of Henry, 
until the king fhould be of age. Thefe demands 
the miniftry anfwered by a formal manifefto, con- 
cluding with an offer of a general pardon, fhould 
they return to their own homes : but the popifh 
monks among them, who had already converted 
this rebellion into a religious affair, periuaded them 
that this lenity was the effect of fear •, that the mi- 
niftry intended to tax their fheep and cattle, and 
raife an excife upon all their drink and provificn. 
Thus inftigated, they undertook the fiege of Exeter, 
which was gallantly defended by the inhabitants. 


Russell firft Ear 


John lord RufTel, privy-feal, had been fent againft A * fc 1549. 
them with a fmall body of forces, and taken up his The ini*. 
quarters at Honiton, from whence he marched to|ege^ c ~ ter . 
the relief of Exeter, in hope of being able to throw 
fuccours into the town : but the infurgents had 
taken fuch precautions as baffled his endeavours ; 
and, in his retreat, he found himfelf ericompafied 
by a great number, through which he fought his 
way back to Honiton. The citizens of Exeter 
were reduced to great extremity, when the lord 
Gray joined the lord RufTel with a flrong reinforce- 
ment. Then they marched towards Exeter, routed f^Tata 
the rebels with great (laughter, and relieved the q uelle «* *>y 
city, which was recompenfed for its loyalty with an gS^** 
addition of revenue, and an extenfion of its liberties. 
The infurgents, not yet difpirited, alTembled on 
Clifton -heath, with a crucifix in a covered waggon, 
adorned with tapers and trumpery ; and they were 
again charged by the lord Gray, who made a terrible 
carnage. Their ringleaders were taken and hanged, 
and feveral innocent pejibns afterwards fuffered from 
the cruelty of Sir Anthony Kingfton, provoft-mar- 
fhal of the king's army. 

The fedition in Norfolk appeared (till more ter- 
rible. The malcontents increafed to the number 
of fixteen thoufand, under the conduct of one Kit 
a tanner, and Coniers an ecclefiaftic, who perform- 
ed the office of their chaplain. They broke down in- 
clofures, ravaged the country, and denounced ven- 
geance againft the gentlemen of the neighbourhood. 
They prefented' articles of complaint to the king, 
demanding, That lands and farms mould be re- 
duced to their ancient rents : That the price of wool 
mould be lowered ; and, That all inclofures mould 
be taken away. The king promifed that all their 
grievances mould be redrefTed in parliament ; and, 
in the mean time, offered to indulge them with an 
amnefty, if they would lay down their arms and 



a.c 1549- taken next day in a barn, with his brother, was 
hung in chains on Norwich caftle -, his brother was 
hanged on Wymondham fteeple, and nine of their 
accomplices furTered on the Oak of reformation, 
farrcaion^n While Norfolk was expofed to thefe commotions, a 
YoikUiire. third fedition broke out in Yorkfhire, where Wil- 
liam Ombler, a man of fome diftinction, with Tho- 
mas Dale, a parifh clerk, and one Stevenfon, milled 
by a ridiculous prophecy, arTembled about three 
thoufand people by ringing bells and firing beacons, 
as if the coaft had been invaded, and perfuaded them 
to take arms to reftore the church to her antient 
rights, humble the rich, and relieve the poor, and 
redrefs the grievances of the nation. They mur- 
dered feveral perfons out of meer wantonnels-, and, 
marching into the Eaft -riding, increafed to a for- 
midable number : but, no fooner was the king's 
pardon prefented, than they began to dilperfe •, and, 
the ringleaders being abandoned, were, with fcur 
of their accomplices, executed at York. Thefe in- 
furre&ions being quelled, the protector, who had 
acted during the whole difturbance with remarkable 
lenity, now publifhed a general amnefty, in order to 
reftore the peace of the kingdom; and this indul- 
gence confirmed the hatred of the nobility, which 
he had already incurred, as well as of fome privy- 
counfellors, who refented his prefuming to ad in 
fuch an affair without their concurrence. 

Henry II. of France, refolving to make advan- 
tage of thefe difturbances, equipped a navy, in or- 
der to attack a fleet of Englifh mips lying at an- 
chor in the ifland of Jerfey ; but they met with fuch 
a warm reception that they thought proper to retire, 
though not before they had fuftained confiderable 
damage. Then the French king, entering the Bou- 
lonnois, reduced feveral caflles ; but was vigoroufly 
repulfed from the fort of Bullenberg, froni which, 
however, the Englim withdrew their artillery, and 



blew up the fortifications. In September Henry A <- c » *549* 
undertook the fiege of Boulogne; but, his army 
being infected with the plaguej he himfelf retired 
to Paris, leaving the conduct of the fiege to Gafpar 
de Coligny, lord of Chatillon, who, after fome in- 
effectual endeavours, converted the fiege into a 
blockade. The protector was not a little difturbed by 
thefe hoftilities, efpecially when he understood that 
Henry was on the point of concluding an alliance 
with the proteftants in Germany. The king's cof- 
fers were fo empty that he could not maintain a war 
without demanding new fubfidies, which would ex- 
cite frefli murmurs among the people -, and the fini- 
fter accidents of war might furnifh his enemies wifti 
pretences for condemning his condu6t : befides, he 
forefaw that war would retard theprogrefs of the re- 
formation. Moved by thefe confiderations, he propo- 
fed in council that peace with France mould be pro- 
cured at the expence of reftoring Boulogne, which te ft 0! P p°ro- 
coft the kingdom an incredible fum of money, and pofeato give 
would be a perpetual bone of contention while it H %n ^~ 
remained in the hands of the Englifh : whereas by 
giving it up, they would not only fecure an advan- 
tageous peace with France, but alfo detach that 
power from the intereft of Scotland. The council, 
having taken this propofal into confideration, de- 
termined that Boulogne fhould not be reilored \ but 
that an ambaflador fhould be fent to conclude an 
alliance with the emperor. 

Sir William Paget was immediately difpatched ciamou* 
for this purpofe i and, in the mean time, the pro- *z* ini ih\au 
tector's enemies employed emiffaries to blacken 
his character. They prefented him as a parricide, 
a traitor, and a facrilegious tyrant, who not only 
betrayed the intereft of his country, but, in order 
to gratify his pride, deftroyed churches and tombs, 
that he might ufe the materials for building his own 
fuperb palace of Somerfet- Houfe. They taxed him 



A c. 1549. w ; tft having betrayed the forts in the Boulonnois, by 
leaving them unprovided for defence ; with having 
abandoned Haddington in Scotland, feized the ad- 
miniftration into his own hands ; rejected the ad- 
vice of council, mifmanaged the affairs of govern- 
ment; and, when Paget returned without having 
fucceeded in his negotiation, they affirmed he was 
inftructed by the protector to avoid an alliance with 
the emperor, that he might have a pretence for re- 
fignin'g Boulogne. The protector being informed 
of thefe fuggeftions, began to be apprehenfive of a 
defign to carry off the perfon of the king, by cor- 
rupting his fervants; and therefore he employed 
fome of his own domeftics near his majefty, with di- 
f^Tof h re< ^ ons to watch over all his actions. On the fixth 
council de- day of October, the lord St. John, prefident of the 
eiare againft council, the earls of Southampton, Warwick, and 
Arundel, Sir Edward North, Sir Richard South- 
well, Sir Edward Wotton, and doctor Wotton dean 
of Canterbury, repaired to the bifhop of Ely's houfe 
in Holborn, to hold a council, as if there had been 
no other members •, and the king fending fecretary 
Petre to know the reafonof their meeting, they de- 
tained him, to afiift at their deliberations. They 
began by confidering the ftate of the kingdom ;.and 
laid the blame of all the diforders which had hap- 
pened at home, and all the lofTes fuftained abroad, 
upon the protector. They declared their intention 
was to confer with him on thefe fubjects *, but, un- 
derflanding he had armed his domeftics, and fur- 
rounded the king with a guard, they would not ex- 
pofe themfelves to the violence of his defigns. 
They fent for the mayor, aldermen, and common- 
council of London, together with the lieutenant of 
the Tower, and forbade them exprefly to acknow- 
ledge the duke of Somerfet as protector. This laft 
promifed to comply with the order ; but the others 
made an equivocal aafwer : though all of them 




5& 1 - 

EDWARD VI. j 4 £ 

feemed to favour the proceedings of this committee. A « c « »549« 
The protector was no fooner informed of thefe tranf- 
actions, than he fent the king to Windfor, and 
armed the inhabitants of that place and Hampton- 
court for his fecurity : and next day the malcon- 
tents were joined by the chancellor, lord Riche, the 
marquis of Northampton, the earl of Shrewfbury, 
Sir Thomas Cheney, Sir John Gage, Sir Ralph 
Sadler, and Sir Edward Montague. Thus rein- 
forced, they wrote a letter to the king, complain- 
ing of the duke of Somerfet ; and ordered the arch- 
bifhop Paget to take care that his majefty mould be 
ferved by his own domeftics. On the eighth day 
of October they repaired to Guildhall, where they 
declared their fole aim was to deliver the king from 
the hands of the duke of Somerfet, who minded 
nothing but his own private advantage $ and the 
burghers of London anfwered aloud, that they 
would fupport them to the utmoft of their power. 
The duke finding himfelf abandoned by the ci- 
tizens of London, and the lieutenant of the Tower, 
was overwhelmed with defpondence : he affembled 
thofe members of the council who had not yet for- 
faken him, and offered to fubmit to the judgment 
of any two of them, joined to a like number of 
the malcontents. The confequence of this pufil- 
lanimous declaration was his being immediately de- 
ferted by the lord Ruffel, Sir Anthony Brown, Sir 
Anthony Wingfield, Wentworth, and Baker, 
fpeaker of the houfe of commons. At length the 
malcontents declared him unworthy of being pro- 
tector, and publifhed a manifcfto for the j unifica- 
tion of their conduct. Then they wrote a letter to 
the king, importing, That his father had appointed 
them executors of hh will and regents of the king- 
dom : That they had elected the duke of Somerfet 
to exercife the office of protector, on the exprefs 
condition, that he mould do nothing without their 



A:c. 1549. approbation; but, that he had tranfgreffed thefe 
terms, and made himfelfabfolute matter of the go- 
vernment: for which reafon, deeming him unwor- 
thy of the truft, they defired his majefty would al- 
low them to execute the office with which they had 
been inverted by the late king, and difmifs the 
troops which the duke of Somerfet had affembled 
about his majefty's perfon. The archbifhop of Cart- 
. terbury and Paget advifed the king and the duke 
to comply with the demands of the council, which 
had already fent deputies to Windfor to prevent the 
efcape of the protector and fome of his confidents. 
When Edward fignified his afTent to their propofals, 
they went to him in a body, and met with a graci- 
ous reception : and all the duke's friends, except 
Heisac- Cecil, were fent to the Tower ; he himfelf, being 
verenSf/e- brought before the council, was accufed of having 
msanours, violated the condition upon which he was chofen 
protector : of having treated with ambafiadors, and 
difpofed of bifhoprics and governments by his fole 
authority: of having held the court of requefls in 
his own houfe : : of having debafed the current coin 
of the kingdom : of having publifhed proclamations 
touching the inclofures of land, contrary to the de- 
liberations of the council : of having neglected to 
fupprefs; and even of having fupported and favour- 
ed the infurrections : of haying neglected to fupply 
the forts of Boulonnois with provifion and ammuni- 
tion, fo that they fell into the hands of the enemy : 
of having endeavoured to prejudice the king againffc 
the members of the council, by falfe infmuations : 
of having proclaimed* them traitors : of having ma- 
licioufly alarmed his majefty, by fending him fud- 
denly to Windfor, thereby endangering his health: 
of having armed his own friends and domeflics, 
while the king's fervants were left defencelefs ; and 
of having intended to fly to Jerfey or Guernfey. 
On thefe articles of impeachment, which he had 


E D W A R D VI. 1 45 

hot time to anfwer, he was fent to the Tower : and At e - 1549. 
the council appointed fix lords to act as governors And ccm- 
to the king, two at a time officiating alternately. Sf-rwr. 
Then the earl of Warwick appeared to be the prin- Tjr 
cipal promoter or the protector s ruin •, fcr the otner 
members of the council permitted him, without the 
lead oppofition, to alTume the reins of government. 

The enemies of the reformation triumphed in the 
fall of Somerfet, perfuaded that Warwick was a 
catholic in his heart, as he maintained fitch an in- 
timate correfpondence with the earl of Southamp- 
ton. Bonner arid Gardiner^ who continued prifon- 
ers in the Tower, wrote letters to him, congratula- 
ting him upon having fr^eed his country from fuch 
? tyrant -, and people began to imagine the duke of 
Norfolk would be fet at liberty. They were mif- 
taken in their conjectures ; Warwick had no reli- 
gion but ambition. He knew the young king was 
ftrongly attached to the new doctrines, and it was 
his intereft to gain the favour of his fovertign. 
Bonner was brought before the council, and made 
acquainted with the fubjects of complaint laid to 
his charge. He was ordered to preach a fermon 
in St. Paul's church, maintaining that the authority - 
of a minor king is equal to that of a king come to 
the age of maturity. In his fermon, which was 
preached before a very numerous audience, he did 
not once mention the fubject; but expatiated on the 
real prefence in the facrament, and inveighed againft 
thole who did not believe tranfubftantiation. Wil- 
liam Latimer and John Hooper informing againft 
him, a commiffion was granted to the archbifhop 
of Canterbury, and Ridley, with the two fecreta- 
ries of ftate, and the dean of St. Paul's, to try him 
in a fummary way. His deportment, when he en- 
tered the court, was ridiculoufly extravagant \ he 
pretended that he did not fee his judges, until they 
Numb. LJY. L were 


a. c. 1543. were p i n ted out to him by one of the bye-ftanders. 
When the evidences were examined, he faid one 
'talked like a goofe, and another like a woodcock ; 
he treated the court with contempt, and laughed at 
the people, calling them fools and dunces •, doctor 
Hooper, he affirmed was an afs indeed : he told 
fecretary Smith that he was a liar; and being re- 
primanded by Cranmer, who faid he ought to be 
frnt to prifon for the infolence of his behaviour, 
he replied, that he cared not whither they fent 
him, provided they did not fend him to the devil •, 
but thither he would not go. He faid he had a 
few goods, a poor carcafe, and a foul ; the two for- 
mer were in their power, the laft was in his own. 
The court was feveral times adjourned -, at length, 
finding his defence could not avail him, he appeal- 
ed to the king, and was fent to the Marfhalfea, after 
having reviled his judges in the mod abufive terms. 
folm.* e He was again brought before them, and folemnly 
Aa. Pub. deprived of the bifhopric of London, becaufe he 
ptaTtfliii had not declared the king's power in his minority, 
feiftopric as he was commanded by the protector and council. 
The earl of Southampton was fo much mortified to 
find himfelf difappointed in the conduct of War- 
wick, that he retired from court without taking 
leave, and died of chagrin at his houfe in the 
country. Though the earl of Warwick was thus 
delivered from an intriguing rival, he found himfelf 
not a little perplexed by the conduct of the French 
king, who perfifted in his refolution to recover Bou- 
logne, which the Englifh were in no condition to 
relieve. The council fent another embalTy to the 
emperor, defiring him to take that city under his 
protection •, but he treated the propofal with great 
indifference, alledging, that he was at peace with 
France ; and at lalt frankly owning, that they had 
very little reaibn to expect afliftance from him, 
while religion remained on fuch a footing in Eng- 

E t) W A R D VL i 47 

larid. From this anfwcr the council determined to A c - x ^9- 
make peace with the French monarch. 

The parliament meeting on the fourth day of 
November, enacted a fevere law againft unlawful 
alTemblies, in order to prevent future infurrections ; 
but they repealed the laft ftatute againft vagabonds, 
as it appeared too rigorous, and renewed an act 
upon the fame fubject, which had palled in the 
reign of the lad Henry. Then a bill of attainder A.G. t$$o$ 
was read in the houfe of lords againft the duke 
of Somerfet, founded upon a confeflion figned 
with his own hand. A deputation of the. mem- 
bers was fent to know from his own mouth, whe- 
ther or not this confelTion had been extorted. He 
thanked them for their candour; owned that he 
had voluntarily figned the writing; but folemnly 
protefted, that he never harboured a finifter thoughc 
againft the king or commonwealth. In confe- 
quence of this confeffibri, he was deprived of all 
his offices -, and all his moveables, together with 
great part of his landed eftate, were forfeited for 
the ule of his majefty. His total deftruction was The duke of 
prevented by his fubmiffive behaviour, which left Somerfetis 

{ . J r , . .- 1 r Umd and fe- 

ll IS enemies no room to prolecute him rurtner : 10 i^j, 

that he was releafed from his confinement, after 
having given fecurity for his future conduct •, and 
in two months after his enlargement, re-admitted 
to a place in the council. The parliament mean 
while confirmed the new liturgy, decreed, That all 
the old offices, miffals, and breviaries, mould be de- 
livered to certain commiflioners appointed tor that 
purpofe : That all the prayers addreffed to faints 
fhould be razed out of the books printed in the late 
reign : and, That ail the images taken from churches 
(hould, within a fixed time, be committed to the 
flames. Then they granted a fubiidy, which was 
followed by an act or amnelty, though the prison- 
ers in the Tower were excluded from ic s and the 

L 2 meet- 


a. c. i 55 c, meeting was prorogued till the fecond day of Feb- 
ruary. During this feffion, the fons of peers were 
for the firft time permitted to fit in the houfe of 

The earl of Warwick had been appointed lord 
high admiral, and great mafter of the houfhold, and 
now directed the council with the moll abfolute au- 
thority. He wanted to purchafe a peace with the 
French king by the reftitution of Boulogne : but, 
knowing what a load of popular odium the duke of 
Somerfet had incurred by making an overture of 
that nature, he employed an Italian merchant cal- 
led Guidatti, who lived at Southampton, to fet on 
foot the negotiation, in fuch a manner as would ac- 
quit him of all fufpicion. That foreigner repairing 
en fome pretence to Parrs y insinuated himfelf into 
the houfe of the conftable, the great favourite of 
Henry -, and in converfation with fome of that mi- 
niiler's officers, faid he believed the court of Ens- 
land would willingly part with Boulogne for a pro- 
per confideration in ready money. The conftable 
being informed of this hint, conferred with Gui- 
datti ; and underftanding the meaning of what he 
had dropped, defired he would tell fome individual 
of the Englifh council, that the king of France 
would rather terminate the affair of Boulogne by 
accommodation than by war. Thus by the inter- 
pofition of this foreigner, plenipotentiaries were ap- 
pointed on both fides, and a congrefs was opened 
Pt-ace con- in the neighbourhood of Boulogne. After fome 
eluded vsi.h wa rm debates, the treaty was concluded on the fol- 
lowing terms : That Boulogne fhould be reftored 
to the king of France, who, in confideration of the 
improvements made in that fortrefs, and theexpence 
of furfti filing it with provifions and munition, 
mould pay four hundred thoufand golden crowns 
to the king of England : That France and Eng- 
land fhould mutually give hoftages for the perfor- 

7 ma nee 

EDWARD VI. i 49 

mance of thefe articles : That Edward fhould re- A - c - '550; 
llore to the queen of Scotland, the two forts of H;i > uard - 
Lauder and Douglas, which fhould be demolifhed, 
together with thole of Ayrnouth and Roxburgh, 
that v/ere likewife occupied by the Engliih : That 
the king of England fliould deiift from all hofti- 
Jities againft Scotland; but, That he fhould referve 
to himfelf the power of profecuting all his actions, 
demands, and pretentions againft France and Scot- 
land ; while the French king, and the queen of 
Scotland fliould enjoy the fame privilege with re- Rymer. 
lpect to their demands upon England. 

When this treaty was brought over to London, 
the earl of Warwick feigned himfelf fick, that he 
might not be obliged to fign his name to conditions 
againft which his tongue had formerly exclaimed. 
He could not, however, elude the reproaches of the 
public, who plainly perceived, that thofe who accepted 
of four hundred thoufand crowns, inftead of two mil- 
lions, which Francis I. had engaged to pay, were 
the very perfons who inveighed fo bitterly againft 
the protector, for barely propofmg the reftitution 
of Boulogne on reafonable terms. This conftdera- 
tion excited fuch murmurs among the people, that 
the earl of Warwick thought proper to divert their 
attention to other objects ihat would conduce more 
to their fatisfaction. He made an inquiry into the A *i>itrafy 1 
practices of thofe wffo had embezzled the king's of 'th^cari^f 
revenue, or been guilty of oppreflion in the exer- Warwick. 
cife of their offices. An additional motive to this 
inquiry was a defire to pay the king's debts. Nor 
did he fpare his own friends whom he had ufed 
as inftruments to ruin the duke of Somerfet. The 
earl of Arundel was condemned in a heavy fine ; 
Southwell was committed to prifon ■, and others 
purchafed his forbearance with round fums of mo- 
tley . This feverity pleafed the nation in general., 

L 3 and 


a. c. i 5S ». anc j eilabliflied Warwick's authority among the 
great, who perceiving the vigour with which he 
a&ed, began to dread the weight of his refentment. 
In the courfe of this year, Thirleby refigned the 
fee of Weftminfter, which was reunited to that of 
London, and beflowed upon Ridley of Rochefter. 
The bifhopric of Norwich was given to Thirleby ; 
that of Rochefter to Poinet ; and John Hooper was 
created bimopof Gloucefter. Folydore Virgil, who* 

Atf. Pub. had refided forty years in England, obtained per- 
million to pafs the reft of his days in his own coun- 
try ; and the king allowed him to enjoy his bene- 
fices, in confideration of his havii>Vj fpent the beft 
part of his life in compiling the Englifh hiftory. 

Death of Pope Paul III. dying in the latter end of the pre- 

popc^nims. cec jj n g year, the cardinals afTembled in the con- 
clave agreed to elect Pole as his fuccefTor ; and ac- 
tually repaired to his chamber in the night, to adore 
him, according to cullom , |but, he defired they 
would defer the ceremony tiil next day, that it might 
not be a work of darknefs. This fcruple feemed fo 
extraordinary, that fome of them concluded he had 
loft his fenfes ; others were apprehenfive, that mould 
he obtain the papacy, he would exert himfelf in re- 
forming the court of Rome, and the college of car- 
dinals. They from that moment refolved to elevate 
fome other per fan to the papal chair ; but, being 
divided into three factions, they could not agree till 
the month of February, when they elected the car- 

s'-oncian, dinal de Monte, who a {Turned the name of Julius 
III. The emperor at the diet intended to compel 
the proteitanis to fubmit to all the decifionsof the 
council which had been brought back to Trent; 
but, he was warmly oppofed by Maurice elector of 
Saxony, tho' that prince uied fuch circumfpection 
in his conduct, that he did not forfeit the favour 
of Chaiks, who contented to his being appointed 


E D W A R D VL 151 

general of the army of the empire, to finifh the war A Cl ss Q * 
by the fiege of Magdeburgh, the only proteftanc 
city which had not fubmitted. 

In England the reformation was fo agreeable to a. c. 1551, 
the young king, that the miniftry, in order to gain 
his favour, countenanced and encouraged it with 
all their influence, while Cranmer was indefatigable 
in the fame work. Gardiner was depofed for the 
fame reafon on account of which Bonner had been 
deprived of his bifhopric, and fent back to the 
Tower, where he remained till the reign of queen 
Mary. A new confefiion of faith was finifhed by 
the commiffioners appointed for that purpofe, and 
the new liturgy was in many places corre&ed. The 
king, whofe understanding far exceeded his years, 
began to take cognizance of different affairs. He 
wrote a journal of all the tranfa&ions that fell un- 
der his obfervation ; and became fo zealous for the 
new religion, that he infilled upon its being em- 
braced by all his fubjects without diftin&ion. The Theprincefs 
princefs Mary, however, would never conform to Bfamrfufca 
the alterations which had been made -, and her op- 
pofition fubjedted her to many mortifications from 
the council, and the king himfelf, whofe zeal on 
this occafion rofe almoft to a fpirit of perfec- 
tion. His fifter Elizabeth was educated in the 
principles of the reformation, which was afterwards 
brought to perfe&ion under her adminiftration. The 
princefs Mary was fo alarmed at the infults fhe 
had received, that fhe refolved to quit the kingdom, 
and actually conceded a fcheme for that purpofe, 
with the governante of the Low Countries •, but her 
defign was difcovered, and meafures were taken to 
prevent the execution of it. The earl of Warwick, s cie me of 
perceiving the king was incenfed againft his fifter l ^ eeu }^ 
Mary, formed a project for excluding her intirely 
from the fuccefiion, to match Elizabeth in a foreign 
country, and effect a marriage between one of his 

L 4 own 


A. c. 1551. own f ons anc | ] ac jy j ane Grey, eldefl daughter of the 
earl of Dorfet, and Frances Brandon, who in the 
order of fuccellion held the next place to the two 
daughters of tlenry. For this purpofe, the eari of 
Warwick contracted an intimacy of friendmip with 
Dorfet , and two fuccefllve dukes of Suffolk of the 
family of Brandon being cut off by the fweating- 
ficknefs, which now raged in England, the title 
was conferred upon the earl of Dorfet. Yet it 
will be found difficult to reconcile this project of 
Warwick to his negotiation for the marriage of the 
king with the daughter of Henry II. the French 
monarch The marquis of Northampton, the bi» 
fhop of Ely, and fome other perfons of diftinction, 
were fent ambaffadors to France, with the order of 
the garter for Henry ; and the propoial of a match 
between his daughter Elizabeth and the king of 
England. Commiffioners were immediately ap- 
pointed to treat with them on this fubject, and the 
treaty was figned at Angers *, but Edward died be^ 
fore the princefs was of age. In the mean time, 
Henry returned the compliment, by fending the 

Rymer. marechal de Montmorency at the head of afplendid 
embaffy, with the order of St. Michael, to the 
king of England. 

Immediately after thefe t ran factions, the earl of 
Warwick was created duke of Northumberland; 
nor were his intimate friends forgot in this promo- 
tion. William Pawlet earl of Wiltfhire, and lord 
high treafurer, received the title of marquis of 
Winchefler, and Sir William Herbert was created 
earl of Pembroke. The new duke did not think 
his authority was perfectly fecured during the life 
of the duke of Somerfet, who made great pro- 
grefs in retrieving the king's favour ; and actually 
began to take meafures for re-affuming the office 
of protector. In order to prevent the elevation of 
iuch a powerful rival, Northumberland refolved to 



ruin him effectually. He found means by artful A c ,55I> 
infinuations to alienate the king's affection from that 
nobleman ; and then, by repeated infults, provoked 
him to take fuch meafures as furnifhed a handle to 
work his deftrudtion. Somerfet's patience being 
exhaufted, he is faid to have contrived a fcheme for 
affafiinating this troubleibme upftart. One of his 
confidents, called Sir Thomas Palmer, betrayed his 
private converfation, and declared, in the king's 
hearing, that the duke of Somerfet had laid a plan 
for affailinating the duke of Northumberland, the 
marquis of Northampton, and the earl of Pembroke. 
The evidence of this perfon, who was a man of an 
infamous character, was corroborated by the con- 
fefTion of one Crane ; another of the name of Ham- 
mond owned that the duke's chamber had been 
flrongly watched by night at Greenwich ; and the 
lord Strange voluntarily declared, that Somerfet de- 
fired he would perfuade the king to marry his third 
daughter, and aft as a fpy about his majefty's per- 
fon. The duke was immediately arreted, and ient Thedukf of 
to the Tower, together with the lord Grey, and f^ff? Is 
fome other adherents : next day the dutchefs was refted. 
committed to the fame place, as well as Sir Thomas 
Holdcroft, Sir Miles Partridge, Sir Michael Stan- 
hope, Wingheld, Bannifter, Vaughan, and many 
others. The duke of Somerfet was foon brought 
to his trial before the marquis of Wincheiler, who 
fat as high fteward upon the occafion, and the reft 
of the peers, including the duke of Northumber- 
land, the marquis of Northampton, and the earl of 
Pembroke, who were both parties and judges in 
this court of judicature. He was accufed of a de- 
fign to fecure the perfon of the king, and realTume 
the adminiftration of affairs, to afTaffmate the duk 
of Northumberland, and raiie an infurrection in the 
city of London. He pleaded Not guilty, and de- 


a.c. t 55 t. [ irec ] ne might be confronted with his accufers. His 
Tried and requefl: was rejected : he was acquitted of treafon, 
^ieW* but condemned to death for fimple felony, on a fta- 
tute palled in the reign of Henry VII. declaring it 
felonious for any peribn to harbour the thought of 
killing a privy-counfellor. This fcandalous fen- 
tence being pronounced, Somerfet craved pardon 
of the duke of Northumberland, the marquis of 
Northampton, and the earl of Pembroke, tor the 
enmity he had bore them. The populace feeing 
him reconveyed to the Tower without the axe,whkh 
was no longer carried before him, becaufe he was 
condemned to be hangeo\ imagined he had been in- 
tirely acquitted ; and in repeated fhouts and accla- 
mations manifefted their joy, which was foon con- 
verted into forrow, when they were better inform- 
ed of his doom. 

The nation in general believed he would obtain 
his pardon-, but the king's heart was hardened againft 
him by the arts of the minifter, who prevailed upon 
one Bartuille to declare to his majefty, that Somer- 
fet had employed him to arTaflinate the duke of 
Northumberland. He was even told, that the 
duke had confened the whole fcheme, after his 
condemnation : he was amufed with diverfions, 
that his mind might not have leifure to reflect upon 
the nature of the trial; he was befieged in fuch a 
manner, that no friend of his uncle could approach 
his perfon. That unhappy nobleman had indeed 
interefted the lord Riche the chancellor in his fa- 
vour ; but the correfpondence between them being 
accidentally difcovered, the lord Riche was de- 
prived of the great fea], which was given in charge 
Paywwd. to the bi (hop of Ely. At length, the king figned 
an order for the execution of his uncle, who, on 
the twenty-fecond day of January appeared on the 
fcaffold, without the leail emotion, in the midft of 


EDWARD VI. , 55 

a vaft concourfe of the populace, by whom he was A » C. 1552. 
beloved. He fpoke to them with great compofure, He is he, 
protefting his innocence of the crimes laid to his kwW- 
charge ; and that he had always promoted the fer- 
vice of his king, and the intereft of the true reli- 
gion to the utmoft of his power. The people 
attefted the truth of what he faid by crying aloud, 
" It is molt true :" and when he prayed, that the 
king might enjoy heath and profperity, there was a 
general refponfe of Amen. The fpeclators Teem- 
ed to be in great agitation, and on the brink 
of taking fome violent meafure. Certain people, 
who had been ordered to affift in arms at the exe- 
cution, perceiving, as they approached Tower-hill, 
that the duke was already on the fcaffbld, mended 
their pace, crying aloud to each other, " Come 
* c away !" The precipitation with which they ad- 
vanced, and this exclamation, which was ecchoed 
through the whole multitude, produced an univerfal 
tumult. After this had fubfided, Sir Anthony 
Brown riding towards the fcaffbld, the people ex- 
claimed, " A pardon, a pardon." But, the duke 
with great compofure, afTured them they were mif- 
taken ; and intreated them to be quiet, that he 
might pafs his laft moments in peace. Then he con- 
tinued his fpeech ; and concluding with a defire Fo *' 
that they would join with him in prayer, fubmitted 
to the ftroke of the executioner. Thus fell the 
duke of Somerfet, a facrifice to the ambition of his 
rival. He was a nobleman of a middling genius, not 
without virtues, though warmed by ftrong paflions, 
among which vanity, pride, and ambition, feemed 
to predominate. The people were fo well convinced 
of his innocence, that they looked upon him as a 
martyr ; and dipping handkerchiefs in his blood, 
prelerved them as precious relics. Sir Ralph Vane, 
£ brave old foldier, and Sir Miles Partridge were 



a.c. 1552. hanged, and Sir Michael Stanhope, with Sir Thomas 
Arundel, beheaded as the duke's accomplices. Vane 
encountered death with equal intrepidity and dif- 
dain, obferving, that the time had been when he 
was of ibme eftimation, but now the cowardly 
and courageous were treated alike •, and all of 
them declared, in their laft moments, that they 

Harvard, had never offended againft the king, or any of his 

While the Englifh miniflry was intent upon thefe 
tranfactions, the emperor's affairs in Germany af- 
jumed a new afpecl. Maurice elector of Saxony 
entered privately into a league with France, and 
the proteftants of his own country. He fent am- 
baffadors to engage Edward in the fame affocia- 
tion -, and fbllicit a fupply of four hundred thou- 
fand crowns to maintain the interefl of the reformed 
jeligion. The miniftry gave him to underftand, 
that the king was not averfe to a league calculated 
Entirely for the fake of religion ; but that he would 
not be concerned in any league or alliance which 
was concerted on political maxims. Neverthelefs, 
if the elector of Saxony would confer more parti- 
cularly with the proteftant princes, and then fend 
ambaffadors fufhViently authorifed to the king, he 
would return a more pofitive anfwer. The par- 
liament affembling on the twenty-third of January, 
a ftatute was ena£ted againfl thofe who fhouid write 
or fpeak evil of the king - 9 but in this act was in - 
ferted a claufe, importing, That no perfon mould 
be convicted except upon the evidence of two wit- 
r.effes at leaft, or be confronted with the criminal. 
Then they pafTrd an act to authorize the New 
Common Prayer-book ; another for afcertaining 
the fads and holidays ; a third for the relief of the 
poor ; a fourth allowing the marriage of the clergy * ? 
a fifth againft ufury ^ and a fixth againfl fimony. 

A bill 


A bill was brought into the houfe of peers, for fet- A,c - 1 >> 2 * 
ting afide the entail of Somerfet's eftate in favour of 
the children of his firft marriage, whom he had ex- 
cluded from his inheritance •, but as a claufe of this 
bill declared, that the late duke and his accomplices 
had been juftly condemned, the houfe of commons 
refufed to pafs the act until the claufe was removed. 
In the fame ceflion, the duke of Northumberland 
attempted to deftroy Tonftall bifhop of Durham by 
attainder, on pretence of having concealed a con- 
fpiracy againft the king •, but the commons rejected 
the bill, becaufe the defign was to condemn the 
bifhop without his being confronted by his accufers. 
The duke's aim was to obtain for himfelf the dig- 
nity of palatine of Durham, which was annexed to The parifa- 
the bifhopric. But perceiving that this parliament, Jy^* 1 ^ 
which had been elected during the prote&orihip of another coa- 
Somerfet, was not difpofed to comply with all his 1 
wifhes, he took care that it mould be dillblved, and 
another convoked for the enfuing year. In the 
mean time, he continued to indulge his refentment 
againft the memory and adherents of the late duke 
of Somerfet. He commenced a rigorous inquifi- 
tion about the lands formerly belonging to the chan- 
tries, which had been given away during the admi- 
niftration of that nobleman ; and fome of the new 
proprietors were condemned in heavy fines, while 
the reft appeafed him with large fums of money. 
He conceived a violent antipathy to the lord Paget, 
who had been always a ftaunch adherent of Somer- 
fet - f and that nobleman was not only fubjected to a 
grievous fine, but even degraded from the order of 
the garter, on pretence that he was not a gentleman 
by birth. Thus, the duke at once gratified his re- 
fentment, and procured the vacant garter for his 
own Ion the lord Warwick. In the ccurfe of this 
year, Heath and Day, the bifhops of Worcefcer 



a. c. 155a and Chefter, were depofed on account of their operi 
P*m. of the opposition to the reformed religion. The patents 
Retoim. by which the king filled the vacant biihoprics, 
were altered in the form, fo as that he was left at 
liberty to deprive them of their fees, according to 
his own pleafure, without obferving the ordinary 
formalities. The company of German merchants 
known by the appellation of the Steel-yard, was 
fupprerTed becaufe it monopolized the exportation 
of the woollen manufacture ; and a project was 
formed for converting Hull and Southampton into 
free ports ; but, the fcheme was never carried into 
execution. The king of France having declared 
war againft the emperor, and taken Mentz by fur- 
prize, the elector of Saxony aflembled his troops, 
and pulling off the mafk, marched directly to In- 
fpruck, where he had well nigh taken the emperor, 
who now found himfelf obliged to favour the pro- 
A c , 5S3 teftancs, by confenting to the famous edict of 

The duke of Northumberland found the new 
parliament as obfequious as he could have wifhed. 
They granted a very confiderable fubfidy to the 
king, on a fuppofition that his finances had been 
difiipated during the administration of Somerfet. 
They fupprerTed the bifhopric of Durham, in lieu 
of which one was founded in the fame place, and 
another at Newcaftle - 9 but, the dignity of palatine 
was conferred on the duke of Northumberland. 
Then the parliament was difiblved, after a fhcrt 
fefiion of one month ; though, during that time, 
the minifter accomplifhed the purpofes for which 
it had been convoked. The king, who had been 
for fome time indifpofed, in coniequence of the 
fmall pox, which left a diforder upon his lungs, 
figned an order for the vifitation of the churches, 
that their luperfluous plate and ornaments might be 


-EDWARD VI. i 59 

converted to the ufe of the poor; but fuch fraud AC « '553* 
and extortion were practifed in this inquiry, tkac 
the poor reaped very little benefit from the king's 
charitable intention. His difremper now degene- 
rated into a confirmed confumption ; and many 
people did not fcruple to infinuate, that the duke 
of Northumberland had tampered with his confti- 
tution. Edward faw his own danger, and bore 
the profpect of death with uncommon fortitude; 
all the concern he manifefted was for the Hate of 
religion, which he forefaw would be altered in the 
reign of Mary his fucceflbr. He was greatly dif- 
turbed by this reflection ♦, and the duke of Nor- 
thumberland did not fail to feed his difquiet, by 
defcribing the fcenes of perfecution that would be 
'acted under apopifh fovereign. His deCign was to 
pave the way for Edward's fetting afide the fuccei- 
fion. When the phyficians defpaired of the king's 
iife, he was committed to the care of an obfcure 
woman, who undertook to cure him by means 
which fhe would not difcover. No hopes of his re- LorfG»a*. 
covery now remaining, the duke would no longer ford Dudley 
delay the marriage of his fourth fon lord Guilford u&yjw 
Dudley, with the lady Jane Grey, eldelt daughter Gre y» 
of the new duke of Suffolk, and Frances Brandon, 
mentioned in Henry's will, as next in fucceffion to 
his own daughters. At the fame time, Jane's fe- 
cond fifter Catherine efpoufed the lord Herbert eidefl: 
fon of the earl of Pembroke ; and -the third was 
married to Martin Keys the groom porter. 

Thefe knots of intereft being tied, the duke re- 
folved to take the firrr. opportunity of executing the 
other part of his project. One day, when the king 
lamented his fitter's averfion to the reformed reli- 
gion, Northumberland told him there was only one 
way of preventing the misfo.rtunes which threatened 
his country $ and that was by excluding the v prin - 

•• 3 cefs: 


I £0 


who is de- 
clared next 
h- i<- of the 


The king's 

death , and 
hai after. 


Cefs Mary from the fucceflion, and transferring the* 
crown to lady Jane Grey. He reprefented, that 
the princefs Elizabeth could not help fharing her 
filler's fate, becaufe the only pretence they could 
nfe again ft Mary was illegitimacy ; and that equally 
affedled Elizabeth, as the marriages of both their 
mothers had been declared unlawful by a6r, of par- 
liament. This expedient was well relimed by 
Edward. The int^reft of religion was his prevail- 
ing care, which on this occafion furmounted every 
other confideration ; and he entertained the moft 
tender regard for lady Jane Grey, who poflefTed all 
the amiable accomplishments of mind and perfon. 
Three of the judges were forthwith ordered to draw 
up an acl: of conveyance, transferring the crown to 
lady Jane Grey upon the death of Edward. They 
at firft refufed to comply with this order, alledging, 
that in framing fuch an acl, they mould render 
themfrlves liable to the pains and penalties of high- 
treafon, according to adt of parliament. The duke 
of Northumberland was fo incenfed at their refufal, 
that he could hardly refrain from perfonal violence. 
In a word, partly by threats, and partly by letters 
of pardon granted in their favour by anticipation, 
they were prevailed upon to draw up the acl: of con- 
veyance, which was figned by all the other judges, 
except Sir James Hales, and all the members of 
the privy-council, Cranmer himfelf not excepted. 

The king ftill continued under the regimen pre- 
fcribed by the woman who had undertaken his 
cure ; but the diftemper gaining ground every day, 
fne was dil miffed, and the phyficians were recalled, 
Notwithstanding all their endeavours, he died on 
the fixth day of July, in the Seventeenth year of his 
age, and in the Seventh year of his reign, after hav- 
ing exhibited marks of the moft pious resignation. 
Edward is celebrated by historians for the beauty of 



jiis perfon, the fweetnefs of his difpofition, and the A,c,t ^3. 
extent of his knowledge. By that time he had at- 
tained the fixteenth year, he understood the Greek, 
Latin,. French, Italian, and Spanifh languages ; he 
was verfed in the fciences of Jogic, mufic, natural 
philofophy, and mafter of all the theological difputes s 
infomuch that the famous Hieronymus Cardanus, 
in his return from Scotland, vifuing the Engnfli 
court, was aftonimed at the progrefs he had made 
in learni-ng*, and afterwards extolled him in his 
works as a prodigy of nature. Notwithftanding 
thefe encomiums, he feems to have had an inijredienc 
of bigotry in his difpofition that would have ren- N 
dered him very troublefome to thofe of tender con- 
fciences, who might have happened to differ from 
him in religious principles \ nor can we reconcile 
either to his boafted humanity or penetration, his 
confenting to the death of his uncle, who had 
ferved him faithfully, unlefs we fuppofe he want-ed 
refolution to withftand the importunities of his mi- 
nifter ; and was deficient in that vigour of mind, 
which often exifts independent of learning and 
culture *. 

* He died at Greenwich* and \Vas great pomp, near the remains of His 
buried in Weitminfler Abbey, with grandfather king Henry VII. 

N° $1. U MAR y. 

>5 2 J 


A.c. 1553. f~Tp HE duke of Northumberland carefully con- 
J^ cealed the death of Edward, in hope of fe- 
curing the perfon of the princefs Mary, who, by an 
order of council, had been required to attend her 
brother in his illnefs. She had come as far as Hod- 
defdon, within feventeen miles of London, when 
fhe received a meflfage from the earl of Arundel, 
informing her of Edward's death, and the fteps 
which had been taken to exclude her from the 
throne. Alarmed at this intelligence, me retired 
immediately to Kenning-Hall in Norfolk, from 
whence flie fent orders to Sir George Somerfet, Sir 
William Drury, and Sir W. Waldegrave, to attend 
her immediately with all the forces they could raile. 
Circular letters were difpatched to all the great 
towns and nobility of the kingdom, reminding them 
of her right, and commanding them to proclaim 
her without delay. Then fhe wrote to the council, 
exprefling her furprize, that as they knew her un- 
doubted right of fucceflion, they had not made 
her acquainted with her brother's deceafe ♦, and pro- 
mifing to take them into favour, provided they 
would immediately proclaim her in the city of Lon- 
don, and other places, according to the dictates of 
their duty. Having taken thefe fteps, fhe retired 
to Framlingham-Caftle in Suffolk, that fhe might 
be near the fea, and efcape to Flanders, in cafe fhe 
mould find herfelf hard preffed. Mean while the 
duke of Northumberland, who governed the king- 
dom in the name of the council, being apprifed of 
Mary's retreat, went with the duke of Suffolk as 
deputies from the council, to intimate to Jane 
Grey her acceffion to the throne, by virtue of an 
act of conveyance. They found this young lady at 

2 Sion- 

MARY. 153 

Sion-houfe ; and when they made her acquainted A - c> J 5S3. 
with the defign of their vifit, fhe was overwhelm- 
ed with grief and aftonimment. She fhed a flood 
of tears, appeared quite inconfolable ; and it was 
not without the utmoft reluctance, that me yielded 
to the intreaties of Northumberland, Northampton* 
her own father and hufband, fo far as to accept the 
crown. At length, however, they extorted her 
confent ; and next day conveyed her to the Tower. 
On the tenth day of July fhe was proclaimed in Lady jane* 
London ; and the council fent an anfwer to Mary's ^mJdT 
letter, importing, That as fhe was born of an unlaw- London. 
ful marriage, formally dhTolved by act of parlia- 
ment, fhe ought to drop her pretentions, and ac- 
knowledge the fovereignty of queen Jane, who had 
afcended the throne by virtue of the late king's let- 

The people were fo aftoniftied when they heard 
this lady proclaimed, that they exprefTed no marks 
of joy and exultation. They could not conceive 
for what reafon king Henry's two daughters were 
excluded from the fucceflion •, and they hated the 
duke of Northumberland, as the perfon who had 
ruined their darling Somerfet. Nor was their ha- J? uk f of 
tred alleviated by the conduct of the duke on this beriandde- 
occafion. A low plebeian having uttered fome far- tefte( J b * th « 
caftic obfervation upon this unexpected fucceilion, 
he ordered him to be apprehended, deprived of his 
ears, and expofed in the pillory for his infolence ; 
an act of feverity, from which the populace drew 
an ill omen of the new government. The duke 
knew he had incurred the odium of the people* and 
even of the great. He fufpected fome members of 
the council of averfion to his perfon and meafures ; 
and for that reafon continued to keep them in the 
Tower, on pretence of conforming to the practice 
of the Englifh fovereigns, who, with their council, 
ufed to re fide in the Tower, on their firfl accefLon 

M 2 to 


A - c »553- to the throne. His fufpicions were not without 
foundation. The earl of Arundel was attached to 
the old religion, and hated Northumberland, who 
had extorted from him a large fine, on pretence 
that he had diffipated the king's revenues. The 
other members were difgufted by his infupportable 
pride and arrogance y and longed for an opportu- 
nity to make off the yoke of his authority. At pre- 
fent they found themfelves in effect prifoners *, and 
were fain to temporize, by afTenting to every thing 
he propofed. The death of Edward, and acceffion 
of lady Jane Grey, were notified to the Engiiih am- 
bafladors at foreign courts •, and Richard Shelly 
was difpatched as envoy, with a letter from Jane to 
the emperor, offering to renew the treaty of peace 
between him and England. Shelly, however, did 
not demand an audience, until he mould fee what 
turn affairs might take in his own country. 

Northumberland underftanding that Mary was 
joined by John Bourcher earl of Bath, Henry Rat- 
clifre earl of Suflex, the Ions of lord Wharton, and 
Mordaunt, Sir Henry Bedingfield, Sir W. Drury, 
Sir Henry Jernegan, and many other perfons of 
diftincrion ; that (he had been proclaimed at Nor- 
wich ; and that the people of Norfolk and Suffolk, 
had rifen in arms for the defence of her claim •, he, 
with confent of council, afiembled fome troops at 
tflr 1 ?^" Newmarket, fct on foot new levies in London, and 

EifS troops ' * 

at New- different parts of the kingdom^ and appointed the 
■* rket ' duke of Suffolk general of the army, becaufe he 
himfelf was afraid to leave the council, of which 
he had reafon to be jealous. Neverthelefs, the earl 
of Arundel, who wanted nothing but an opportu- 
nity to a<5t openly in behalf of Mary, made fuch 
rernon (trances to Jane Grey, touching the military 
character of the duke of Northumberland, which 
would flrike terror into the hearts of her enemies, 
that flie infilled upon his taking the command of 


MARY. 155 

the forces in lieu of her father, from whom (he A - c - J 553» 
could not part without the utmoft reluctance. Nor- 
thumberland could not help complying with her 
requeft. He fet out for the army at Newmarket, 
attended by his fon the earl of Warwick, the mar- 
quis of Northampton, the earl of Huntingdon, and 
the lord Gray of Wilton •, and foon found himfelf 
at the head of eight thoufand men, with whom he 
advanced to Bury. Mean while, Mary was joined 
by the lord Thomns Howard, fon to the duke of 
Norfolk, with all the friends of that family. Six 
fhips being ordered by the council to cruife on the 
coaft of Suffolk, in order to prevent her efcape by 
lea, were driven by ftrefs of weather into a port of 
EfTex, where the crews imprifoned their comman- 
ders, and revolted to Mary. Four thoufand men 
were raifed in her behalf in Bucks, by Sir Edward 
Hafrings, the lord Windfor, and Sir Edward Peck- 
ham : another body had arfembled in Oxfordshire, 
under Sir John Williams; and a third in the 
county of Northampton, commanded by Sir Tho- 
mas Trefham. Neverthelefs, when her friends were Goodwin, 
informed that the duke of Northumberland had be- 
gun his march, fome of them advifed her to retire 
into another country ; and perhaps flie wou!d have 
complied with this advice, had he acted with vi- 
gour and difpatch. But, in all probability, he per- Ban** 
ceived marks of difTatisfaction among his troops. 
Inftead of marching directly to the enemy, he loi- 
tered fevcral days in the neighbourhood of Cam- 
bridge •, and ordered doctor Edwin Sandys vice- 
chancellor of the univerfity, to fupport the iuccef- , 
(ion of Jane in a fermon. The doctor preached ac- 
cordingly ; but fpoke with fuch circumfpedion, that 
he offended neither party. This was not the cafe Heyim* 
with Ridley at London, who preached with more 
zeal than difcretion ; and made fo free with the 

M 3 cha- 


a.c 1553. character of Mary, that fhe never forgave him for 
the attack. 

The duke wrote to the council in the moft pref- 
fing terms for a reinforcement ; and they actually 
offered eight crowns per month, befides fubfiftence, 
to every volunteer who would inlifi: in the fervice ; 
but, fuch was the general odium againfi Northum- 
berland, that few or none would engage even on 
thefe terms ; while they crowded to the banners of 
Mary, and maintained themfelves at their own ex- 
pence. In a little time her army amounted to forty 
thoufand men, and great numbers of people aMifted 
her with money, plate, and jewels. Their regard 
for the heir of blood concurred with their detec- 
tion of Northumberland, to produce a torrent of po- 
pularity in her favour. The earls of Arundel and 
Pembroke, finding themfelves ftill detained in the 
Tower under the infpection of the duke of Suffolk, 
who was instructed by Northumberland to watch 
their conduct, took an opportunity from that duke's 
preifmg letters to propofe, that as the French am- 
baffador was averfe to enter the Tower, they fhould 
meet him at Baynard's CaflJe, a houfe belonging 
to the earl of Pembroke, where they might confer 
with him, and take meafures- for bringing over a 
body of troops which had been raifed by the direc- 
tion of the duke, for the fervice of queen Jane. 
Suffolk alTenting to the propofal, they invited to 
the place all the noblemen about London who were 
thought well affected to Mary ; and when they 
met, the earl of Arundel made a lpeech in favour 
of that princefs, propofing that fht might be pro- 
claimed queen of England. This motion being fe- 
conded by the earl of Pembroke, who laid his, hand 
upon his fword, and declared he would defend her 
againft all opponents, the whole affembly anent- 
ed to the propofal, They forthwith lent for the 


MARY. 157 

lord mayor and aldermen, and informed them of A * c - * 553- 
the refolution which they had been taken : then The reft of 
mounting their horfes, they rode to the crofs in Jeekrefor 1 
Cheapfide, where Mary was proclaimed queen of Mary, 
England, by Sir Chriftopher Barker, principal king^.^ 5 ™" 
at arms : Te Deum was fung in the cathedral at Loud™. 
St. Paul's ; and the event was celebrated with all 
manner of rejoicings ufual on fuch occafions. The 
earl of Arundel and lord Paget were difpatched to 
Framlingham-Caftle, to give the queen an account 
of thefe proceedings. Some companies took pof- 
fefiion of the Tower without oppofition. Lady 
Jane Grey refigned her royalty with marks of real 
fatisfaclion ; and retired with her mother to their 
own habitation. 

The duke of Suffolk acquiefced in all thefe tran- 
factions ; and next day that nobleman, with arch- 
bifhop Cranmer, chancellor Goodricke, the mar- 
quis of Winchefter, and the reft of the council, 
figned an order to the duke of Northumberland, to 
dilband his forces, and behave himfelf like a dutiful 
fubjecl to queen Mary. He had already been in • 
formed of this fudden revolution ; and difmifled 
the remainder of his army, which had been greatly 
reduced by defertion. His firft intention was to 
quit the kingdom immediately; but being prevent- 
ed by the band of penfioners, who told him, he 
muft (lay to juftify their condudb, he endeavoured 
to recommend himfelf to Mary by extravagant de- 
monftrations of zeal for her fervice. He repairec 
to the market-place in Cambridge, and proclaiming 
her queen of England, threw up his cap in token 
of joy. But, he reaped no advantage from thefe 
exterior marks of attachment. Next day, he was Duke of 
arrefted in the queen's name by the earl of Arundel. ^ orthum - 

* J * b?r!and and 

at whofe feet he fell down upon his knees, begging hisadhe- 
his proteclion in the mod abject terms of iapphca- y?^ s / e:u 
tion, His three fens, the lord Warwick, Ambrofe, 

M 4 and 


A - c - ISSV and Henry, his brother, Sir Andrew Dudley, Si? 
John and Sir Henry Gates, Sir Thomas Palmer, 
and Dr. Sandys, fhared the fame fate ; and were 
committed along with him to the Tower of Lon- 
don. It was en this cccafion that a woman, ap- 
Ambair. de proaching the duke in his way to prifon, prefented 
an handkerchief which fhe had dipped in the blood 
of the duke of Somerfet ^ and upbraided him with 
{he ruin of that innocent nobleman. About the 
fame time, the earl of Huntingdon, the marquis 
of Northampton, the lords Hallings, and Robert 
Dudley, Sir Robett Corbet, and bimop Ridley, 
were J ike wife taken into cuftody : as were the duke 
of Suffolk, Sir Roger Cholmley, and Sir Edward 
B^It/' Montague, the chief juftices of England ^ but thefe 

three were afterwards fet at liberty. 
Mary On the third day of April the queen made her 

nui^nceTn- entry into London, accompanied by her filler 
to Umdon. jilizabeth, who had joined her on the road with a 
thoufand horfe raifed for her fervice. When fhe 
arrived at the Tower me releafed the duke of Nor- 
folk, the dutchefs of Somerfet, the bifhops Gardi- 
ner and Bonner, and the lord Edward Courtney, 
fon and heir of the marquis of Exeter, a young 
nobleman, whom in a few days fhe created earl ot 
Devonshire. Thus Mary became miftrefs of the 
realm without bloodfhed; though fhe owed her fuc- 
cefs in a great meafure, to the popular hatred which 
the duke of Northumberland had incurred : but fhe 
forgot the good offices of the Suffolk people, who 
had firft declared in her favour, on the exprefs pro- 
mife of being indulged with liberty of confeience. 
She was indeed a bigot to her religion in the mod 
gloomy fenfe : and her attention during her whole 
reign was engrofped by the eager defire of reftoring 
the papal power in England, and of gratifying her 
revenge againft thofe who were averfe to her princi- 
pies and f uceeflion. Sh& propofed in council to re- 


MARY. *5 9 

eftablim the catholic religion at once, and fend for A - c> J 5S3- 
cardinal Pole, in quality of pope's legate. Gardi- 
ner dreaded the effects of fuch a fudden change, and 
fore law that cardinal Pole, who was not his friend, 
would foon fuperfede his influence with the queen. 
He therefore privately fent an exprefs to the empe- 
ror, reprefenting that the queen's propofal was dan- 
gerous,  becaufe the Englifh people could not be 
brought all at once to recognize the papai autho- 
rity, and the zeal of the cardinal would produce dan- 
gerous convulfions in the kingdom : that, on' the 
contrary, every thing would fucceed to the fatisfac- 
tion of her majefty and the advantage of religion, 
provided me, the queen, would appoint him chan- 
cellor, that he might be veftcd with authority fuf- 
ficient to manage fuch a delicate affair, and execute 
the fcheme which he had projected. Charles was 
lb convinced of the folidity of his remonftrance, 
that he wrote to Mary, exhorting her to moderate 
her zeal, and Jiften to the advice of Gardiner, to 
whom fhe at length committed the great feal of 
England, even before his pardon was expedited : 
fo that he fat as judge in chancery, while he him- 
(elf .was under fentence of death. 

On the eighteenth day of Auguft, the duke of 2 uk f of 
Northumberland was brought to his trial in Weft- beriandc 
minder-hall, Thomas duke of Norfolk fitting as ^Idtd" 1 * 
high-Reward. He defired to know, whether a man, 
acting by orders under the great feal, could be 
juftly charged with treafon for thefe actions? and 
whether thofe, who were at lead equally culpable, 
could fit as his judges ? The high fteward replied, 
that the great feal of an ufurper could be no war- 
rant ; and, that any perfon, again (t whom there 
was nothing upon record, was reputed in law, ca- 
pable of fitting on any trial. From this lad anfwer, 
which is fo repugnant to common fenfe, the duke 
forefaw that any objection he could make would be 




a,.c. 1553. over-ruled; he therefore confeffed the indictment, 
and referred himfelf to her majefty's mercy. His 
example, in this particular, was followed by the 
earl of Warwick and the marquis of Northampton, 
who were tried at the fame tribunal •, and all three 

Burnet" ' were condemned to death as traitors. Sir John and 
Sir Henry Gates, Sir Andrew Dudley, and Sir 
Thomas Palmer, pleaded guilty, and underwent 
the fame fentence. The duke confeffed on the 
fcaffold, that he had been always a Roman catholic 
in his heart, and expreifed great forrow for having 
plundered the effects of the church, efpecially as 
he could not now make restitution. He is faid to 
have been amufed with a promife of pardon, in con- 
fequence of which he made this confeflion: if that 
was the cafe he was miferably deceived, and died 
unregretted by both parties ; Gates and the infa- 
mous Palmer fuffered death, but the other con- 
demned perfons were firft reprieved, and afterwards 
pardoned. When the obfequies of Edward were 
performed in Weftminfter-abbey, the new minifters 
propofed to ufe the old office, which had been abo- 
lifhed •, but Cranmer oppofed this defign with great 
vehemence, and in perfon celebrated the fervice 
according to the new liturgy. 

Though the queen declared in council, that (he 
would not force the confciences of her fubiects, (he 
favoured the Roman catholics lb openly, that they 
did not fcruple to fay in public, their religion 
would foon be re-eftablifhed. Bonner's chaplain, 
Bourn, preaching in St. Paul's church, extolled his 
matter with fuch extravagant encomiums, and men- 
tioned king Edward in fuch contemptuous terms, 
that his audience being incenfed at his infolence, 
began to pelt him with Hones, and handled him fo 
roughly that he would have loft his life, had not he 
been protected by Bradford and Rogers, two pro- 
teftant minifters. The queen afterwards publifhed 

a pro- 

MARY. 1*1 

a proclamation, profefTing the faith in which (he A < c - '5S1* 
had been educated ; but promifed that no perfon 
fhould be punifhed for religion, until it fhould be 
eftabHfhed by adr. of parliament. In the mean time ™^ p™^" 
fhe-ferbad all unlawful afifemblies, and ail perfons treated. 
were prohibited from preaching without licences. 
Shj cjedared that no man fhould be punifhed for 
the laftf rebellion, without her own exprefs order ; 
but t-hat (he would punifh feverely all thofe who 
fhoijld promote fuch pernicious defigns for the fu- 
ture. The inhabitants of Suffolk, truiting to the 
verbal promife of her majefty, did not fcrupuloufly 
obferve the injunctions in this proclamation -, and, 
an order being fent to their magistrates to puniih 
the delinquents with the utmoft rigour of the law, 
they fent deputies to court, to remind the queen of 
her promife : but their remonftrance was treated 
with great contempt, and one of their deputies 
placed in the pillory for the freedom of his expoftu- 
lation. Bradford and Rogers were confined on ac- 
count of their popularity. Bonner, Gardiner, Ton- 
ftal, Heath, and Day, were re eftablifhed in the dio- 
cefes of which they had been deprived. Hooper, 
bifnop of Gloucefter, and Coverdale of Exeter, with 
feveral other proteftant divines, were imprifoned, 
becaufe they would not fubmit to Gardiner, who 
was impowered by the queen to grant licences for 
preaching. Divine fervice was openly celebrated 
in the old manner, though contrary to the laws dill 
fubfifting. Judge Hales was fined in a thouland 
pounds for having directed the judges of Kent to 
conform to the laws of Edward, which had not 
been repealed. Montague was difmifTed from his 
office, which was beftowed on Bromley, a papift. 
Peter Martyr, profefTor of theology at Oxford, un- 
derwent fuch infults from the enemies of the refor- 
mation, that he was obliged to take fhelter in Cran* 
mer's hoiue; though that prelate was in no condi- 



a. c. 1553. tioa to pro ted himfelf, for the court had already 
doomed him to deft rue! ion. 

Bonner not only endeavoured by coarfe raillery to 
ridicule the good biihop, whom he called Mr. Can- 
terbury, but, in order to fcandalize the archbifhop's 
character, diffufed a report that he had fubmitted to 
the queen, and promifed to make a public recanta- 
tion of his errors. Cranmer, in order to vindicate 
himfelf from this afperfion, drew up a declaration 
of his faith, which he offered to maintain in public, 
with the queen's permiiTion. On account of this 
writing, which was publifhed without his know- 
ledge, he was fummoned to the Star-chamber, 
where he owned himfelf the author of the paper ; 
and was, for that day, difmiffed. Some of the coun- 
cil advifed the queen to treat him gently, as he had 
always been remarkable for the mildneis of his dif- 
pofiuon. Gardiner fpoke in his favour, becaufehe 
knew that the archbifhopric would be given to car- 
dinal Pole, mould the fee be vacated. The queen 
herfelf forgetting that Cranmer had interpofed in 
her behalf, when her father intended to have facri- 
ficed her to his refentment, refolved to ruin him 
effectually. She remembered nothing of Cranmer, 
but that he had pronounced her^mother's divorce, 
and promoted the reformation. He was fummon- 
Cranmer is ed to appear before the council, together with old 
committed Latimer, which lad was fent directly to the Tower, 
e r. and next day he was followed by Cranmer, on pre- 

tence that he had been guilty of trealonable prac- 
tices, and publifhed feditious libels. Several other 
preachers were imprifoned at the fame time : Peter 
Martyr, John Lafco, and all the foreign proteftants, 
who had taken refuge in England, were allowed to 
quit the kingdom in peace *, a good number of the 
Englifh, who profeiTed the reformed religion, fore- 
ieeing a perfecution, withdrew into foreign coun- 
tries on pretence of being natives of E ranee, until 


Hi ft. of the 

MAR Y. i6 3 

orders were fent to all the fea-ports, that noperfon A - c ' , 55i 
Ihould be allowed to leave the kingdom on that 
pretence, without producing a paffport, figned by 
the French ambaflador. 

The queen now refolved to recompence thofe P r<5m <* ;or * 
noblemen who had exerted themfelves vigoroufly in " 
her favour. The earl of Arundel was appointed 
lord-fleward of the houfhold, Sir Edward Haftings 
was made mafter of the horfe, and afterwards a peer 
of the realm. The earl of SulTex was created a 
knight of the garter, with the, particular privilege 
of appearing covered in the queen's prefence. Lord 
Paget was re- admit ted into that order •, Francis earl 
of Shrewsbury was appointed prefident of the - 
North •, Sir John Williams promoted to a peerage, 
and afterwards to the office of chamberlain to the 
houfhold ; Sir Henry Jernegan was conftituted cap- 
tain of her guard, which was increafed with the ad- 
dition of four hundred men ; and Sir Thomas 
Trefham was created lord prior of the order of St. 
John of Jerufalem, which was now revived ; con- 
fequently he took rank as the firft baron of Eng- 
land. Thomas lord Delaware, Sir William Drury, 
and Sir Richard Southwell, were gratified with pen- Rym«r, 
fions. The queen promoted her chaplain Hopton 
to the fee of Norwich, appointed Englefield mafter 
of the wards, Rochefter comptroller of the houf- 
hold, and Waldgrave mailer of the wardrobe. On Mary u 
the firft day of October Mary was crowned by the "owns* 
hands of Gardiner bifhop of Winchefter •, and (he 
that fame day publifhed an amnefly, from the be- 
nefit of which, however, all thofe that had been ar- 
retted before the month of September, and many 
others, were nominally excluded. Then Mary, 
with a view to ingratiate herfelf with her fubje&s, 
and difpofe the people to return members of parlia- 
ment who mould a& agreeably to her intention, re- 
mitted the fubfidies which had been granted for the 
6 payment 


a. c. 1553. payment of Edward's debt : bur, immediately af- 

and remits ter this popular ad:, me re-eftablifhed John Wefey 

1 y * in the fee of Exeter, which he had refigned in the 

late reign -, and committed Holgate, archbifhop of 

Godwin. York, to the Tower, on a general accufation of 

having committed divers capital crimes. 

The next care of the miniftry was to pack a par- 
liament that mould be favourable to their defigns ; 
and fuch fcandalous methods were taken for this 
purpofe, that although the proteftants were much 
more numerous than the papifls in England, almoft 
all the members of the houfe of commons were 
Roman catholics. In the houfe of lords the queen 
had a great majority ; for even the greater! part of 
thofe noblemen, who had profefTed the reformed 
religion in the reign of Edward, now infamoufly 
conformed to the court doctrines, from motives of 
intereft and ambition. All the proteftant btfhops 
were either imprifoned or depofed, except Taylor 
of Lincoln, and Harley of Hereford ; and thefe 
were expelled from the houfe of peers on the firft 
day of the fefllon, becaufe they refufed to kneel at 
the mafs. The only ftatutes enacted in this friort 
fefilon, were, an act to limit all treafons to the cafes 
fpecified in a former ftature on the fame fubject in 
the reign of Edward the Third ; and another, to 
repeal the act of attainder parTed againft the mar* 
chionefs of Exeter, whofe ion, the earl of Devon- 
mire, was now re-eftablifhed in all the honours of 
The P .atiia- his family. The two houfes, meeting again on the 
mem repeals twenty fourth of October, after a very fhort proro 
confirming gation, palled an act for reverfing the fentence of 
S e the VOrce divorce between Henry VIII. and Catherine of Ar- 
queen's mo- ragon, and for repealing all the acts by which that 
tber * fentence had been confirmed. By this law the 

princefs Elizabeth was again declared illegitimate ; 
and Mary, having no further occafion for her con- 
currence, treated her with harflinefs and even cruelty. 


MAR Y.; i% 

Before the meeting of the parliament fhe had, by a. 0.155,3. 
dint of importunity, prevailed upon Elizabeth to 
accompany her to mafs, that the people might 
think fhe did nothing without the concurrence of 
the prefumptive heir ; but now that fhe was render- 
ed incapable of fucceeding the queen, fhe withdrew 
from her all marks of affection or regard. An act h ws a t ouch- 
was panned for abolifhing all the laws which Edward in £ religion* 
had made touching religion; and all form of pub- 
lic worfhip was prohibited, except that which had 
been ufed at the end of Henry's reign. Another 
ftatute decreed rigorous penalties again ft thofe who 
mould maltreat ecclefiaftics on the fcore of the re- 
eftablifhed fervice, or profane the Eucharift, or pull 
down croiTes, crucifixes, and images. Then the par* 
liament renewed an act of the laft reign, making it 
felony for twelve people, or any greater number, to 
aflemble with a view of changing the eftablifhed 
religion ; and repealed the act of attainder, which 
had parTed againft the duke of Norfolk. 

On the third day of November, the lady Jane 
Grey, her hufband lord Guilford Dudley, his two 
brothers, and archbifhop Cranmer, were brought 
to trial ; and, confefiing their indictments, were 
condemned to death for levying war againft the 
queen, and confpiring in favour of an ufurper. Yet 
the fee of Canterbury was not declared void, be- 
caufe Mary intended that Cranmer fhould be depof- 
ed in a canonical manner ; and to make a merit of 
pardoning his- treafon againft herfelf, while (lie re- 
folved thacdhe fhould fuffer death as an heretic. 
Mean whilejfche revenues of the archbifhopric were 
fequefteredsMR£l the prelate, with the other convicts, 
fent back to the Tower. Upon the death of Ed- -Burnet. 
ward, cardinal Brandini, the pope's legate at Bruf- 
fels, had fent over an agent, whofe name was Com- 
mendoni, to found the inclinations of Mary \ who 
told him that her intention was to re-eftablifh tfttt 



- A - c * »553- papal authority in England, and defired that his 
holinefs would fend over cardinal Pole as his le- 
Maryfoiii- g ate - At tne fame time me exhorted Commen- 
cits the pope doni to continue the difguife in which he had come 
cardl"ai° vcr to England, that her defigr.s might not be too pre- 
PoJeashis. cipitately divulged. The pope being made ac- 
ingiLd. quainted with her defire, advifed with his confiflo- 
ry, which declared that it would not be for the ho- 
nour of the holy fee to fend over a legate until one 
fhouid be demanded in form ; but, the pope giving 
them to understand that he knew more than he 
thought proper to difclofe on that fubjedt, they af- 
fented to the propofal. 

The nomination of Pole to this office was equal- 
ly difagreeable to the emperor and bifhop Gardi- 
ner. Charles had projected a match between his 
fon Philip and Mary, and was apprehenfive of the 
icheme's mifcarrying by the interpofition of Pole* 
whom, it was reported, the queen intended to take 
for her hufband : Gardiner, on the other hand, fore- 
faw that this legate would ftep between him and 
the archbifhopric of Canterbury -, and, in all proba-- 
S^iVT" kility s deftroy his influence at court. He therefore 
tained by reprefented to the queen, that Pole would ruin her in- 
tbe m- tentions in favour of the Roman catholic religion, by 

tngues or o 7 / 

Gardiner, his unfeafonable zeal. The emperor wrote to her 
on the fame fubject in the mod earned manner, and 
propofed the marriage between her and his fon Phf- 
Jip prince of Spain, of which fhe perceived all the 
advantage, and accordingly embraced the propofah 
She likewife wrote to Pole, who had been detained 
in his journey to England by the emperor's order, 
that the intereil of religion would not permit him 
to come ove^r immediately to England, where the 
people were not yet properly difpofed to recognize 
the pope's authority : neverthelefs me carried on a 
literary correfpondence with the cardinal, whoadvifed 
her to reconcile h^r kingdom at once to the holy fee, 


Mary. ig 7 

without regarding the murmurs of the people. Gar- A - c - J 5S3. 
diner fcrenuoufly oppofed this council, alledgmg that 
the marriage ought to be concluded before a total 
re-union with the holy fee, becaufe in that cafe her 
meafures would be fupported by a powerful alli- 
ance. Gardiner defpifed Pole as a fhallow politi- 
cian ; and the cardinal looked upon him as a man 
of intrigue, who made religion fubfervient to his 
own intereft : in a word, they hated one another. 
The commons, being informed of the intended 
match, lent the fpeaker, with a deputation of twen- 
ty members, to fupplicate the queen that ilie would 
not give her hand to any foreign prince ; and fhe 
perceiving fhe had nothing to expect from them, 
unlefs fhe would give them fatisfaction in this par- 
ticular, immediately diffolved the parliament. 
During the feffion of parliament, the convocation, Difputeeon- 
fitting as ufual, re-eftablifhed the doctrine of tran- "aS/tan- 
fubftantiation, which was oppofed by fix deputies Nation, 
only, and three of tbefe maintained a public dis- 
pute againft the real prefence in the Eucharift ; 
but they were reviled, threatened, infulted, and in- 
terrupted in their arguments ; and the victory was 
of courfe adjudged to their adverfaries : for, by this 
time, one hundred and fixty benefices had been 
bellowed upon the creatures of the court ; fo that Burnet. 
there were very few protectants in the lov/er houfe 
of convocation. 

In the beginning of the next year the emperor A - c - r S54« 
fent over the count of Egmont, at the head of a 
magnificent embarTy, to regulate the conditions of 
the marriage; and the queen entrufted Gardiner 
with the care of this negotiation. This prelate had Treaty of 
already received twelve hundred thoufand crowns {J^ m ^ e th 
from Charles, to render certain individuals propiti- queen and 
ous to the match ; and now he affected to infift l hlhp of 
upon conditions that fnould be very advantageous 
to England. The treaty was concluded on thefe 

N8 54. N terms : 


Ai e. 1554. terms : That, by virtue of the marriage, Philip 
fhould enjoy the title of king of England conjunct- 
ly with Mary, as long as the marriage mould fub- 
fift ; but that the queen mould difpofe of the reve- 
nues of England, and the nomination of all em- 
ployments and benefices, which fhould be conferred 
upon the natives of England only : That fhe fhould 
enjoy the titles belonging to the king her hufband : 
That her jointure mould be fixty thoufand livres ; 
That the children of the marriage fhould fucceed 
to the effects of the mother : That the archduke 
Charles, the fon of Philip, fhould enjoy the king- 
dom of Spain, Naples, and Sicily, with the dut- 
chy of Milan and all the Italian dominions ; but, in 
default of prince Charles and his ifTue, thefe fove- 
reignties fhould devolve to the eldeft born of Phi- 
lip and Mary : That this firft-born fhould, at any 
rate, have Burgundy and the Low Countries : That 
the younger ions and daughters of the marriage 
mould be provided with appanages and portions in 
England : That, in cafe the marriage fhould pro- 
duce daughters only, the eldeft fhould fucceed to 
Burgundy and the Low Countries, provided fhe 
fhould, with the confent of her brother Charles, 
efpoufe a native of thefe countries, or one of her mou- 
ther's dominions ; otherwife prince Charles fhould 
keep poffelTion of thefe countries, and provide her 
with a portion affigned upon Spain and the Low 
Countries : That, if prince Charles mould die with- 
out ifTue, the eldeit fon of Philip and Mary, or, in 
default of fons, the eldeft daughter fhould fucceed 
to all the dominions of her father and mother ; and, 
that the fuccefTor fhould not intrench upon the laws, 
cuftoms, and privileges of the countries compofing 
his or her inheritance, nor adminifler the govern- 
ment by any other than natives of the refpeclive 
countries. There was a claufe annexed, importing, 
That, before the confummation of the marriage, 


MARY, i6 9 

Philip fhould folemnly fwear to the obfervation of A -- c « l ss& 
the following articles : That all his domeftics fhould 
be Englifh, or fubjects of the queen : That he fhould 
bring no foreigner into England, who might be dif- 
agreeable to the natives of this country : That he 
fhould make no change in the laws, ftatutes, and 
cuftoms of England : That he fhould not convey 
the queen from her dominions, without her own 
exprefs defire ; nor any of the children, without the 
confentof the nobility : That, in cafe of his furviv- 
ing the queen without iffue by her, he mould not 
arrogate to himfelf any right upon England or its 
dependencies ; but leave the fuccefiion to the law- 
ful heir : That he mould not carry jewels or other 
things of value out of the kingdom; nor alienate 
any thing belonging to the crown, nor fuffer any 
fort of usurpation : And that, notwithflanding this 
marriage, the alliance between England and France A a. p U b 
mould remain uninfringed. 

Immediately after the ratification of this treaty, 
which brought no advantage to England, though it 
ftrengthened the hands of a popifh miniftry, the 
queen pardoned the marquis of Northampton, who 
had been condemned with the duke of Northumber- 
land ; and fufpended the effect of the ads of parlia- 
ment which had been made to the difadvantage of 
the monopolizing company of German merchants. 
The marriage was univerfally difliked by the peo- 
ple, who were afraid of Philip's introducing into 
England the arbitrary maxims of the Spanifh go- 
vernment. The whole nation was filled with mur- 
murs and difcontent, which at length degenerated 
into a confpiracy : at leafl the Spanifh match was 
the pretence for countenancing a rebellion contrived 
by the duke of Suffolk, Sir Peter Carew of Devon- 
fhire, and Sir Thomas Wyat of Kent, though their 
intention was certainly to depofe Mary, and reftore 
the lady Jane Grey to the throne of England. Ca- 

N 2 rew's 


a.c. 1554. rew 5 s defign being difcovered, and one of his ao 
Confpiiacy complices arretted, he efcaped to the continent ; 
andcarew wn ^ e Wyat, in apprehenfion of being detected, 
haftened the execution of his project. He affembled, 
a fmall number of people, and proclaimed at Maid- 
ftone, that his intention was to prevent the king- 
dom from being enflaved by the Spaniards. Then 
he repaired to Rochefter, and fortified the bridge 
with fome pieces of cannon. The queen, alarmed 
at this revolt, which fhe was in no condition to fup- 
prefs, as fhe had disbanded her army, fent an herald 
with offers of pardon to the rebels, if they would lay 
down their arms and fubmit. This offer being re- 
jected, fhe ordered the duke of Norfolk to march 
againfl them at the head of her guards, reinforced 
by five hundred Londoners, commanded by one 
Bret ; and, in the mean time, the fheriff of Kent, 
raifing a poffe, encountered one Knevet, in his 
march to join Wyat, and routed him at the firfl 
onfet. Sir George Harper, one of Wyat's parti- 
fans, feigning to defert to the duke of Norfolk, 
perfuaded Bret with his Londoners to join the 
rebels ; and their example was followed by the ma- 
jority of the guards: fo that Norfolk, Arundel, and 
Jernegan, betook themfelves to flight, while their 
baggage and artillery fell into the hands of the 
Wyat ad- Wyat, thus reinforced to the number of four 
Londln°. thoufand men, began his march for London. Being 
met at Deptford by two deputies whom the queen 
had fent to know his intention, he demanded for 
himfelf the government of the Tower and the guard 
of the queen's perfon, and infifted upon the coun- 
cil's being changed at his difcredon. Thefe extra- 
vagant demands the queen in perfon reported to 
the citizens of London affembled in Guildhall, de- 
firing their afiiflance againft the traitor ; and de- 
claring file would take up her habitation within the 


MARY. i 7l 

city, to manifeft the confidence fhe repofed in their A - c « 1 ss4» 
loyalty and affection. Mean while fhe armed a 
body of five hundred men, chiefly foreigners, for 
the defence of the bridge. Wyat, on the third day 
of February, arrived in Southwark : but, finding 
the bridge fecured againft him, he marched along 
the river Thames to Kingfton ; and, though the 
bridge at that place was cut down, and the oppofite 
bank guarded by a fmall number of men, he repair- 
ed the breach, and parTed with his army, by this 
time increafed to fix thoufand. Then he proceeded 
directly to London ; and, on the fifth day of the 
month in the morning, reached Hyde- park, where he 
was deferted by many of his followers, and, among 
the reft, by Sir George Harper ; who, in order to 
make fome amends for his treafon, difclofed the 
whole fcheme to her majefty. Wyat, leaving his 
artillery and the greateft part of his followers in 
Hyde-park, advanced at the head of the reft into 
Weftminfter, repulfed Sir John Gage with the 
guards at Charing-crofs, and continuing his march, 
through the Strand and Fleet-ftreet, found Ludgate 
ftrongly barricaded and well guarded againft his 
entrance. Being refufed admittance, he wheeled 
about, in order to retire j but, by this time, the 
earl of Pembroke had afTembled a good number of 
horfe and foot, and, by means of chains and bar- 
ricadoes, intercepted his retreat. Then his courage 
began to fail him. Clarencieux the herald coming wh * rc he Js 
with a mefTage from the queen, and exhorting him f ur render°. 
to deferve her clemency by fubmiffion, he furren- 
dered himfelf to Sir Maurice Berkeley, and all his 
followers laid down their arms. 

The duke of Suffolk had retired to Warwick- 
mire, where he was difcovered to have had a fhare 
in this confpiracy, by an intercepted letter from 
Wyat ; and the earl of Huntingdon received an 
order to arreft him. The duke being informed of 

N 3 this 


a. c. 1554. t hj s circumftance, difmifled his followers, and con- 
cealed himfelf at the houfe of one Underwood, his 
own ranger, who bafely betrayed him to the earl, 
by whom he was conveyed to the Tower of London. 
This confpiracy proved fatal to lady Jane Grey, to 
whom Dr. Fecknam, dean of St. Paul's, was fent 
with a meffage from the queen, defiring that fhe 
and her hufband mould prepare for immediate 
death. She received this notice with marks of real 
joy ; and, when Fecknam exhorted her to embrace 
the catholic religion, fhe told him fhe had no time 
to enter into religious controverfies. He, miftaking 
her meaning, prevailed upon the queen to reprieve 
her for three days longer ; but, when fhe was in- 
formed of this refpite, fhe aflfured him it was far 
Grey and 6 fr° m being agreeable to her wifhes. Then he dif- 
her hufband puted with her on different points of doctrine, con- 
are behead- cern j n g w hich fhe argued with uncommon flrength 
of reafon, difplaying a furpnfing fund of knowledge. 
Her husband had obtained leave to take his laft 
farewel of her ; but fhe would not confent to fuch an 
interview, left it fhould fhake their mutual fortitude : 
fhe, neverthelefs, viewed him through the window 
as he went to execution, and even faw his headlefs 
body brought back in a cart, to be interred in the 
Tower chapel. She herfelf, in two hours after his 
execution, fuffered on a fcaffold within the fortrefs, 
left her fate fhould excite dangerous commotions 
among the populace. The lieutenant of the Tower 
begging fhe would favour him with fome memorial, 
ihe prelented him with tablets, in which fhe had 
written three fhort fentences in the Greek and Latin 
languages, declaring her own innocence. In her 
way to the fcaffold fhe faluted the fpectators with 
equal affability and compofure, holding Fecknam 
by the hand. When fhe reached the fcene of her 
fuffering, fhe embraced him affectionately, faying, 
*' God will requite .you, good Sir, for your huma ? 

2 nity 

M A R Y. 173 

** nity to me: though it gave me more uneafinefs AC >*5S4- 
*' than all the terrors of approaching death." Then 
turning to the fpedtators, fhe obierved that inno- 
cence was no excufe for facts that tended to the pre- 
judice of the public. Having fpent a little time in 
devotion, her female attendants took off her gov/n 
and the ornaments of her head and neck, and 
covered her eyes with an handkerchief. Thus 
prepared, fhe laid her head on the block, and en- 
couraged the executioner, who hefitated to do his 
office; which at length he performed : her fate 
drawing tears from the eyes of all the fpectators, 
even thofe who were zealouily attached to queen 
Mary. Her death was followed by the execution 
of Wyat's accomplices. Twenty gibbets were 
erected in different parts of the city, and on thefe 
fifty rebels were hanged. 

Alexander Bret, with feveral perfons of diftinc- 
tion, fuffered the fame fate in Kent ; four hundred 
appeared before the queen with halters about their 
necks, and were pardoned. The duke of Suffolk 
received fentence of death on the feventeenth day of 
February, and was beheaded. Wyat, being tarn- w y at j»«- 
pered with by fome of the court emifTaries, accufed princefs 
the marquis of Exeter of having a mare in the con- Elizabeth-; 
fpiracy. Mary is faid to have looked upon this 
nobleman through the medium of jealoufy, becaufe 
he feemed to neglect her advances, and preferred 
his addreffes to the princefs Elizabeth. Being ac- 
cufed by Wyat, he was committed to the Tower, 
and Elizabeth fent thither as his accomplice. But 
Wyat, being touched with remorfe, in his way to 
execution, begged leave to feethermrquis, and on 
his knees implored his forgivenefs for having load- 
ed him with fo foul a calumny. He likewife, in stowe. 
prefence of the-meriffs and ail the fpedtators, excul^ 
pated Elizabeth, whofe life was violently purfued 
by Gardiner bifhop of Winchester. On the twenty- 

N 4 feventh 


A. c. 1554. feventh day of April lord Thomas Grey was be- 
headed, as an abettor of his brother the duke of 
who is Suffolk. In the following month Elizabeth was 
barfhiy removed from the Tower to Wodeftoke, where fhe 

treated. 7 

was detained in cuftody by Sir Henry Bedingrleld, 
and the marquis of Exeter was fent to the caftle or 

Godwin. Fotheringay. 

This confpiracy being totally quelled, the queen 
ordered the chancellor to purge the church of mar- 
ried ecclefiaflics *, and the archbiihop of York, with 
the bifhops of St. David's, Chefter, and Brifcol, 
were depofed becaufe they had not lived in celibacy : 
thofe of Lincoln, Gloucester, and Hereford, met 
with the fame fate, on pretence that they had preach - 

Proteftant e d erroneous doctrines. Of fixteen thoufand inferior 

ciergv de- 
prived Of ecclefiaftics, two-thirds were deprived of their bene- 

the:rjmngs. fi ceSj on account of their being married ; and the 
rnafs was re-eftablifhed in all churches, together 
with the liturgy ufed in the latter part of Henry's 
Mafsre- reign. The parliament, which was at this time 
ftored. affembled, was even more complaifant than the laft ; 
becaufe Gardiner had diftributed among the elec- 
tors a great part of the money he had received from 
£°3£? the emperor. The firft ad of the feffion imported, 
beat. That the prerogative royal was attached to the per- 
fon who enjoyed the crown, whether male or female; 
2nd confequently, that the queen pofTefTed all the 
rights of her progenitors, according to the confti- 
tution of England. The intention of this act, plan- 
ned by Gardiner, was to hinder Philip from taking 
poiTefnon of the adminiftration, and rendering him- 
felf abfolute in England. A fcheme of government 
had been projected, for abfolving Mary of all re- 
ftrictions, en the ridiculous pretence, that all the 
laws enacted for limiting the prerogative had alluded 
to kings only*, and that fhe, being a queen, was 
not bound by fuch reftraints. This projector had 
been encouraged by the emperor's ambaffador •, and, 

MARY. 175 

at the fame time, the Spaniards affected to publifti A * a, 55+- 
a genealogy of Philip, deducing him in a direct line 
from John of Ghent, duke of Lancafter \ as if he 
had intended to avail himfelf of that title in his ef- 
forts to enflave the Englifh nation. The parlia- 
ment re-eftablifhed the bimopric of Durham, which 
had been fuppreffed in the late reign ; it confirmed 
the fentence againfl the duke of Suffolk and thofe 
who had been lately executed, and approved the 
treaty of marriage between the queen and Philip. 
Towards the end of the feffion a new conference was 
appointed at Oxford, on the fubjecl: of tranfubftan- 
tiation. As the proteftants complained of the man- 
ner in which the lad difpute on that fubjecl: had 
been carried on, the court ordered it to be recom- 
menced at Oxford : and Cranmer, Ridley, and La- 
timer, were fent thither from the Tower, as the pro- p^atox- 
teftant champions. In the courfe of their argumen- ford « 
tation they were infulted, interrupted, and filenced. 
On the fuppofition of their being confuted, they 
were fummoned to abjure their errors, and on their 
refufal excommunicated. 

On the twentieth day of July prince Philip ar- p ^p ar- 
rived at Southampton, with a fleet of fixty fhips. England, 
When he fet foot on Englifh ground he unfheathed 
his fword \ and, being prefented with the keys of 
the town by the magiftrates, he reftored them with- 
out fpeaking one w T ord. The queen met him at His nuptial 
Winchefter, where they were married by Gardiner, folemnized « 
and their nuptials folemnized with great ftate and 
magnificence. Philip was in the twenty -feventh 
year of his age, and Mary turned of eight and 
thirty. After the ceremony of the marriage they 
were proclaimed king and queen of England, 
France, Naples, and Jerufalem, with the addition 
of many other high founding titles. He was a 
prince of the moft profound diflimulation, and 
maintained a referve which was extremely difgufting 

4 to 


a. c.1554. t0 tne Englifh people: neverthelefs, he brought 
over great fums of money, which reconciled many 
perfons to the marriage. From Winchefter they 
removed to Windfor, where Philip was inflalled a 
knight of the garter. In order to conciliate the af- 
fection of his new fubjects, he interceded in behalf 
of theprincefs Elizabeth and fome others whom Gar- 
diner had devoted to deftruction. By his media- 
tion, Elizabeth, the archbifhop of York, and ten 
knights were pardoned. Notwith (landing this ge- 
nerofky, he was very difagreeable to the nation : 
no perfbn could approach him or the queen without 
having firft demanded and obtained an audience ; 
fo that her court was almofl wholly deferted. The 
duke of Norfolk died in September ; and the lord 
Paget, with another nobleman, was fent over to the 
Low Countries to conduct cardinal Pole into Eng- 
land, as the pope's legate. 

Mean while the parliament meeting on the eleventh 
day of November, repealed the act by which that 
prelate had been condemned in the reign of the laft 
Henry. He was received in England with extra- 
ordinary marks of joy by the king, queen, and no- 
bility. The parliament being fummoned to attend 
their majeilies in the houfe of lords, the cardinal 
declared the fubject of his legation, which was to 
bring them back, like fo many ftrayed fheep, into 
the fold of Chrift. He fpoke fo pathetically on 
this occafion, that the queen was tranfported with 
an excefs of pleafure, and declared fhefelt the child 
leap in her womb. This declaration was immedia- 
tely publifhed through the whole kingdom •, and Te 
Deum was fungat St. Paul's church with great fo- 
lemnity. Her female attendants encouraged her in 
the conceit of her own pregnancy, till the middle of 
next year, when fhe was effectually undeceived, to 

wayward, her unfpeakable mortification. On the twenty- 
ninth day of November the two houfes prefented a 


MARY. 177 

petition to their majefcies, intreating them to inter- A * c - f 5S4* 
cede with the legate, that the kingdom might be 
reunited to the church from which it had been fo 
long feparated by a horrible fchifm ; and promifing 
to repeal all the acts which had been made to the 
prejudice of his holinefs. This requeft being com- 
municated to the legate, he repaired to the houfe of 
peers ; and, after having expatiated upon the pope's 
tender affection for the people of England, pre- 
fcribed, by way of penance, that they mould abolifh 
all the laws enacted againft the papal authority. 
Then he indulged both houfes with abfolution, Cardinal 
which they received on their knees, and removed fbfoiutTonto 
all ecclefiaftical cenfures. They accordingly enact- both houfes 
ed a flatute, re-eftablifhing the pope's authority in menT/and 
England, under certain limitations, however, one the F°P e \ 

r 1 • 1 r 1 r t*i i." • r authority is 

or which was an expreis claule, That alienations of ie -ertabiiih- 
church lands mould be authorized; and that the cd « 
pofTeflbrs of them fhould not be fubjecl to any cen- 
fure or profecution on that account. 

This was a very delicate point,, and retarded the 
reunion of the Englilh church with the fee of Rome. 
The pope practifed feveral artifices to procure a re- 
flitution, or, at lead, to fave the pretentions of the 
church to an indemnification. But, as the nobility 
of England, among whom they had been diftributed, 
were tenacious of their poffeilions, and a powerful 
body not to be difobliged at this juncture, the legate 
received powers to compromife the affair, and the 
parliament paffed a law, importing, That whoever 
mould attack any poffeffor of church-lands, on pre- 
tence of ecclefia&ical right, mould be fubject to the 
penalties fpecified in the ftaruteof Premunire. The 
houfe of commons was fo forward in its zeal for the 
queen's fervice, that feveral bills were brought into 
it, which the lords would not pafs, left the protef- 
tants mould be driven to defpair. They compli- 
mented Philip with an act, condemning to perpe- 



A - c - r 554« tual prifon and confifcation of goods, any perfon 
who mould aver, that Philip had no right to aflame 
the title of king of England, while his marriage 
with the queen fubfifted. The penalties attached 
to high treafon were decreed againft any who mould 
make an attempt upon his life, while he acted as 
adminiftrator for the heir of the crown, as well as 
againft thofe, who mould, in prayer, petition God 
to touch the queen's heart, fo as fhe mould re- 
nounce idolatry, or otherwife abridge the days of 
her life. The fiatutes againft heretics, enacted in 
the reigns of Richard II. Henry IV. and Henry V. 
were now revived •, and though cardinal Pole ad- 
vifed in council, that perfecution mould be avoided, 
and the morals of the clergy reformed, the queen 
adhered to the opinion of Gardiner, who declared 
for the rigorous perfecution of nonconform ills. 
Mary left to Pole the care of reforming the morals 
of the clergy ; but, the charge of extirpating herefy 
£umet. was committed to Gardiner. In the mean time, 
s; r Edmund me difpatched the lord vifcount Montague, the 
Karne fent bifhop of Ely, aud Sir Edmund Karne, to yield 


toVome. obedience to the pope, in the name of the king 


queen, and three eftates of the realm. 

Gardiner had now almoft attained the accom- 
plifhment of his wifhes. He fat as judge in the 
high court of chancery \ he acted as prime mi- 
nister, and chief counfellor to the queen ; from 
thence he thought his glory would be completed by 
compelling the proteftants to recognize the papal 
a. c. 1555. authority. He began the perfecution with Hooper, 
who had been bifhop of Gloucefter, and Rogers, 
Several cc- one of the mod: popular proteftant preachers. They 
burned for were condemned for herefy by the chancellor, and 
herefy. other cornmiflioners appointed to judge thefe mat- 
ters ; and being delivered over to the fecular arm, 
Rogers was burned in Smithfield, where he fuffer- 
ed with great conftancy, rather than enjoy an offered 


MARY. i 79 

pardon at the expence of changing his religion, a. c. 1555. 
Hooper was fent to Glcucefter ; and, after having 
rejected a pardon on theie terms, was brought 
to the ftake. There he fuffered inexpreflible tor- 
ment by being burned piecemeal, infomuch that 
one of his arms dropped off before he expired ; yet 
he bore his fate with furprifing patience and refigna- 
tion. The next victim was a preacher called San- 
ders, who fuffered death at Coventry ; and he was 
foon followed by Dr. Taylor, vicar of Hadley, an 
old reverend ecclefiaftic, who ventured to oppofe 
fome Romifh priefts, who celebrated mafs in his 
church. Gardiner being informed of his behaviour, 
fent for him to London, where he reviled him with 
the epithets of traitor, villain, heretic, and knave, 
committed him to the prifon of the King's-bench, 
from which, in a few days, he was brought to his 
trial, condemned, and fent down to be burned at 
Hadley. When he was conducted to the (lake, and 
began to harangue the by-ftanders, one of the guards 
(truck him on the head. Then he was fixed in a 
barrel of pitch, and one of the fpectators flinging a 
faggot at the good old man, which wounded him 
feverely, fo that his whole vifage was covered with 
blood, he replied, " Oh friend ! I have harm 
" enough, what needed that ?" When he repeated 
a pfalm in Englifh, one of the guards (truck him on 
the mouth, bidding him fpeak Latin ; and while he 
was employed in pious ejaculations, another cleft 
his head with an halbert in fuch a manner, that his 
brains came out, and he expired. Perhaps hiftory 
cannot parallel a more infamous fcene of unpro- 
voked cruelty. Bradley was condemned at the 
fame time, but Gardiner thought proper to delay 
his execution. 

Perceiving that the execution of thefe four eccle- 
fiaftics ferved only to increafe the zeal of the pro- 
teftants, and excite murmurings among the peo- 


a. c. 1555. p^ ne transferred to Bonner a commifllon, from 
which he had nothing to expect but the hatred of 
the public ; and in fo doing, he let loofe the mod 
favage minifter of vengeance upon the proteflants ; 
for the zeal of Gardiner was cruel, but that of Bon- 
ner altogether furious. Every perfonof humanity, 
whatever might be his perfuafion in points of reli- 
gion, was fhocked at this barbarity - 3 even the 
bifhops were afhamed of it, and on all occafions 
publickly difclaimed the perfecution : fo rhat the 
odium of courfe fell upon the king and queen, par- 
ticularly on the former, who was a foreigner, and 
had been educated in a country fubjeel to Ehe inqui- 
daim^the" Gtion. Philip being informed of this calumny, and 
jerfecution. opinion of the Englifh, ju (lifted himfelf by the 
mouth of Alphonfo his confeffor, who, inptefence 
of the whole court, charged the bifhops with thofe 
cruelties againfl which the nation exclaimed •, and 
defired them to produce one paffage in f. .:ripture, 
authorifing them to put people to death merely for 
matters of faith. It was not without aftonifhment 
that the audience heard a Spaniard condemn perfe- 
cution ; and the bifhops were fo confounded, that 
for forr.e v/eeks the effects of their inhuman rage 
were fufpended : but, at the expiration of that 
term, the barbarous flame broke out with double 
Bonnets Bonner behaved with the utmoft brutality of 
krutauty, f" ra ntic zeal. He tore off the beard of a poor weaver, 
and tortured him with the flame of a taper, until 
his veins burfl, and his finews were confumed, be- 
caufe he could not convert him to the Romifh faith. 
Young, raw apprentices, ignorant fifhermen, and 
peafants, perfons of family, worth, and character, 
were facrificed without diflin6tion j and among 
thefe Ferrars formerly bifhop of St. David's, tho* 
he appealed to cardinal Pole, who was averfe to this 
religious butchery. The bifhops and civil magi- 

5 Urates 

MARY. i8i 

Urates feemed to vie with each other, the firft in A c - '555° 
condemning, the lad in executing the unhappy Hift.ofthc 
proteftants -, till, at length, the people were pro- Reform - 
voked almoft to rebellion againft fuch monfters i 
and then their proceffes were for fame time inter- 
rupted. By the interceftion of Philip the princefs 
Elizabeth was releafrd from Wodeftoke, and al- 
lowed to refide in a little country- houfe, where 
knowing herfelf under the obfervation of fpies, flic 
applied to ftudy, and made fame progrefs in learn- 
ing ; but fhe was obliged to conform to the efta- 
blifhed religion, otherwife fhe muft have fallen a 
victim to the ill offices of Gardiner, who eagerly 
wifhed for an opportunity to accomplifh her defini- 
tion ; becaufe he knew me was a zealous proteftant, 
and forefaw that fhould fhe ever afcend the throne, 
all his labour would be defeated. 

The queen was now feized with a fcruple of con- 
fcience, under which fhe became very uneafy. She 
pofTefTed fame of the lands which had belonged to 
monafteries ; and pope Julius III. notwithstanding 
his compromifing that affair by means of cardinal 
Pole, had publifhed a bull, excommunicating all 
thofe who had feized the lands of the church, or of 
religious communities, as well as all the princes by 
whom fuch invaders were favoured and aflifted. 
Mary believing herfelf far advanced in her preg- 
nancy, would not run the rifque of dying in a date 
of excommunication. She declared to her miniflers, 
that fhe was refolved to refign all the church-lands 
that were in her pofTefiion ; and ordered them to 
deliver a lift to the cardinal legate. Julius III. dy- 
ing about this period, was fucceeded in the papacy 
by cardinal Marcellus Cervinus, who did not many 
days furvive his exaltation. When the tidings of ^'Jf^ 
his death arrived in England, the queen took fame th« papacy, 
meafures for elevating Pole to the pontificate ; but 
the conclave elected cardinal Caraffa, who afTumed 



a.c. 1555. t he name of Paul IV. one of the mod proud, arro- 
gant, and ambitious pontiffs who had ever poffeffed 

Eumet. the fee of Rome, He refufed to give audience to 
the Englifh ambafTadors, becaufe Mary affumed 
the title of queen of Ireland ; but, as the Englifh 
envoys would not give up that addition, he thought 
proper to erect Ireland into a kingdom by virtue of 
his pontifical power. Then he demanded full re- 
ftitution of all the church-lands, and a continuation 
of St. Peter's pence, which he faid he would fend 
over a collector to receive. 

During thefe revolutions at Rome, the Englifh 
council being informed that the juftices of the peace, 
and particularly thofe of Norfolk, favoured the pro- 
teftants, fent them inftruclions to conduct them- 
felves in another manner, and maintain fpies upon 

StkmraSs, tno *~ e °f c ^ e reformed religion. This order favour- 
ed fo much of an inquifition, that the nation in ge- 
neral believed, it was fuggefted by the Spaniards, 
againft whom the people conceived an implacable 
hatred. The feverities already practifed had excit- 
ed fuch murmurs, that even Bonner reflrained his 
furious zeal, and difmiffed feveral perfons who were 
fent to him, accufed of herefy -, till, at length, the 
queen and her confort, fcandalized at his modera- 
tion, wrote a letter, exhorting him to obey as ufual 
the dictates of his duty. Thus animated, he renew- 
ed the perfecution with redoubled violence. John 
Card maker a prebendary at Bath, John Warne an 
upholfterer in London, Thomas Hawkes a gentle- 
man of EfTex, John Sampfon, and John Audley 
hufbandmen, Thomas Watts a linen-draper, Ni- 
cholas Chamberlain a weaver, Thomas Ofmund a 
fuller, and William B an i ford another weaver, were 
committed to the flames for having denied the real 
prefence in the Eucharift. Even one Tool, who 
was hanged for robbery, having exprefTed fome 
doubts about tranfubftantiation at the gallows, un- 

M A R •  Y. i $3 

derwent a trial afcer his death ; and his body was A » c - '555. 
burned for herefy. Thefe victims were followed by 
Bradford the proteftant preacher, who had, with the 
afliftance of Rogers already executed, faved the 
life of Bourn now promoted to the fee of Bath and 
Wells. He was burned at Smithfield, together 
with John Leafe, an apprentice nineteen years of 
age. Several perfons furTered at Canterbury, and 
other places-, and among them Margaret Polly, 
the firft woman who died for herefy in Mary's reign. 

In the month of October, the bifhops of London, 1 Latimer and 
Gloucefter, and Briftol, were fent to Oxford with a j^J at 
commiilion from the cardinal, to try old Latimer Oxford. 
and Ridley, who were convicted and condemned, 1 
though pardons were offered to them, if they would 
recant. When they were brought to the flake be- 
fore Baliol college, Ridley faid to his feliow-fuffer- 
er, " Be of good heart, brother ; for God will 
" either affuage the flame, or enable us to abide it." 
And Latimer confoled him in his turn, faying, 
" We fhall this day light fuch a candle in England, 
<c as I truft by God's grace, fhall never be put out/' 
They bore their fate with admirable courage and 
conflancy •, and were two of the befl men who had 
hitherto furTered in England for religion. Gardiner 
was fo eager after the blood of thofe prelates, that 
he would not dine on the day of their fullering, un- 
til he received the news of their death, which did 
not arrive till four o'clock in the afternoon. Then 
he ate his meal with marks of uncommon fatisfac- 
tion ; but was that fame evening feized with a fup- 
prefTion of urine, which in lefs than a week brought 
him to his grave. He is faid to have felt fome re- Death of 
morfe in his laft moments, and to have exclaimed, Gardin5r ' 
" I have finned with Peter °, but I have not wept 
** with Peter." He was certainly a prieft of a fel- 
jfim character, a profound diffembkr, and of a 

Numb, LV- O proud. 



a.c. 1555. proud, vindictive, cruel difpofition *. It was bf 
Godwin. n j s ambition that Cranmer's fate was fo long de- 
layed ; for he knew that mould the archbifhopric 
be vacated, the queen would confer it immediately 
on his rival Pole, whom he had flandered in fuch 
a manner to the reigning pope, that his holinefs 
hated the cardinal as a favourer of the reformation. 
Pole was undoubtedly a man of moderation and hu- 
manity, and of courfe difapproved of the perfecution. 
In fummer the queen had fuppofed herfelf feized 
with the pains of child-bed, and couriers were pre- 
pared, to carry the news of her delivery into dif- 
ferent countries. The report of her having brought 
forth a fon, was diffufed into different counties of 
England. The bifhop of Norwich caufed Te Deum 
to be lung in his cathedral for the birth of a prince, 
and a certain prieft ventured to defcribe the linea- 
Vary brings ments of the child from the pulpit. But, all the 
SSl" queen's hopes vanifhed at her bringing forth a fub- 
ftance known by the name of mola, to her own un- 
fpeakable grief, as well as to the aflonifhment of the 
whole court, and the confufion of Philip, who had 
flattered hirnfelf with the profpect of uniting Eng- 
land and Spain by the iilue of this marriage. This 
difappointment did not help to foften Mary's difpo- 
fiticn. Informations were given of fome pretended 
confpiracies in Dorfetmire and Eflex r and feveral 
perfons were imprilbned, and put to the torture : 
but, nothing was difcovered, and the whole was fup- 
pofed to be a calumny invented by the priefts again ft 
the favourers of the reformation. Mary fet on foot 
a rigorous inquifition againft thofe who had pillaged 
churches and monafteries in the time of the vifita- 

* Though h?. aiTumed the name of on account of this confanguinitjv that 

fjardiner, he was a natural ion of Henry VIII. promoted him to the 

Richard Wideviile, brother to Eliza- biihopric of Winchefter. 
bf tbt confort of Edward IV, and it was 

tion % 

MARY. 185 

tioh ; and they were now obliged to compound for A « c - l 55s« 
their rapine, by difgorging beft part of die booty* 
Philip holing all hope of having children by the Philip quits 
queen, and conceiving a difguft to her perfon, dom^ 8 " 
which was by no means agreeable ; being moreover, 
informed of his father's intention to refign his do- 
minions ; he quitted the kingdom, and retired to 
Flanders, leaving his confort extremely chagrined Burnet. 
at his diftafte and indifference. 

The parliament meeting on the twenty- firft day 
of October, confirmed the queen's ceftion of the firft - 
fruits and tithes -, but the commons abated confi- 
derably of their former compfaifance in other par- 
ticulars. The miniftry having gained their ends in 
the laft fefTion, neglected the payment of penfions ; 
the people were generally fhocked at the cruelties 
which had been perpetrated, and the lower houfe 
could not without regret behold the lands of the 
church wrefted from the pofieiibrs. When the Godwin 
queen demanded a fubfidy, fome of the members 
openly obferved, that fhe could not expect the peo- 
ple mould be burdened with thofe expences which 
might have been defrayed by the church lands •, and 
it was with great reluctance that they indulged her 
with an inconfiderable fupply. Gardiner, who had 
ufed to manage the parliament, was now no more - y 
and Mary had put his office of chancellor in com- 
mifiion, till the firft day of January, when it was 
bellowed upon Heath archbifhop of York. ' Afcer 
the difiblution of this parliament, the queen receiv- 
ed a bull from the pope, erecting Ireland into a 
kingdom •, and, towards the end of the year, the 
emperor Charles V. refigned his dominions to his 
fon Philip. He afterwards ceded the imperial dig- Tneetripc* 
nity to his brother Ferdinand ; though the pope re- «?*!>*"«*■ 

rrj en. • 1 his throne. 

ruled, at nrit, to recognize the new emperor, on 
pretence that the refignation ought to have been 
made to him only. 

O z Although, 


a, e. 1555. Although, in the courfe of this year, fixty-feven 

perfons were burned for religion, including four bi~ 

fhops, and thirteen priefts, the zeal of the papifts 

Trial and was not yet moderated. On the twelfth day of Sep- 

deathof tember, Brooks bifhop of Gloucefter, as the pope's 

Cranmer. r • 1 1 1 • t - -re r 

iub-delegate, together with two com millioners from 
the king and queen, had condemned Cranmer at 
Oxford, for herefy ; and, on the fourteenth day of 
February, Bonner and Thirleby were fent thither to 
degrade that prelate. lie was cloathed in derifion 
with pontifical robes of coarfe canvas •, and Bonner 
a, c. 1556. having infulted him with the moil indecent raillery, 
ordered him to be dripped of his ludicrous attire, 
. according to the ceremony of degradation ufed in 
the church of Rome. Thirleby wept bitterly during 
this whole fcene, protefting to Cranmer, that this 
was the moft forrowful action of his whole life ; 
and that nothing but the queen's peremptory com- 
mand could induce him to be preient at the afflic- 
tion and diftrefs of a perlbn with whom he had liv- 
ed in the moft perfect friend/hip. After the arch- 
bifhop's condemnation, a great number of divines 
both Englifh and Spaniards, afiailed him in diffe- 
rent fhapes, with a view to make him a profelyte to 
their opinions. They threatened and foothed him 
by turns ; they flattered him with a promife of a 
pardon •, and in a word, tampered with the infirmi- 
ties of his nature fo effectually, that he fubicribed 
an abjuration, renouncing all the errors of Luther 
and Zwinglius, acknowledging the pope's fuprema- 
cy, the feven facraments, the corporal prefence in 
the Eucharift, purgatory, prayers for the dead, and 
the invocation of faints. His recantation was im- 
. mediately printed, and furnifhed the popifh party 
with infinite matter of triumph and exultation, 
while the proteftants were overwhelmed with dejec- 
tion and difgrace. The queen now exhibited a fig- 
nal proof of her own revengeful difpofition. She 

5 had 

MARY. i$7 

had afTe&ed to forgive the archbifhop for the A * & l s,5 e ' 
crimes committed againft her as his fovereign, in 
full expectation of his being burned as an heretic; 
but, being difappointed in this hope, by his recan- 
tation, fhe pulled on the mafque, and figned a war- 
rant for his execution. He was conducted to St. 
Mary's, where being placed in a confpicuous part 
of the church, Cole provoft of Eaton preached a 
fermon, in which he magnified Cranmer's conver- 
fion, as the immediate work of God's infpiration. 
He then flattered the archbifhop with the hope of 
heaven -, and allured him, that dirges and mafles 
fhould be faid for his foul in all the churches of 
Oxford. During the whole fermon, Cranmer ex- 
prefled the utmoft anxiety and internal agitation, 
lifting up his eyes to heaven, fhedding a torrent of 
tears, and groaning with unutterable anguifh. 
When he was defired to declare his faith, he pray- 
ed with the moft pathetic exprefllons of horror and 
remorfe* He then made a fhort but moving ex- 
hortation to the people ; repeated the creed of the 
apoftles, declared his belief of the Scriptures, con- 
fefTed that he had figned a paper contrary to his 
confeience, from the apprehenfion of death \ for 
which reafon, the hand that fubferibed the recanta- 
tion fhould firfr feel the torture of the fire. He re- 
nounced the pope as the enemy of Chrift, and pro- 
fefTed the fame opinion of the Sacrament which he 
had publifhed in a book written on that fubjedL 
The aflembly confiding chiefly of papifts, v^ho hop- 
ed to triumph ftill further in the J aft words of fuch 
a convert, were equally confounded and incenfed at 
this declaration. They called aloud to him to leave 
ofTdifTembling, and pulling him down, led him 
to the fta-ke at which Latimer and Ridley had fuf- 
fcred, upbraiding him by the v/ay with this fecond 
apoltafy. When the fire was kindled, he ftretched 
forth his right hand to the flame, in which he held 

O 3 it 


-a.c. 1556. j t unt jj \ t was intirely eonfumed, exclaiming frorn 
time to time, " That unworthy hand !" but exhi- 
biting no other figns of pain or diforder. He con? 
tinued to pour forth pious ejaculations until he ex- 
pired •, and after his body was deftroyed, his heart 

Bumct. was f ounc j i nt i re among the afhes. Such was the 

unworthy fate of Thomas Cranmcr archbifhop of 
Canterbury, who with a very fmall alloy of human 
weaknefs and irrefolution, poflelied all the candour, 
fimplicity, meeknefs, and benevolence of a primi- 
tive chriitian. 

On the very day of his death cardinal Pole was 
Bymer. put in pofTefTion of his archbilhopric, in confequence 
of bulls which he had already received from the 
Barbarities pope, at the queen's defire. The perfecution flilj 
iT^'the ra £ ec * w * tn unceafing fury, under the conduct of 
piotehams. Bonner, who fent the poor wretches in troops to 
the flake, without diftinction of age, fex, or cir- 
cumftance. Thirteen were facrificed together in 
- one fire at Stratford le Bow ; and in the liland of 
Guernfcy, a fcene of almoft incredible barbarity 
was acted. A mother and her two daughters be- 
ing committed to the flames, one of them being 
married, and in the laft month of her pregnancy, 
was, by the violence of the pain, taken in labour, 
and produced an infant, which a humane bye- {land- 
er refcued from the fire. But, after fome confu- 
tation, the magiftrate who fuperintended the exe- 
cution, ordered .the innocent to be thrown back 
into the flames, where it perifhed with the mother. 
WJien we confider the barbarity of thefe proceed- 
ings againft poor, harmlefs people, who had com- 
mitted no outrage againft the eftablifhed govern- 
ment, or religion, but been condemned for fimple 
anfwers touching their belief, extorted from them 
by violence, we can hardly believe the perpetrators 
were the children of human nature, far lefs the 
fervants of Chrift, whofe doctrine was mercy and 


MARY. 1S9 

benevolence. They looked rather like the mini- A c j ss 6 » 
Hers of infernal malice, let loofe upon a wretched Burnct - 
world. Within the compafs of this year, fourfcore 
and five perfons, mert, women, and children, the 
lame, the blind, and the ignorant, fufftrcd death, 
becaufe they would not believe in purgatory, tran- 
fubftantiation, and other popifll tenets, which are 
now juftly exploded by the church of England. 
Nothing could be more impolitic than this inhuman 
perfecu tion ; for opinions are ri vetted by oppofition. 
The indignation of all moderate people was aroufed 
by fuch barbarity •, the furprifing refolution with 
which the martyrs fuffered the mod painful death, 
diffufed a general notion of their fanctity, and in- 
hanced the merit of the religion which they profef- 
fed : fo that this frantic zeal of the papifts, in a great 
meafure contributed to the fubfequent eflablifhmenc 
of the reformation. 

While the miniftry thus endeavoured to extir- 
pate the proteftant religion, the queen refolved to 
ftrengthen the intereft of the Roman catholics, by 
refloring fome old, and founding fome new mona- 
fteries. She certainly would have reeftabliihed all 
the religious houfes which had been fup pre (Ted, if 
the fear of difobliging the nobility had not deterred 
her from the execution of her defign. Several mem- 
bers of the lower houfe in the laft feflion, hearing 
fuch a propofal mentioned, layed their hands upon 
their fwords, faying, They knew how to defend 
their property. Mary being informed of this op- 
pofition, poftponed her fcheme to a more favourable 
opportunity. In the mean time, (he commiflloned 
Bonner and others, to eraze from the public regi- 
flers, all her father's tranfaclions againft the monks 
and the pope, particularly, on account of the vift- 
tations, and the renunciation of the papal autho- 
rity, made by the monks and abbots. Nor was 

O 4 the 



A.c. 1556. the queen's attention fo much engrofTed by the af" 
fairs of religion, but that fhe intermeddled in the 
interefts of the continent. She had offered her me- 
diation between France and Spain, and the ambaf- 
fadors of both nations had affembled between Ca- 
lais and Ardres ; but the peace was retarded by the 
elevation of Paul IV. to the papacy. This pontiff 
was outrageoufly proud, infolent, and ambitious, 
though already fourfcore years of age. He was an 
inveterate enemy to the Colonefi ; and his two ne- 
phews perfuaded him, that the king of Spain, who 
fupported that family, had formed a confpiracy 
againfl: his life. They pretended to have difcover- 
ed the particulars of this plot, in letters to the duke 
of Alva governor of Naples, which letters they had 
intercepted. Cardinal Colonna was imprifoned, the 
envoys of Philip and Mary v/ere put under an ar- 
reft, and the pope feized Palliano and Nettuno, 
Mezefai. tw0 P^ aces belonging to the Colonefi. Then he 
The pope declared war againfl the king of Spain, and fol- 
fga^ft S the ar l icite d the affiftance of the French monarch; pro- 
king of mifing to aid him in his turn with all his forces 
£?am. £ or t £ e C onqueft of Naples. The propofal being 
fupported by the cardinal of Lorrain, a league of- 
fensive and defenfive was figned at Rome-, but this 
was almofl rendered ineffectual by the mediation of 
Mary, in confequence of which, a truce for five years 
was concluded between France and Spain. The 
pope being thus abandoned by his ally, the duke 
of Alva began to approach the city of Rome, after 
having taken Oflia, and fome other places ; but, 
the cardinal Caraffa being lent as legate a latere 
to Paris, managed his intrigues with fuch art and 
fuccefs, that the king of France broke the truce, 
without alledging any other caufe than that of the 

pope's being opprefTed by the Spaniards. 

i . . 1  ~    

MARY. 191 

At the commencement of the fucceeding year, A < c - »5S7- 
cardinal Pole vifited the two univerfuies ; and while 
he refided at Cambridge, Bucerus and Fagius, two 
German theologians, who had been dead feveral 
years, were fummoned to give an account of their 
faith. As they did not appear, they were condemn- 
ed to be burned for herefy ; and their remains be- 
ing dug up, were confumed to allies at Oxford. 
The wife of Peter Martyr was likewife taken out of 
her grave, and buried in a dunghill, becaufe fhe had 
been a nun, and broken her vow of celibacy. The 
magiftrates began to be afhamed of acting as in- 
ftruments of fuch unheard-of barbarity, and relaxed 
fo much in their diligence, that the council fent 
circular letters, exhorting; them to redouble their 
zeal in the profecution of heretics. The queen, be- The queen 
ing incenfed at hearing from all quarters that the ^o^nd 
number of proteftants daily increafed, notwithftand- morecmeL 
ing the executions, began to entertain thoughts of 
eftablifhing an inquifnion in England. As a previous 
ftep to this meafure, fhe renewed the commiffion of 
the preceding year, impowering one and twenty com- 
missioners to judge heretics of all ranks with unli- 
mited authority. Theperfecution revived, and feventy 
nine perfons were committed to the flames. During 
thefe tranfactions, the duke of Guife marched with 
an army into the kingdom of Naples, from whence 
he was foon recalled by the pope to the relief of 
Rome, which was hard preMed by the duke of Alva. 

Philip, exafperated at Henry of France, for hav- 
ing broken the truce, levied an army of fifty thou- 
fand men to act in Picardy ; and, by divers artifices 
and infinuations, prevailed upon his confort Mary 
to efpoule his quarrel. She granted commiffions to 
the merirrs and jultices of the peace to enlift fol- 
diers, that they might be ready to march at the fir ft 
notice. Jn the interim one Stafford having received 


rebel! ion. 



a.c. 1557, f ome afliflance from the court of France, afiembled 
Stafford's fome Englifh refugees ; and embarking in a vefTel, 
landed in Scotland. From thence marching to 
Scarborough, he furprifed thecaftle, and publifhed 
a manifefto, in which he affirmed that Mary had 
forfeited all right to the crown, by introducing Spa- 
niards into the kingdom, of which he declared him-* 
felf the protector. But his fuccefs was of very fhort 
duration ; the earl of Weftmoreland having raifed 
fome troops, retook Scarborough, in which he found 
Stafford and three of his accomplices, who were 
executed at London, 

On the twentieth day of May king Philip arrived 
in England, where by this time eight thoufand men 
were ready to embark for the Low Countries ; and 
the queen having fent a herald to declare war againft 
FYance, thefe troops were tranfported, on the feven- 
teenth day of June, under the command of the earl 
of Pembroke, who joined the Spanifh army com- 
manded by the duke of Savoy : then Philip return- 
ed to BrufTeis. The Spanifh general having inverted 
St. Quentin, the conftable of France detached the 
admiral de Chatillon with three thoufand men, to 
The French throw himfelf into the place. He found means to 
enter with feven hundred ♦, but the reft were bewil- 
dered in the night. With this reinforcement he de- 
fended the place vigoroufly, in expectation of being 
relieved by his uncle the conftable, who being greatly 
inferior in number to the allies, contented himfelf 
with introducing the admiral's brother d'Andelot, 
with a fupply of five hundred men ; but, jtn return 
from this expedition, he was attacked, routed, and 
taken prifoner by the duke of Savoy, after two 
thoufand five hundred men had been killed upon 
the fpor. In this action, which was fought on the 
tenth day of Auguft, and thence called the battle of 
St. Laurence, beiides the conftable Montmorency 


defeated at 
St. CHientin. 

MA R Y. 193 

and his Ton, the dukes of Montpenfier and Longue- A - c - l ^ 7, 
vilie, Ludovico Gonzaga, brother to the duke of 
Mantua, the marechal St. Andre, the Rhingrave 
Roche-dumain, the count de Rochefoucault, the 
baron of Curton, and many other perfons of dif- 
tinclion, fell into the hands of the Spaniards. Among 
the (lain were John duke of Enghien, the vifcounc 
of Turenne, the lords of Chandinier and Pontdor- 
my, and a great number of officers. France was 
overwhelmed with fuch confirmation at the news of Codwin. 
this difafter, that if the duke of Savoy had marched 
directly to Paris, he might have entered that city 
without -oppofition : but he proceeded to the fiege 
of St. Quentin, which in a few days he took by af- 
faulf, when the admiral, with his brother, and all 
that furvived of the garrifon were made prifoners. 
The whole French nation exclaimed againft the 
pope, who had occafioned the rupture of iht truce, 
and Henry recalled his forces from Italy. 

When his holinefs firft under ftood that the queen The pope' 
of .England had declared war againft France, he J*^J? 
was violently exafperated againft cardinal Pole, as Pole, 
if he had advjfed that meafure, and would have re- 
called him immediately, had not Carne, the Englilh 
ambaffador, reprefented the injury that he would do 
to religion by fuch a procedure ; but when the news 
of the battie arrived, he was feized with a tranfport 
of rage, and refolved to facrifice Pole to his revenge. 
He lent for Pay ton, the queen's confeffor, to Rome, 
where he beftowed upon him a cardinal's hat, ap- 
pointed him legate in England, and difmifTed him 
with a decree, by which Pole was recalled. But the 
queen, being informed of this mandate, gave notice 
to Payton, that fhould he attempt to let foot in Eng- 
land, me would caufe him to be punifhed with all 
the rigour of the Premunire. This letter flopped 
the new cardinal in his journey •, and Pole, though 
lie had not received the pope's decretal, abftained 




a. c. ,557. from all the functions of a legate, that he might not 
furnifh the pontiff with a pretence to take any ftep 
to his prejudice. Neverthelefs, the pope, finding 
himfelf unable to cope with the duke of Alva, con- 
cluded a peace with Spain'-, and, by the article of 
the treaty, Pole was re-eltablifhed in his legation. 

The French king created the duke of Guife his 
lieutenant-general for the whole kingdom of France, 
and excited the queen-regent of Scotland to infringe 
the peace with Mary. As fhe could not prevail 
upon the flares of the kingdom to comply with her 
wifhes, fhe ordered Aymouth to be fortified, con- 
trary to an article of the laft treaty •, and the Eng- 
lifh oppofing this meafure by force of arms, a rup- 
ture eniued. D'Oyfel, at the head of the Scottifh 
army, entered the frontiers of England, but he was 
immediately recalled by an exprefs order of the 
parliament -, and the queen regent advifrd Henry 
of France to haflen the marriage between the dau- 
phin and her daughter Mary ; that he, being matter 
of Scotland, might exert his authority with the na- 
tives. Flenry relifhed this advice, in confequence of 
which, he fent ambaffadors, to regulate the articles of 
the marriage with the parliament of Scotland. In the 
latter end of the year, Philip fent intimation to Mary, 
that the court of France had projected fome fcheme 
againft Calais, and offered to fupply her with troops 
for the guard of that fortrefs, which was in a de- 
fencelefs condition. The council looked upon this 
intimation as a ftratagem of Philip to gain pofTeflion 
of Calais ; and the queen not only declined accept- 
ing his offer, but alio neglected to put the place in 
a pofture of defence, notwithftanding the repeated 
follicitations of lord Wentworth the governor. The 
miniftry was too much engroffed by religious affairs 
to beftow proper attention upon this object of im- 
portance. In the beginning of the year Calais 
was inverted by the duke of Guife, who, having 



taken by afiault the two forts of Newnambridge and A * c * f 557» 
Rifband, battered the town, and obliged the go- The French 
vernor to furrender on the feventh day of the fiege. t l£ c^Sis, 
He was no fooner matter of the place, than he ex- Guifces and 
pelled all the Englifh inhabitants : then he fat down 
before Guifnes, in which the lord Grey commanded ; 
but the garrifon, ccnfifting of eleven hundred men, 
were fo difcouraged by the lofs of Calais, that at 
the firft attack they retired to the citadel, where they 
fuftained another afTault, and then furrendered them- 
felves prifoners of war. The caftle of Hames, be- Godwin * 
ing fituated in a morafs which was almoft inaccef- 
fible, might have made a vigorous refiftance j but 
the garrifon abandoned it, and fled at the approach 
of the enemy. Thus, within the fpace of fifteen 
days, in the middle of winter, all that remained of 
the Englifh conquefts in France, was loft by the ig- 
norance and neglect of the queen and council -, and 
this was the fruit of the alliance between England 
and Spain. 

The lofs of Calais filled the whole kingdom of 
England with murmurs and complaints : the mi- 
niftry were fo confounded, that they could not open 
their mouths in their ov/n justification, and the queen 
felt all the pangs of the mod mortifying difappoint- 
ment. Philip prefied her to make a powerful effort 
for the recovery of the place, before the French 
fiiould have time to repair the fortifications : but 
the minifters could not find means to execute fuch an 
enterprise ; and they were afraid that the underta- 
king would detach their attention too much from 
the concerns of religion. The parliament meeting 
on the twentieth day of January, granted a fubfidy 
to the queen, and fhe received another from the 
clergy. Some of the partifans of the court, propo- 
fing an act for giving the force of a law to all the 
queen's proclamations, one of the members oppofed 



iq(5 H 1 S T O R Y of E N G L AN 15. 

A - c *5S7< the propofition, alledging that the queen* by virtu£ 
of fuch an unlimited power, might, by a fimple 
proclamation, alter the fucceflion. The houfe, of- 
fended at this member's fufpicion, committed him 
to the Tower •, but no further mention was made 
of the act, becaufe, in all probability, Mary per- 
ceived the nation was attached to the right of the 
princefs Elizabeth, who after the prorogation of the 
parliament, was demanded in marriage by the king 
of Sweden; but Ihe rejected his propofal. In the 
month of April the dauphin efpoufed Mary queen 
of Scotland ; and, in June, Philip king of Spain, 
by his general the count d'Egmont, obtained a com- 
i>h;iip ob- plete victory over the French at Gravelines, where 
*h« vidcr ^ ie French g en eral de Termes and his principal offi- 
»t Grave, cers were taken. This victory was in a great meafure 
tnes * owing to ten Englifh men of war, which chancing 
to fail along more, while the battle was maintain- 
ed with equal fury on both fides, made a terri- 
ble (laughter among the French with their cannon, 
infomuch that the rout began from this quarter* 
About the fame time, lord Clinton, high admiral 
of England, with a fleet of one hundred and forty 
ihips, made a defcent upon Conquefl in Normandy, 
which he t©ok and plundered ; but fome of the 
Flemings, that were on board the navy, making an 
excurfion farther into the country, were attacked 
_, and routed by the militia : and the admiral retired 

to his imps with precipitation. 
Theperfe- Mean while the perfecution was renewed inEng- 
tmuestT* land with frelh fury. The queen ordered, by pro- 
rage, clamation, that thofe who fhould receive heretical 
books, without delivering them immediately to the 
magiftrate, mould be forthwith executed by martial 
law j and all perfons were forbidden to pray for 
fuch as fuffered on account of herefy. A man, of 
the name of Bambridge, being condemned to the 


MARY. 197 

flames in Hampfhire, and unable to bear the tor- A > c - , 557. 
ture, cried aloud, " I recant, I recant." TKe 
fheriff immediately ordered the fire to be extinguish- 
ed, and the man figned an abjuration. But the 
court fent down an order to burn this unhappy 
wretch even after his recantation i and the fheriff 
was committed prifoner to the Fleet, for having 
prefumed to fufpend the execution. In this laft Bum*, 
year, nine and thirty proteftants fuffered martyrdom 
in different parts of England ; fo that the number 
of thofe who died for their faith in the reign of 
Mary amounted to two hundred and eighty-four, 
befides many who fuffered long confinement and 
incredible mifery, though their lives were not taken F °*« 

Mary having obtained nothing but damage and 
difgrace from the war, the more willingly liilened 
to a negotiation for a peace between France, Spain, 
and England ; and the conferences were begun at Godwia, 
Cambray in the month of October. In November 
the queen demanded a fupply from parliament, in 
cafe the treaty fhould not be concluded : but the 
commons were very backward in complying with 
her requeft •, and, before the bill paffed, the queen 
expired. Her health had been infirm fince the iffue 
of her fuppofed pregnancy -, and the different mor- 
tifications to which fhe was afterwards expofed, had 
fuch an effect upon her conftitution, that fhe was 
feized with a dropfy, which put a period to her 
life on the feventeenth day of November, in the 
forty-third year of her age, after fhe had reigned 
five years, four months, and eleven days. We have 
already obferved that the charadteriftics of Mary 
were bigotry and revenge ; we fhall only add, that 
fhe was proud, imperious, froward> avaritious, and 




a. c. 1557- wholly deflitute of every agreeable qualification f: 
She was furvived but fixteen hours by cardinal Pole, 
a prelate of a foft and moderate difpofition, who 
difapproved of perfecution, and wifhed to bring 
back the Englifh to their antient faith by mild and 
gentle exhortations, recommended in the example 
of a reformed clergy. 

•f Mary was buried at Weftminfter, with a mafs of Requiefce, according to' 
in the chapel of her grandfather Hen- the form of the Roman church. 
ry VII. and her funeral celebrated 




C 199 3 


TH E members of the privy council concealed A . c. i 55 s. 
the death of Mary for fome hours, during Ell - zabeth 
which they deliberated upon the meafures they aliens the 
fhould purfue. At length they imparted this event thrrne * 
to the houfe of lords. They made no fcruple of de- 
claring for the princefs Elizabeth, who fucceeded 
according to the will of her father Henry, and was 
agreeable to the nation in general. The majority 
of the peers were either altogether indifferent with 
regard to religion, or fecretly favoured the reforma- 
tion; and the reft believed that popery was too 
firmly eftablifhed, to be overthrown by a female fo- 
vereign, who was fo far from being a bigot, that fhd \-. 
conformed to the religion of her fifter, and even de- 
clared herfelf a Roman catholic. The lords hav- Camd ^ 
ing deputed Heath archbifhop of York, to fignify 
their refolution to the lower houfe, it was unani- 
moufly approved by the commons •, and Elizabeth 
was immediately proclaimed, amidft the acclama- 
tions of the people, in the five and twentieth year of 
her age. She forthwith repaired from Hatfield to 
London ; and, after having received the compli- 
ments of the nobility, fhe fent ambafTadors to the 
different powers of Europa to notify her accefiion to 
the throne of England. Lord Cobham was dis- 
patched to Philip, whom file confldered as her friend 
and ally ■, Sir Thomas Chalons fet out for the Im- 
perial court ; and fhe joined Howard lord Effing- 
ham to Thirkby bifhop of Ely, and doclor Wotton, 
who were the plenipotentiaries at the congrefs of 
Cambray. Killegrew was fent to found the pro- 
teftant princes of Germany *, and Karne had orders 
to make the pope acquainted with the death of Mary, 
N°, 55. P and 



a. c. 1558. an( ] fbccefficn of Elizabeth. Then me formed her 
council, in which fhe retained thirteen of her filter's 
counfellors, to whom fhe joined eight perfons who 
were attached to the proteftant religion -f . Philip 
of Spain was not a little alarmed at the death of his 
confort. He dreaded Elizabeth's marrying a pro- 
teflant prince, in which cafe all his influence in Eng- 
land would vanifh : he was not without fear that 
the French king would fupport the claim of Mary- 
queen of Scots, and unite England, Scotland, and 
Philip of Ireland, to his own dominions. In order to prevent 
bands' her fuch an accefTion of power to his enemies, he fent 
in marriage, j^g count fe Feria to propofe a match between him 
and Elizabeth, who, notwithflanding his promife to 
procure a difpenfation from the pope, declined the 
propofal ; though in fuch obliging terms, that the 
king of Spain could not juftly take offence at her 
refufal. Indeed fhe had great reafon to avoid a 
rupture with that monarch ; for fhe was involved 
in a war with France and Scotland •, the crown was 
overwhelmed with debts contracted in the two pre- 
ceding reigns, and the finances of the kingdom 
were quite exhaufted : befides, fhe was not a little 
embarrafTed on the fcore of religion. 

Her council being confulted on the fituation of 
affairs, adviied her to forward the negotiation for a 
peace with France and Scotland •, in the mean time 
to fortify the frontiers, equip a flrong fleet for the 
defence of the ccaft, and change thefheriffs and ma- 
giflrates, in fuch a manner, that a majority of pro- 
teftant members fhould be returned to the next par- 
liament, which was accordingly convoked for the 
twenty -fifth day of January. In the interim, fhe en> 

f The old members were Heath the lord Clinton, high admiral ; lord 

arch bi /hop of York 5 Paw let marquis Howard of Effingham, chamberlain; 

of Winehefter, lord high treafwer j Sir Thomas Cheney, Sir W T illi?m Pe- 

Fitj;- Allen earl of Arundel ; Talbot tre, Sir John Mafon, Sir Richaid 

earl of Shrewsbury^ Stanley earl of Sickville, and Nicholas Wotton. 
Derby j Herbert carl of Pembroke j 



ployed doctor Parker to reform in private the liturgy A > c « '559 
of Edward VI. then publifhed a proclamation, al- 
lowing divine fervice to be performed in the vulgar 
tongue, and her fubjects to read the fcriptures. In 
the beginning of the year, the marquis of Nor- 
thampton, condemned in the late reign, was reftored 
to his honours •, Edward Seymour, fon of the duke 
of Somerfet, was created baron Beauchamp and earl 
of Hertford ; Thomas Howard, fecond fon of the 
duke of Norfolk, was promoted to the honour of 
vifcount Howard of Bindon ; her kinfman Henry 
Cary of Hunfdon, and Oliver St. John of Bletmifto, 
were elevated to the rank of barons. Thefe pro- coronTtio". 3 
motions were fucceeded by the queen's corona- 
tion, which was performed in the church of Welt- 
mi niter. The archbifhop of York, and fome other 
prelates, refufing to aiuft at the folemnity, and 
the fee of Canterbury being vacant, the crown was 
placed upon her head by Oglethorpe bifhop of 

The feffion of parliament was opened with a 
fpeech by Nicholas Bacon, keeper of the great feal, 
who, after having founded forth the praifes of the 
new queen, and the mifconducl: of the laft miniftry, 
gave the members tp underftand, that it was the 
queen's pleafure they mould regulate the affairs of 
religion; and, in fo doing, choofe a middle courfe 
between the extremes of iuperftition and irreligion, 
that the nation might be re- united in one kind of 
worfhip : he concluded his harangue by reprelent- 
ing the neceflities of the government, and recom- 
mending a fupply to her majefty. The commons, 
though they had been haraffed by impofitions in the 
late reign, chearfully granted the tonnage and 
poundage, together with a large fubfidy on funds 
and moveables. And for the fupport of the queen's 
royal eftate, they paffed a bill for reftoring the 
fir ft fruits and tythes to the crown ; the revenue of 

P 2 which 

2 02 H IS TO R Y of ENG LAND. 

A . c . >SS9' which was likewife improved by the diflblution of 
all the abbeys, nunneries, hofpitals, and chantries, 
founded fince the reign of Edward. On the fourth 
day of February, the commons had prefented an 
addrefs to the queen, advifing her to marry, for the 
benefit of a quiet fuccefiion : and, in her reply, 
flie faid me was obliged to them for having forbore 
to mention any time or perfon ; but that me looked 
upon herfelf as married to her people ; that me 
had no inclination to alter her condition ; and that 
(he mould be very well pleafed with the thoughts of 
their infcribing on her tomb, " Here lies a queen, 
" who lived and died a virgin." The parliament 
enacted a ftatute, recognizing Elizabeth to be the 
lawful fovereign, by virtue of the acl: palled in the 
thirty- fifth year of her father's reign. But the fen- 
tence of divorce between that king and Anne BoJeyn 
was not reverfed ; nor the act which confirmed the 
fentence, repealed. Then both houfes converting 
their attention to the affairs of religion, paiTed fe- 
veral laws ordaining, that fervice mould be perform- - 
The pariia- ec | ; n t k e vulgar tongue : That the fupremacy of 
foms the the church of England mould be vefted in the fo- 
outens fa- vereign : That all the acts relating to religion, which 
had paiTed in the reign of the laft Edward, mould 
Camden. ^ Q renewec j anc j confirmed : That the nomination 

to bimoprics fhould be vefted in the queen, who 
might exerciie her fupremacy by any perfon fhe 
mould think proper to appoint for that purpofe : 
That all perfons in office mould take the oath of 
fupremacy ; and that no perfon, under fevere penal- 
ties, fhould, by word or writing, fupport any fo- 
reign authority in this kingdom : That there fhould 
bsali uniformity of worfliip : That, on the vacancy 
of any. bifhopric, the queen might relume its man- 
ours and temporal poiTeiiions, making a jufl re- 
compence to the fee of perfonages impropriate. 
Elizabeth abufed this Dower, by {tripping the fees 



of all their bed manours, under the colour of giving A,c * 1 ss9* 
equivalents in other impropriations. She was, by 
another aft, put in pofTefTion of all religious houfes; 
and they parTed a ftatute, declaring that the condem- 
nation of the Romifh bifhops, in the reign of Ed- 
ward VI. was both juft and lawful. 

Elizabeth being verted with the fupremacy, erected 
a tribunal called the High Commifiion-court, com- 
pofed of a certain number of commiflioners, who 
acted with the authority of the vicegerent, appointed 
in the reign of the eighth Henry. Some ecclefia- 
flics having preached againft the reformation, the 
queen forbad all perfons to preach without licence 
under the great feai ; and this prohibition irritated 
the lower houfe of convocation to fuch a degree, 
that, in a petition to her majefty, they maintained 
the doctrines of the Roman church. They after- 
wards propofed a public difpute between nine doc- 
tors of each party : but, when the difputants, af- 
fembled for this purpofe, the Roman catholics de- 
clared they would not, without the pope's permif- 
fion, difpute upon points which were already de- 
cided. Of nine thoufand four hundred ecclefiaftics, 
who held benefices in England, thofe who chofe 
rather to renounce their livings than the Roman ca- 
tholic religion, amounted to fourteen bifhops, twelve 
archdeacons, fifteen heads of colleges, fifty canons, Therefor- 
and about fourfcore of the inferior clergy • their "bSEd." 
places being filled with proteftants, the church of Burnet. 
England was intirely reformed. 

While the queen effected this fudden change in 
religion within her dominions, the plenipotentaries 
of France and England continued their negotiation 
ax Cateau in the Cambrefis; and the envoys of 
Philip II. who Mill entertained fome hope of ef- 
poufing Elizabeth, infilled upon Henry's refloring 
Calais co the Englifli : but, when he faw the refor- 
mation eftablifhed in England, and met with a final 

P 3 repulfe 


a. c.i 559 . r epulfe from the queen, he abandoned her intereft, 
and compromifed his difference with the French 
monarch. Elizabeth, finding herfelf thus deferred 

Tac^ with ky the king of Spain, concluded a treaty with France, 

jvunce. importing, that Henry mould retain Calais, and the 
oth^r places he had wrefted from the Englifh, for 
eight years ; at the expiration of which they mould 
be reftcred to the queen of England : That he mould 
give fecurity for paying to Elizabeth, or her fuc- 
ceffors, the fum of five hundred thoufand golden 
crowns, in cafe thofe places mould not be rellored 
at the appointed time : That, over and above this 
payment, Henry and his fucceffors fhould be obliged 
to reftore Calais, and other places, according to the 
ilipulations of the treaty : That the French king 
mould give hoflages for the performance of this ar- 
ticle : That neither he, ncr the king and queen of 
Scotland, nor Elizabeth, mould attempt any thing 
againfleach other, directly or indirectly, to the pre- 
judice of this treaty : That the fortifications of Ay- 
mouth, and all others railed in Scotland fince the 
treaty of Boulogne, mould be demolifhed : That 
all the other pretenfions of the contracting parties, 
fhould remain in full force, until all difputes could 
be amicably compromifed : And that they fhould 
not encourage or protect the rebellious fubjects of 
each other. At the fame time, a feparate treaty of 
peace, to the fame purpofe, was concluded between 
the queens of England and Scotland, and ratified 
by Mary and her hufband Francis the dauphin. 

Henry would not have granted fuch favourable 
terms to Elizabeth, had he intended to obferve the 
articles of the treaty : but his fole defign in con- 
fenting to this peace, was to humour Philip, who, 
from a notion of punctilio, would not ratify his 
own peace with France, until he had mediated a 
treaty between the French king and Elizabeth. Not 
that he preferved the leaft regard to the., intereft 



of England, or defired that Henry mould adhere to A - c< *55& 
the articles of the peace ; but he thought his ho- 
nour repqired that he fhould effect an apparent ac- 
commodation in favour of his ally. Immediately T h heda 'l" 

/ J prvn and 

after the peace of Cateau, the dauphin and his con- Mary queen 
fort Mary queen of Scots, affumed the title of king j^ ^ af " 
and queen of Scotland, England, and Ireland •, and arms of 
caufed the arms of England to be engraved on their En s ,anJ - 
feals and plate. Sir Nicholas Thrcgmorton, the Camden * 
Englifn ambaifador at Paris, complaining of this 
iniult, received a very frivolous anlwer ; and he re- 
peating his remonitrance, the French miniitry told 
him, the king and queen of Scotland had as good 
a right to ailume the arms of England, as Eliza- 
beth had to arrogate the title of queen of France. 
Though the conitable Montmorency, who hated the 
Guife faction, prevailed upon Henry to lay afide 
this diftinction, Elizabeth, from this period, confi- 
dered Mary as a formidable rival, and the princes 
of Lorraine as her mortal enemies. Certain it is, 
they endeavoured to raiie their niece Mary to the 
throne of England ; and perfuaded the French 
king, that through her means he v/ouid in time be 
able to unite all England and Ireland under his do- 

This vail project flattered the ambition of Hen- 
ry -, and, as a preparatory ilep, he endeavoured to 
render his fon abfolute in Scotland. The queen- 
regent of that country was very well difpofcd to con- 
cur with his meafures •, but the attachment of her 
brother the cardinal to the Roman catholic religion, 
and her own biafs to thofe principles, defeated their 
icheme. The reformation had made great progrefs 
in Scotland, under the auipices of John Knox, and 
others, poffelled with the fanatical fpirit of Cal- 
vin, and the French minillry concluded that they 
fnould never be able to carry their point, until they 
had totally fuppreifed thofe religious republicans, 

P 4 .who 


a. c. 1550; wn0 would never join in favour of a Roman catho- 
lic prince, againft Elizabeth, who was a profefled 
proteftant. Henry II. at the inftigation of the 
Guifes, directed the queen- regent of Scotland to 
fupprefs the proteftants ; and fhe publifhed an edicl: 
for that purpofe, which involved the whole king- 
dom in confufion. Not contented with this ftep, 
fhe convoked the eftates at Stirling, and proceeded 
fo feverely , againft fome minifters of the reformed 
religion, that Knox and his afTociates openly preach- 
ed againft the catholic doctrine. He inflamed the 
people of Perth to fuch a degree, by his remon- 
ftrances, that they pillaged the churches, burned 
the images and ornaments, and deftroyed the mona- 
stery of the Carthufians. The regent, incenfed at 
thefe proceedings, afTembled fome troops, by means 
of the earls of Argyle and Athol, and began her 
march for Perth \ but, underftanding that the earl 
ofGlencairn, with feveral other noblemen, were en- 
camped in the neighbourhood of that place, with a 
view to oppofe her progrefs, fhe propofed terms of 
accommodation •, and the peace was concluded, on 
condition that the difputes about religion mould be 
referred to the determination of the parliament. 
The confederates had no fooner difmhTed their troops, 
than fhe re-eftablifhed the mafs at Perth, and fecured 

The protef- the town with a ftrong garrifon. It was on this oc- 

of n scotUnd ca f 10n > tnat tne eai "l of Argyle and James Stuart, prit- 
revoit a- or of St. Andrews, natural fon of James V. declared 
gamft the a g^j n ft trie regent, and joined the proteftant par- 
ty. While tney were employed in levying forces, 
the inhabitants of Cupar, St. Andrews, and feveral 
other towns, publicly renounced the Roman catho- 
lic religion, and committed the moft barbarous ex- 
cefies againft the churches and convents, facrificing 
every thing they contained, not even excepting the 
archives, in which the moft material tranfa&ions 
of their nation were recorded. The confederates 



affembling another army, made themfelves matters a. 0.1359. 
of Perth, Scone, Stirling, and Linlithgow; and 
their forces daily encreafmg, the queen-regent, and 
D'Oyfel, who commanded two thoufand French 
auxiliaries, retired with precipitation to Dunbar. 
Religion was the pretence which covered all thefe 
commotions •, and, in fact, the motive which ani- 
mated the people: but the chief actors were influ- 
enced by far other confiderations. The French 
king wanted to crufh the proteftants, becaufe they 
were attached to queen Elizabeth, whom he defign- 
ed to dethrone. She, on the other hand, perceiving 
his drift, fupported the reformers in Scotland, that 
they might employ all the forces he could lend into 
that kingdom. The Scottifh nobles declared for 
the proteftant religion, in hope of one day enjoying 
the lands of the church ; and James Stuart, prior 
of St. Andrews, is faid to have thrown himfelf into 
the fame fcale, that he might, on the ruin of his 
filter Mary, afcend the throne of Scotland. The 
reformed clergy were generally wrong-headed fana- 
tics, employed by more defigning heads to kindle a 
fpirit of madnefs and enthufiafm, which they con- 
verted to the purpofes of their own intereft. Meivii, 

Such was the fituation of affairs in Scotland, when 
Henry II. of France being accidentally (lain in a 
tournament, the crown of that kingdom devolved 
upon his fen Francis I. who had married the queen 
of Scotland ; and her uncles engroffed the whole 
adminiftration. They forthwith fent a reinforcement Camden. 
of three thoufand men, under La BrofTe, to the 
queen regent, who now compelled the confederates 
to retire in their turn, and harrarTed them in fuch a 
manner, that they had reccurfe to queen Elizabeth, c it t heaVft- 
whofe afTiftance they follicited in an addrefs, which anc,of eu- 
was prefented to her by William Maitland of Lid- ' 
ington, lord fecretary of Scotland. Cecil, who was 
the queen's chief «ounfellor, employed Henry Pier- 


2o3 HI S TOR Y of EN GLAND. 

a. c. 1559. C y^ as an a g en t v/ith the Scottifh confederates, who 
ftiled themfelves the congregation ; and they canted 
in fuch a manner about the gofpel, and the extirpa- 
tion of idolatry, that Elizabeth believed they were 
all hypocrites at bottom. Neverthelefs, it was fo 
much her intereft to prevent the French from get- 
ting footing in Scotland, that fhe diflembled her 
fentiments, and promiied to fupport them againft 
the enemies of the true religion. Sir Ralph Sadler 
was fent to confer with Piercy concerning the de- 
fence of the Marches ; and proper directions were 
communicated to Sir James Crofts, governor of 
Berwick. The duke of Norfolk was appointed lord 
lieutenant of the northern counties ; William lord 
Gray conftituted Warden of the Middle and Eaft 
Marches ; Thomas earl of SufTex fent back as lord 
lieutenant of Ireland, which he had formerly govern- 
ed with great conduct and moderation ; and Wil- 
liam Winton, mailer of the naval ftores, was pro- 
moted to the command of a fquadron, with which 
he failed into the Frith of Forth, deftroyed feveral 
French mips of war, and annoyed the forces of that 
kingdom, which were in garrifon in the ifte of Inch- 
kieth. While Elizabeth took thefe meafures for 
fupporting the proteftant intereft in Scotland, Phi- 
lip II. of Spain began to execute a refolution he had 
Affairs of formed, to exterminate that religion from the Low 
the Low Countries, which he meaned to enflave. He fecur- 
ed the principal towns with Spanifh garrifons, con- 
trary to the privileges of the country. When he fet 
out for Spain, he left the government in the hands 
of his aunt, Margaret dutchefs of Parma, fo as to 
excite the refsntment of the prince of Orange, and 
the count of Kgmont, who afpired to that dignity : 
but they were lull more incenfed at his leaving as 
her chief counfelior the cardinal of Granville, their 
profefled enemy, whom they confidered as the au- 
thor of thejeheme for enflaving their country, la 



die courfe of this year, pope Paul IV. dying, was A - c -'5'9. 
fucceeded by cardinal Angelo de Medicis, who af- Dcathof 

' _ . to pope Paul 

fumed the name of Pius IV. iv. 

The fuuation of Elizabeth at this juncture was Gl0tlU3 - 
extremely perplexing and precarious. The pope 
and the French king were her profeffed enemies. 
Mary of Scotland claimed her crown by a title 
which many of the Englifh fubjects privately re- 
cognized. Philip of Spain had conceived an anti- 
pathy to her, from the repulfe he fuftained at her 
hands, and the alteration me made in the eftablifh- 
ed religion of he country : the Irifh were arrogant, 
ferocious, and blindly devoted to the papal autho- 
rity ; and all the catholics in England were averfe 
to her dominion. In this emergency, fhe laid down Eiixabetv* 
two maxims, from which me never fwerved through Tms^Tgol 
the whole courfe of her reign. The firft was to ver ^ n ^^ 
conciliate the affections of her people ; and the 
other to find work for her enemies in their own do- 
minions. She was endowed with a great ffiare of 
natural penetration : fhe had obferved the charac- 
ters of mankind. Knowing how to diftinguifh me- 
rit, me made choice of able counfellors : fhe admi- 
niftercd juftice impartially, without refpect of per- 
fons: fhe regulated her expence with fuch oecono- 
my, as could not but be agreeable to her fubjects, 
who had been fleeced under the preceding reigns j 
and having been accuflomed to diffimulation, fhe 
not only afllimed the utmoft complacency in her de- 
portment, but affected fuch an ardour of love and 
regard for her fubjects, as could not fail to produce 
the v/armefl return of confidence and affection. Her 
frugality was not lb much the effect of her natural 
difpofuion, as the refult of good fenfe and delibe- 
rate reflection •, for, when ihe thought the interefl 
of her kingdom was at flake, fhe diftributed her 
wealth with uncommon liberality, in fomenting the 
troubles of France, -Scotland, and the Low Coun- 


a. c. 1559. tries, to employ her foes in fuch a manner as would 

prevent them from uniting for her deftruction. 
sfeefendaa Influenced by thefe principles, Elizabeth under- 
ws^nto landing that the princes of Guife were employed 
Scotland, in making great preparations for fending an army 
into Scotland, concluded a treaty with the earl of 
Arran, Due de Chateleraud, and the reft of the 
Scottifh confederates, whom fhe promifed to fup- 
port againft the French forces, which ftill continue^ 
to purfue them among their mountains and morafles. 
Martigues had arrived from France, with a freih 
reinforcement ; and a very confiderable armament 
was daily expected, under the command of the 
A. C.156CV marquis D'Elbeuf : but his fleet being difperfed in 
a ftorm, he was obliged to return and refit ; and 
domeftic troubles intervening in France, the troops 
were converted to another purpofe. The French 
forces in Scotland, after their expedition againft the 
lords of the congregation, returned to Leith, which 
they had fortified ; and the confederates marched 
towards Haddington, to join the Englifh army un- 
der the lord Gray, amounting to eight thoufand 
men. In the mean time the queen- regent, afraid 
of being fhut up in Leith, retired to Edinburgh- 
caftle, where fhe was honourably received by Erf- 
kine, the governor ; though he ftill retained in his 
own hands, the command of the fortrefs. Lord 
Gray, being reinforced by the Scottifh malecontents, 
refolved to undertake the fiege of Leith ; which was 
accordingly invefted. During thefe tranfadions, 
the French king fent Monluc, bifhop of Valence, 
as his ambarTador to England, with inftru&ions to 
def re Elizabeth would recal her troops from Scot- 
land. And this prelate even propofed to reftore 
Calais, if fne would comply with the requeft. To 
Camden, this embafiy the French king added De Seure, who 
joined Monluc in prefling her upon the fame fub- 
jed. She faid fne was ready to withdraw her troops 



from Scotland, provided Francis would recal thofe a. c 15591 
he had fent thither ; but, in the mean time, fhe de- 
clared fhe would not put a poor fifhing-town, fuch. 
as Calais, in competition with the fafety of her 
kingdom. The fiege of Leith was ftill carried ort 
by the Englifh, though they made but little pro- 
grefs againft fuch a numerous and gallant garrifon. 
At length the duke of Norfolk arrived in the 
camp of the befiegers, with a new reinforcement ; 
notwithstanding which, they would have found it a 
difficult tafk to reduce the place, had not the con- 
fpiracy of Amboife been detected in France ; and 
the princes of Lorraine found it necerTary to recal 
tKeir troops from Scotland. Monluc and the count 
of Randan were fent thither with full powers to con- 
clude a treaty with Elizabeth and the malcontents. 
Secretary Cecil and doctor Wotton were appointed 
plenipotentiaries for the Englifh. The conferences £^" V 
were begun at Edinburgh ; and, in the mean time, Edinburgh* 
both parties agreed to a truce, during which, the 
queen-regent died in the caftle. The French ple- 
nipotentiaries refufed at firft to treat with the Scot- 
tish confederates, alledging, they were in a ftate of 
rebellion : but an expedient was found to remove 
this objection. Namely, that Francis and Mary 
fhould make fome conceffions to the confederates, 
purely as the effects of their royal grace and favour; 
but that thele fhould be neverthelefs confirmed in 
the treaty with the queen of England. They agreed Tke Frenck 
that the French troops fhould in twenty days be re- ^ ces return ' 
conveyed to their own country in Englifh bottoms : 
That Leith fhould be evacuated, and its fortifica- 
tions demolifhed : That the works raifed by the 
French at Dunbar fhould be difmantled : And that 
the king and queen of Scotland mould grant an am- 
nefty in favour of the confederates, to be confirm- 
ed by the parliament of Scotland. The French, 
however, were at liberty to leave fixty men in the 



a.c 1560* ifle of Inchkieth. The treaty with Elizabeth inf- 
Buchahan. p 0r ted, That for the future, the king and queen of 
Scotland mould refrain from affuming the title and 
arms belonging to the fovereign of England and 
Ireland : That the acts or patents which they had 
expedited under that title, fhould be altered or an- 
nulled : That a conference fhould be held in Eng- 
land, between the commirlioners of the two crowns, 
in order to determine what further fatisfaclion was 
due to the queen of England : That, if they could 
not agree on this fubject, the difference mould be 
referred to the decifion of the king of Spain : And, 
that the king and queen of France and Scotland 
fhould be obliged to confirm the conceflions which 
had been made by the French plenipotentiaries to 
Rymer. the Scottifh confederates. After the conclufion of 
the treaty, the French and Englifh retired from 
Scotland ; the works of Leith and Dunbar were de- 
molifhed ; and the amnefly was confirmed by the 
eflates of Scotland, which enacted divers laws in 
favour of the reformation. Though Francis and 
Mary confirmed thefe laws, they refufed to ratify 
the treaty with Elizabeth, on pretence that fhe had 
treated with their rebellious fubjec~ts, as if they had 
formed an independent ftate : but the real defign of 
the princes of Lorraine was, to wreft the crown of 
England out of the hands of the prefent poflfefTor. 
Elizabeth was well aware of their intention, for 
which fhe, in the fequel, wreaked her vengeance 
upon their niece, the unfortunate queen of Scotland. 
Notwith [landing the queen's declaration, touching 
her refolution to live unmarried, people in general 
believed her fentiments on that fubject would 
change •, and not only fovereign princes, but even 
fome of her own fubjecls, afpired to the honour of 
a matrimonial crown. Charles, archduke of Au- 
ilria, fecond fon of the emperor Ferdinand, the king 
of Sweden, and the duke of Holftein, were num- 

vountc at 



bered among thofe who demanded her in marriage. AC * J s 6 °* 
The earl of Arran, fon to the duke of Chateleraud, 
prefumptive heir to the crown of Scotland, flattered 
himfelf that Elizabeth would prefer him to all his 
competitors, from a profpecl: of uniting the two 
kingdoms. The earl of Arundel, trufting to his 
noble birth, and ancient lineage, entertained hopes 
of efpoufing his fovereign. Sir George Picker- 
ing haying received fome particular marks of her 
efteem, amufed himfelf with the notion of having 
captivated her affection : but, of all the courtiers, 
lord Robert Dudley, fon of the late duke of Nor- Ztl?,^ 
thumberland, enjoyed the greateft fhare of her fa- great f a -^ 
vour. At her accefllon to the throne, me appoint- 
ed him mafter of the horfe ; and he was admitted 
into the order of the garter. She feemed to take 
pleafure in diftributing her favours through the ca- 
nal of this nobleman, who was diftinguifhed at court 
by the appellation of My Lord, as if he alone was 
worthy of that title. He was made acquainted 
with all the fecrets of ftate affairs. The ambafla-* 
dors reported the fuccefs of their negotiations to him, 
as to their fovereign ; and to him, all follicitations 
were addreffed. In a word, it plainly appeared that 
Elizabeth felt fomething more than bare efteem 
for Dudley, whofe character by no means juilified 
her favour*, he inherited all his father's vices, and 
had nothing but perlbnal accomplifhments to re- 
commend him to a lady of Elizabeth's penetration. 
Neverthelefs, her behaviour with regard to him, was 
fuch as afforded fubjecl for the molt fcandalous in- 
finuations to the prejudice of her reputation ; and 
he was laid to have poifoned his own wife, that he 
might be at liberty to wed his fovereign. Befides 
Dudley, fhe had two ether favourites of another 
kind, namely, Nicholas Bacon, keeper of the greac 
feal ; and William Cecil her fecretary, a minifier of 
cenfummate judgment, extenfive knowledge, inde- 




a. c. i 5 6o. fatigable, impenetrable, and implicitely attached to 

Omden. the interefl of his fovereign. 

Elizabeth found herfelf the more neceffitated to 
employ able minifters at home, as fhe had fcarce an 
ally abroad upon whom fhe could place the leaft de- 
pendence. Montague, whom ihe had lent as her 
ambaflador to Philip, met with a very cold recep- 
tion. That prince bewailed the alteration which had 
been made in religion within the queen's dominions \ 
reftored the collar of the order of the garter, which 
he would no longer retain, and declined renewing 

f/oTthe 5 tne a M anc e w i tn England. The pope fent Vincent 
pope to Parpaglia, abbot of St. Sauveur, with inftructions, 
and a brief to queen Elizabeth, exhorting her to re- 
turn within the pale of the church ; promifing that 
a genera] council mould be convoked with all con- 
venient expedition. The nuncio is faid to have pro- 
mifed that the pope would annul the fentence of di- 
vorce between Henry VIII. and Anne Boleyn, con- 
firm the Englifh liturgy, and allow the people to 
communicate in both fpecies at the facrament. But 
all thole offers were rejected, becaufe the queen had 
no opinion of the pope's fincerity. While the pro- 
tectants in England enjoyed liberty of continence^ 
and the mod agreeable repofe, the Calvinifls in 
France were periecuted without mercy, until they 
formed a confpiracy againft the duke of Guife and 
the cardinal of Lorrain, who were their profeffed 
enemifes. The prince of Conde was faid to favour 
them in private ; and a gentleman called la Renau- 
die laid a fcheme for carrying off the duke and the 
cardinal from the court of Amboife, This defign 
being difcovered, was interpreted into a confpiracy 
againft the king, and twelve hundred perfons were 
put to death, for having been concerned in the con- 
trivance. The eftates of the kingdom being con- 
voked at Orleans, die king of Navarre, and the 
prince of Conde, went thither 5 though they knew 



themfelves fufpected and hated by the princes of ACl $ 6& » 
Lorraine. The firft was fo narrowly watched that Mezerai -J 
he could not efcape; the other was imprifoned, 
and afterwards condemned to lofe his life by the 
hands of the common executioner : but the death 
of Francis II. faved him from that ignominious 
fate. This event produced a total revolution in the p^Jn. 
politics of the French court. Charles IX. who fuc- 
ceeded his brother Francis, being frill a minor, his 
mother, Catherine de Medicis, affumed the regency, 
with the confent of the king of Navarre, who, as 
firfl prince of the blood, was intitled to that office. 
-In order to maintain her power ihe fomented the 
factions. The catholics v/ere headed by the duke 
of Guife, the conftable of Montmorency, and the 
marechal de St. Andre : the chiefs of the Huguenots 
or proteftants, were the prince of Conde, the ad- 
miral de Coligny, and his brother D'Andelot -, and 
the king of Navarre fluctuated between the two par- 
ties. The princes of Guife having occafion for all 
their power, to fupport their intereft at home, laid 
afide all thoughts of the fcheme they had formerly 
projected in favour of their niece Mary of Scotland, 
who, finding herfelf flighted by her mother-in law. 
refolved to return to her native land ; and, in the 
mean time, quitted the title of queen of England, 
which fhe had hitherto affumed fmce the treaty of 

Elizabeth mean while employed her attention in Re „ uIation9 
making neceffary regulations for the welfare of her in England. 
people. She iffued a proclamation, commanding 
anabaptifts and heretics to quit the kingdom in 
twenty days, on pain of imprifonment; and forfei- 
ture of goods and chattels. She pubiifhed another 
againft thofe facrilegious perfons who, under colour 
of abolifhing fuperftition, defaced ancient monu- 
ments and epitaphs, and robbed churches of bells, 
leaden roofs, and other appurtenances. She con- 

N° 55 . Q^ vert : 


A c. 156©. verted Weftminfter -abbey into a collegiate church ; 
and the coin, which had been debafed in the reign 
of her father, (he now reduced to its iritrinfic va- 
lue. Shan O'Neal, an Irifh nobleman, raifing a 
rebellion in. that kingdom, a body of forces was 
fent over to reduce him. After fome fkirmifties, 
finding himfelf unable to cope with the govern- 
ment, he laid down his arms, by the advice of his 
kinfman the earl of Kildare, and fubmitted to the 
a. c. 1561. queen's mercy. Elizabeth was no fooner apprifed 
demands^ °* ^ death of Francis, than fhe fent the earl of 
confirma- Bedford into France, with compliments of congra- 

treatvV/ 18 tu l at i° n t0 tne new king, and inftrucYtons to de- 
Edinburgh, fire Mary queen of Scots would ratify the treaty 
of Edinburgh. This demand, however, Mary 
eluded, by faying, that as fhe was altogether with- 
out advifers, fhe would wait the arrival of fome 
Scottiih noblemen, whom lhe expected in France ; 
and, with their concurrence, give fatrsfacYion to the 
queen of England. 
MeWr$ In the interim, that princefs quitted the court of 

Memoirs. France, and retired to Rheims, where fhe fpent 
part of the winter with her uncle the cardinal. 
There fhe was vifited by Martigues, La BrofTe, and 
D'Oyfel, on their return from Scotland, who advifed 
her to conciliate the affection of her baftard bro- 
ther James Stuart prior of St Andrews, the earl of 
Argyle, fecretary Lidington, and thelaird of Grange; 
and to confide in her proteftant fubjects, who were 
much more numerous and powerful than the catho- 
lics. On the other hand, John LeQey, afterwards 
bifbop of RofTe, to whom fhe granted an audience 
in her journey to Nancy, gave her to underftand 
that he was commiflioned by the catholics of Scot- 
land, to affure her that fhe would find them ready 
to rife in a body under her royal banner, and re- 
eftablifh the ancient religion by force of arms : they 
therefore intreated her to repair to Aberdeen with 




all convenient fpeed •, and to diftruft the prior of A c - I s 6 ^ 
St. Andrews, whole ambition afpired at the throne 
fhe pofTeiTed. Next day fhe was at Joinville vifited 
by the prior, who had gone over to France to pre- 
fent his refpects to his fbvereign. He confirmed 
her in the refolution to return to her native king- 
dom, and found means to ingratiate himfelf with 
her to fuch a degree, that me impowered him by 
patent to afiemble the Rates, that they might pais 
fuch acts as fhould be found neceflary for the good 
of the kingdom. He forthwith returned to Scot- Ba ^nz*, 
land •, then convoking the parliament, the reforma- 
tion was eftablifhed by law, and all the monafleries 
were demolifhed. Mary being refolved upon her Mary de- 
voyage, difpatched D'Oyfel to queen Elizabeth, to ^Zla% 
follicit a fafe-conduct, which was refufed, except Elijah, 
on condition that the queen of Scots ihould previ- £ h 
oufly ratify the treaty of Edinburgh. This refufal 
was deeply refented by Mary, who complained to 
Throgmorton, the Englifh ambalTador, that Eliza- 
beth, not contented with having fupported her re* 
bellious fubjecls, wanted to hinder her from return- 
ing to her own dominions ; an infult which fhe 
had no reafon to expect from any crowned head, 
much lefs from one to whom fhe was fo nearly re- 
lated. With refpecl: to the treaty of Edinburgh, 
fhe faid it had been concluded during the life of her 
hufband ; and if he refufed to ratify it, the fault 
ought to be imputed to him only ; that fince me 
had been a widow, the council of France did not 
choofe to intermeddle in the affairs of Scotland ; and 
that the Scottifh fubjects who attended her were pri- 
vate perfons, whom fhe neither could nor would 
confult in an affair of fuch importance. 

Although fhe had reafon to believe that Eliza- 
beth would endeavour to intercept her at fea, fhe 
ventured to fet fail for Scotland, where, though fhe Sk 
arrived in fafety, amidft the acclamations of her b Scotland, 

Q^ 2 peo- 

ie artiveu 


a. c. 1561. people, fhe had the mortification to fee fuch fevere 
laws in force againft her religion, that it was with 
difficulty fhe herfelf was permitted to celebrate mafs 
in her own private chapel. There was nothing li- 
beral, generous, or difinterefled, in the firfl: Scottifh 
reformers. They were actuated by a Gothic fpirit 
of ignorant fanaticifm, which they had imbibed 
from Calvin, and the apoftles of Geneva. Among 
the noblemen of Scotland, the earls of Huntley, 
Athol, Crawford, and Sutherland, flill adhered to 
the old religion ; and the duke of Chateleraud feem- 
ed quite neutral. The Roman catholic lords and pre- 
lates did not doubt but that, with the countenance and 
protection of the queen, they mould be enabled to 
reftore the papal authority. As a previous ftep to 
this event, they endeavoured to prepofTefs their fo- 
vereign with a bad opinion of her natural brother 
James Stuart, to whom fhe had in a great meafure 
committed the adminiftration of her affairs. In the 
mean time, Mary had been inftrucled by her uncles 
to cultivate a friendfhip with Elizabeth, in hope of 
prevailing upon that princefs to declare her the fuc- 
cefTor to the crown of England. Accordingly Ma- 
ry difpatched Maitland as her ambafiador, to in- 
form her fitter queen of her happy arrival in her 
own dominions, and follicit the friendmip of Eli- 
zabeth. He likewife delivered a letter, fubferibed 
by the principal noblemen of Scotland, who, after 
a profuficn of compliment, advifed the queen of 
England to declare her coufin Mary her preemp- 
tive heir y a declaration that would produce a per- 
fectly good underftanding between the two nations. 
Elizabeth exprefTed her furprife that the queen of 
Scotland had not ratified the treaty of Edinburgh 
fince her arrival*, but fhe admitted the excufeof the 
ambailador, who told her that Mary had not yet 
found leifure to deliberate upon a matter of fuch 
importance. With refpect to the letter fhe had re- 


ceived from the Scottifh lords, fhe flatly refufed A c »5 6 «- 
to make any declaration that would expofe her to ^w^ 1 ™ 8 
the rifque of feeing her fubjedh adore the rifing fun. ham. 
She laid fhe had no intention to deprive the queen 
of Scotland of her right ; but that fne would not 
allow her to pluck the crown from her head ; and 
expected, in the mean time, that Mary would make 
proper fatisfaction for having ufurped her arms and 
title. Neverthelefs, fhe agreed to maintain a corre- Mary corre- 
fpondence with her ♦, and many letters parTed be- { *^vv*\ 
tween them, rilled with profeMIons of the moil un- betjt. 
referved friendfhip, while they hated each other in Mdvii'i 
their hearts, with all the rage of jealoufy and dif- Mtmoits - 

The pope, notwithflanding the anfwer which had 
been made to Parpaglia, appointed the abbot Mar- 
tinengo his nuncio in England, to go thither and 
notify to Elizabeth that the council of Trent would 
be continued, and defire that fhe would fend fome 
Englifh bifhops to that affembly. The queen for- 
bidding the abbot to enter her dominions, her am- 
baffador Throgmorton was defired by the nuncio at 
Paris, to communicate this intimation to his fove- 
reign; who anfwered, that fhe had no bufinefs with 
the pope ; that fhe wifhed with all her heart to fee an 
oecumenical council afTembled : but that fhe would 
never acknowledge a council convoked by the bifhop 
of Rome, who had no more power than any other , 
bifhop. She was utterly deftitute of allies, and had 
reafon to dread every thing from the enmity of Phi- 
lip, who, now that Francis II. was dead, made no 
fcruple of avowing his animofity, excited partly by 
the repulfe he had fuftained when he demanded her 
in marriage, and partly by his refentment for her 
having fupprefTed the catholic religion. He folli- 
cited the pope to denounce the fentence of excom- 
munication againft her •, he treated her ambafladors 
with contempt, and allowed the officers of the in- 

Q^ 3 q ui - 


a.c. i S 6i. qvjif lt ' 10n t0 perfecute the Englifh traders in his Spa- 
nilh dominions. Elizabeth expected a florm from 
that quarter. She doubted the iincerity of the Scot- 
tifh queen, who (till eluded the ratification of the 
treaty, and carried on a correfpondence with the 
catholics of England : it was therefore time to 
take the wifeft precautions for the defence of her 
Elizabeth crown and dignity. She equipped a noble fleer, 
tJhinV? "which fecured the empire of thefea-, fhe erected 
pofture of forts for the protection of her harbours -, fhe aus> 
mented the garrifons, and flrengthened the fortifi- 
cations of Berwick •, lhe trained the national militia 
to the exercife of arms ; fhe encouraged trade and 
manufacture, reformed the oeconomy of her hou- 
fhold, and won the favour of her fubjects, by avoid- 
ing demands of fubfidies, and adminiftring juftice 
with the utmoft impartiality. 
a, c. 1562. j c was non w } t h ouc r eafon that fhe exerted her en- 
deavours in this manner. The catholics began to 
cabal in private, and form fchemes for the re-efta~ 
blilhment of their religion. The queen found upon 
inquiry that Mary of Scotland maintained a corre- 
fpondence with the malcontents, and that the earl 
and countefs of Lennox had fome fecret communi- 
cation with the queen of Scots ; and therefore com- 
mitted them cJofe prilbners to the Tower of Lon- 
Confpiracy d on# g' r . e afterwards difcovered. that Arthur Pole, 
Pcie! u * nephew to the late cardinal, with his brother Ed- 
mund, and Anthony Fortefcue, had engaged in a 
confpiracy againfl the government : that their in- 
tention was to repair to France, where the Guifes 
promiled to fupply them with five thousand men, 
to be tranfported into Wales ; and there they de- 
figned to proclaim Mary queen of England, while 
Arthur Pole fhould be declared duke of Clarence, 
They were immediately arretted, with their acconv 
pi ires, and confeffed they had formed fuch a fcheme ; 
but protdted they had no defign to put it in exe- 


cution before the death of queen Elizabeth, which, A - c 'S 62 * 
from the prediction of two pretended aftrologers, 
they believed would happen in the fpring. They 
were upon their own confefFion condemned ; but 
the queen pardoned them, in confideration of their 
illuftrious origin. She did not manifeft the fame 
clemency towards Catherine Gray, daughter of the 
duke of Suffolk, and filler to lady Jane, who had 
been beheaded in the preceding reign. This lady 
having been married to the earl of Pembroke, and 
divorced from him for political reafons, afterwards 
efpoufed in private the earl of Hertford, who went to 
France, upon his travels, after the marriage, which 
was difcovered by Catherine's pregnancy. Eliza- Im „ 
beth, who looked upon this lady as a rival in her mentof.a'y 
title to the throne, was fo incenied when fhe heard Catherine 
of her condition, that flie fent her prifoner to the 
Tower, whither alfo her hufband was committed 
when he returned to England. As he could not 
prove his marriage by legal evidence, it was annul- 
led by a fentence of the archbifhop of Canterbury. Camden. 
Neverthelefs, the earl found means to vifit Ca- 
therine after her delivery ; and me conceived again. 
Then he was accufed and convicted of having 
efcaped from prifon, corrupting a princefs of the 
blood, and cohabiting with a woman from whom 
he had been feparated by a legal procefs. He 
was fined in five thoufand pounds ; and, after a 
long confinement, obliged to relinquifh Catherine 
by a formal deed 1 but the queen never could for- 
give his wife, who died in prifon. 

She had a much more formidable competitor in 
the perfon of Mary, whofe uncles, of the houfe of 
Guife, now began to renew their old fcheme in her 
favour. They had engaged the king of Navarre, 
and the conftable Montmorency, in their intereft : 
they detained the king and the queen- mother in 
captivity : they covered their defigns with the pre- 
text of religion, and even maffacred the Huguenots 

Q 4 at 


A.c. 1562. at V a ffy. The queen-regent had written to the 
prince of Conde, conjuring him to affift her and the 
king in their diftrefs -, and that prince, putting him- 
feif at the head of the proteftants, furprifed Or- 
civiiwari n ] eans . a c i v ji wa r immediately commenced, and 
The Hug U e- the Huguenots being feverely handled, in the firft 
notsaflifted campaign, deputed the vidame of Chartres to im- 
beth/who plore the affiftance of Elizabeth. She was glad of 
takes poHef- an opportunity to foment the divifions of France, 
vrede- for her own prefervation *, and forthwith concluded 
Grace. a treaty, by which fhe engaged to furnifh the Huge* 
nots wich one hundred thoufand crowns in money * 
and fix thoufand foot fjldiers, for the defence of 
Dieppe, Rouen, and Havre- de-Grace, which laft 
place me intended to keep, until Calais mould be 
Mezcrai. restored, according to the ftipulation of the treaty 
of Cateau and Cambrefis. Paul de Foix, ambaf- 
fador of France at the Englifh court, demanded 
that the vidame and all his attendants mould be de- 
livered into his hands, as traitors to their country ; 
but Elizabeth rejected his requeft. In September, 
the earl of Warwick was fent to Normandy with 
the promifed reinforcement; and Rouen being at that 
time befieged by the king of Navarre, he divided them 
between Dieppe and Havre-de-Grace, of which the 
queen had appointed him governor. Rouen was 
taken by arTault, where the king of Navarre was 
mortally wounded. The prince of Conde having re- 
ceived another reinforcement from the proteftant 
princes of Germany, advanced to the neighbour- 
hood of Paris, where he was amufed by the Guifes 
with a negotiation, until the city was rendered defen- 
fible, and fortified too flrongly for him to attempt 
the fiege ; fo that he retired towards Normandy, 
whither the enemy attended his motions. Imme- 
diately after Conde's departure from the neighbour- 
hood of Paris, war was proclaimed in that city 
agamft Elizabeth ; but the king, and queen regent, 
who was by this time reconciled to the Guifes and 
4 the 


the conftable, finding themfelves unprepared for hof- A c « , s 6a » 
tilities, difowned the proclamation ; aud Elizabeth 
was fatisfied with a letter from the king on that 
fubjecl:. Yet, on this occafon, fhe acted contrary Forbes * 
to the advice of Sir Thomas Smith, and Sir Nicho- 
las Throgmorton, who exhorted her to feize this 
opportunity of recovering Calais, the fortifications 
of which were in a ruinous condition, and the place 
almoft deftitute of a garrifon. In the latter end of Mezerai. 
the year a battle was fought at Dreux, between the 
Catholics and Huguenots, with doubtful fuccefs. 
In the beginning of the action, the conftable Mont- 
morency fell into the hands of the proteftants, who 
conveyed him to Orleans ; but afterwards the prince 
of Conde, being deferted by the German auxiliaries, 
was taken by M. Damville ; and the duke of Guife 
encamped on the field of battle, tho' his lofs ex- 
ceeded that of the proteftants. 

Elizabeth was juft recovered of the fmall pox, A « c * x s g s« 
when the parliament meeting in January, petitioned, 
in an addrefs, that fhe would alter her condition, 
and fettle the fucceflion, in order to avoid the cala- 
mities which a competition might produce. She 
did not chufe to declare her fentiments with regard 
to marriage; but allured them that, before her 
death, fhe would provide for the fafety of the na- 
tion. Several laws were made for the relief of the 
poor, and the encouragement of commerce and 
agriculture ; and the parliament indulged her with 
an entire fubfidy, and two fifteenths, for enabling 
her to counter- work the efforts of her enemies. The 
convocation likewife granted a fubfidy of fix {hil- 
lings in the pound, and drew up a confeflion of 
faith in thirty nine articles, as an improvement up- 
on thofe eftablifhed in the reign of the fixth Edward. 
While Elizabeth thus regulated her domeftic affairs, 
the duke of Guife inverted Orleans, which was de- 
fended by JD'Andelot, brother of ;he admiral, who 



a.c. 1563. m arched into Normandy with the Huguenot army, 
to make a diverfion in favour of the befieged, and re- 
ceive fupplics of men and money which he expect- 
ed from the queen of England. Orleans was almoft 
reduced to extremity, when the duke of Guife was 
mortally wounded with a piftol bullet, by a young 
gentleman called Poltrot. The duke finding his 
end approaching, exprefTed a deep-felt remorfe at 
the remembrance of his having excited a civil war, 
and exhorted the queen regent to conclude a peace 
Pacification with all pofiible expedition. Both fides were by this 
TheEn C uft time weary of the war, and a pacification enfued, in 
ate befieged which Elizabeth was not comprehended. Nay, the 
leGrlce" Huguenots, whom fhe had aflifted, actually joined 
and obliged the forces of the French king, which undertook the 
ui aptu " fiege of Havre- de-Grace, occupied by the earl of 
Warwick at the head of an Englifh garrilbn. The 
place was defended with uncommon courage and per- 
feverance, until the plague mfinuated itfelf among 
the befieged ; and then they were obliged tocapitu- 
dmdea. j ate< The remains of the garrifon carried over the 
infection to Condon, where k fwept off above thirty- 
thoufand of the inhabitants ; and the reduction of 
Mezersi. Havre-de-Grace was iucceeded by a true between 
the two nations. 

The death of the duke of Guife produced a great 
change in the affairs of the Scottifh queen. Charles 
IX. of France was now governed by the counfel of 
his mother, who fubjected Mary to divers mortifi- 
cations. The payment of her jointure was inter- 
mitted, the Scottidi guard difbanded, and the duke 
of Chateleraud deprived of his French revenue. Her 
uncle the cardinal fearing that this treatment would 
provoke her to a fmcere coalition with Elizabeth, 
preiTed her to marry Charles archduke of Auftria, 
brother to Maximilian king of the Romans y and 
fhe feemed to relifh the propofal, which, as an in- 
stance of confidence, fhe communicated to the queen 

3. of 


of England. Elizabeth, alarmed at the profpect of A « c - J 5 6 3- 
foch a powerful match as might enable her rival to Elizabeth 
execute the fcheme which the cardinal had projected, ?r e j e ft S V* 
ordered Randolph, her minifler in Scotland, to tell ««*& *«- 
Mary in her name, that out of fifterly affection and ^Scotland* 
regard for her intereft, fhe could not help exhorting and Charles 

. ° - , 1,-1 11- » 1 archduke ot 

her to confider that luch an alliance might remove Auflria# 
her for ever from the throne of England ; ,as the 
Englifh would never run the rifque of being fub- 
ject to the houfe of Auftria : fhe ought therefore 
to confult her own intereft, in conciliating the af- 
fection of the Englifh people, by matching with 
fome popular and diftinguifhed nobleman of their 
country. Though Randolph pointed at no parti- 
cular perfon, he infmuated to Mary's natural bro- 
ther, by this time created earl of Murray, and to 
fecretary Lidington, that he believed his queen had 
lord Dudley in her eye, as a proper hufband for 
their fovereign. Mary imparted this anfwer to her 
uncle the cardinal, who vehemently diffusded her 
from contracting a match fo unworthy of her dig- 
nity, and flattered her with the promife of an alli- 
ance in her favour, to be formed by the pope, the 
kings of France and Spain, and the Englifh Roman 
catholics. Mary was not a little perplexed by thefe 
oppofite counfels ; at length fhe refolved to think 
no more of the match wich the archduke, and to 
decline the hinted propofal of Elizabeth, without 
interrupting the correfpondence between them, which 
afforded opportunities of cultivating her Englifh 
friends ; and thefe were now become very numerous 
by the death of Frances Brandon dutchels of Suffolk, 
who was her rival in the fucceffion, as having been de 
grand-daughter of the feventh Henry. 

The truce between France and England was at 
length improved into a peace, negotiated by Sir 
Thomas Smith, and Throgmorton, who had been 
arrefted in France zz the declaration of war. The 



a. c.1564. treat y^ w hich was concluded at Troye in Campagne, 
peace with made no mention of the reditu tion of Calais, but 
fheLow nd imported that the hoftages fhould be fet at liberty 
Countries, on the payment of one hundred and twenty thou- 
fand crowns to Elizabeth ; and that peace and amity 
mould fubfifb between the contracting powers, with 
full refervation of their mutual rights and preten- 
fions. Immediately after the ratification of this 
treaty, Charles IX. was created knight of the garter, 
and the lord Hunfdon fent over to Paris to inveft 
him with the enfigns of the order. England at this 
juncture enjoyed the moft profound tranquillity. 
Her trade with the Low- Countries had been inter- 
rupted by the intrigues of cardinal Granville, who, 
forefeeing a war in the Netherlands, wanted to re- 
move the Englifh, and perfuaded the government 
to prohibit the importation of Englifh broadcloth ; 
a branch of traffic which was carried on to a prodi- 
gious extent. But Philip perceiving this prohibi- 
tion was in all refpects as detrimental to his own 
fubjeds as to thofe of England, defired the old treaty, 
made in the reign of Maximilian, might be renew- 
ed ; and the affair was determined to the fatisfadtion 
of both nations. 

The repofe of queen Elizabeth was ftill invaded 
by the apprehenfion of Mary's defigns upon her 
crown and dignity. She could not bear the thoughts 
of competition for the throne me pofiefied : fhe had 
not forgiven that princefs for having afTumed her 
arms and title, and refufing to ratify the treaty of 
Edinburgh : fhe dreaded her marriage with fome 
Roman catholic prince, who might be able to aflfert 
her pretenficns •, and fhe was even weak enough to 
repine at the fame of her beauty and perfonal ac- 
compiifhments. On the other hand, Mary had been 
taught to confider the queen of England as a baftard, 
an heretic, and ulurper, who intercepted her right to 
one of the faired kingdoms of Europe, and fomented 



rebellion in the heart of her dominions. The/e A c - '5 6 4- 
caufes of animofity fubfifting, there was no room for 
fincerity or friendfhip and mutual confidence; ne- 
verthelels, both found their account in difTembling 
their real fentiments. Elizabeth, in order to dif- 
fuade her from marrying the archduke, made ufe of 
fome arguments which gave offence to Mary ; and 
me, in her anfwer, ufed expreflions of difguit that 
incenfed the queen of England •, fo that, for fome 
time, their correfpondence luffered an interruption. 
Mary reflecting how much it was her intereft to 
maintain an intercourfe with Elizabeth, fent Sir 
James Melvil to London, with a letter containing Meivii's 
fome concefiions ; and a propofal of renewing their Memoirs, 
former friendfhip. The queen of England, who 
furpafifed her in diffi mulation, admitted her excufes 
with great good humour, expreffed the warmed af- 
fection for her royal kinfwoman ; and, in order to 
prevent her efpoufing a foreign prince, endeavoured 
to engage her in a negotiation for a marriage with 
lord Dudley, to whom ihe plainly alluded, though 
fhe never mentioned his name. Not that fhe wifhed propofesiord 
this match might really take effect : Ihe loved Dudley Du ? le ^ as 

,, ° • « 1 « i n 1 • 1 1 an husband 

too well to part with him to a deterred rival ; butfortheScor- 
her aim was to detach the queen of Scotland from tl/h ^ uecn ' 
the alliance with the houfe of Auftria, and am ufe 
her with a treaty which never would be brought to 

Mary, far from thinking ferioufly of efpoufing Mutuaiani- 
Dudley, had already refolved to give her hand to mofit y and 
the lord Darnley, fon of the earl of Lennox, who t ion™n>otix 
had married the daughter of Margaret queen of { * ucens « 
Scotland, and Archibald Douglas her fecond huf- 
band. Henry VIII. who was this lady's uncle, be- 
llowed her in marriage upon Matthew Stuart earl of 
Lennox, who, in his reign, took refuge in England ; 
fo that the queen of Scots purpofed to unite the 
rights of the two families by her marriage with lord 



a. c. 1564. Darnley, who, as well as herfelf, was a grandchild 
of the feventh Henry. Sufpecting that Elizabeth 
would thwart her in this defign, fhould fhe difcover 
it, fhe acted with great circumfpection -, and, as a 
previous flep, recalled the earl of Lennox into Scot- 
land, that he might be put in pcfTeflion of his lands, 
which had been confifcated during the regency of the 
duke of Chateleraud. The queen of England per- 
ceived her drift, though me feemed entirely ignorant 
of her purpofe ; for fhe was not forry to find fhe had 
call her eyes on a young nobleman whofe father 
pofTerYed a great eflate in England, ccnfequently 
would be fo far fubje6l to her will and pleafure, that 
fhe could prevent the marriage without interrupting 
the treaty. Mary difguifed her fentiments with 
equal art : fhe pretended to be guided entirely by 
the counfels of Elizabeth •, and, even after fhe re- 
folved to wed the lord Darnley, appointed commif- 
fioners to treat with thofe of England on the fubjedt 
of her marriage, though fhe very well knew that 
Elizabeth would propole Dudley, whom fhe had by 

Canuiea. this time created earl of Leicefler. Accordingly, 
the earl of Bedford being appointed commiffioner, 
conferred with the earl of Murray, and fecretary 
Lidington, at Berwick, where he recommended Lei- 
cefler as a proper hufband for queen Mary : but 
the propofal was received fo coldly by the Scottifh 
deputies, that he did not think proper to infift upon 
it, efpecially as the earl of Leicefler had defired he 
would not prefs the affair, either becaufe he knew it 
would be difagreeable to Elizabeth, or would inter- 
fere with the defign he harboured of efpoufing his 
own fovereign. Sir James Melvil, at his return to 
Scotland, afTured his miflrefs that there was no fin- 
cerity in the profeffions of Elizabeth, who never in- 
tended that fhe fhould marry Dudley ; but only 
amufed her with fuch propofals, that fhe might be 
diverted from the Auflrian match. He gave her 


-.-feLIZABETH. . 22cj 

to underftand, that the queen of England had Tent AC - 's 6 ** 
the earl of Suflex to the Imperial court, on purpofe 
to prevent the marriage, by infinuating that fhe her- 
felf was well difpofed to accept the archduke for her 
husband ; and this difcovery did not diminlh the ha- 
tred of Mary towards Elizabeth. The emperor dy- 
ing in the courfe of this year, was fucceeded by Ma- 
ximilian, who had been always averfe to the Scottiih 
match ; fo that Elizabeth having nothing farther to 
fear from that quarter, began to difcover her real 
fentiments. Mary, in order to found her inclina^ 
tions, had promiied to comply with her defire in 
wedding the earl of Leicefter, provided fhe would 
declare her prefumptive heir of the Englifh crown ; 
and now Elizabeth inflrucled Randolph, her ambaf- 
fador in Scotland, to tell her coufm Mary, that fhe 
would raife Leicefter to all the honours fhe could be- 
llow upon a lubjecl, and favour the title of the queen 
of Scots in every thing but the inquifition of her 
right, and the declaration of her fucceflion, in 
which fhe would do nothing until fhe herfelf mould 
either marry, or notify her determination on that 
fubject. Though Mary had never repofed any real 
confidence in her fincerity, fhe was fo fhocked at 
this meffage, that fhe could not help burfting into 
tears, and reviling Elizabeth for her double deal- 

By this time the queen of Scotland was in a great 
meafure directed by David Riccio, an obfcure Pied- , 
montefe, who came to Scotland in the fervice of the 
count de Moretto, the ambaflador of Savoy. He 
was firft employed as mufician at the court of Mary, 
with whom he foon ingratiated himfelf by his infi- 
nuating addrefs, and was promoted to the office of 
fecretary for the French language. She was weak 
enough to make him afterwards her chief favourite 
and counfellor-, and he attracted the envy and hatred 
of the nobility j who looked upon him as a pre- 



a.c. 1564. fumptuous upftart, intoxicated and rendered infolent 
by the favour of their fovereign ; and all the pro- 
teftant lords detefled him as an agent of the pope. 
In all likelifhood this ftranger had a confiderable 
fhare in perfuading Mary to efpoufe the lord Darn- 
ley, who was a profefTed Roman catholic, and there- 
fore agreeable to the cardinal of Lorraine ; though 
he affected at firft to difapprove of the marriage, 

fe^t^T" Darnley having obtained leave from Elizabeth to 

in Scotland, make ajourney into Scotland, was received by queen 
Mary with extraordinary marks of efteem ; and the 
beauty of his perfon foon made an impreflion upon 
her heart. He forthwith engaged in the ftridteft 
intimacy with Riccio ; and now the credit of Mur- 
ray, who was at the head of the proteftant party* 
vifiblv decreafed. All his enemies were called to 
Court ; and he entered into an affociation with the 
duke de Chateleraud, the profefTed enemy of Len- 
nox, the earls of Argyle, Rothes, Marr, Glencairn, 
and feveral other noblemen, to oppofe a marriage 
which they believed would be fatal to the reformed 

Camden, religion. Mean while Mary obtained a difpenfa- 
tion from the pope, together with a formal appro- 
bation of the marriage, figned by the noblemen who 
were devoted to her intereft and inclination ; then 
fhe wrote a letter to Elizabeth, communicating her 
intention, againft which fhe feemed to think her 
fitter and coufin could have no objection. 

The queen of England immediately convoked a 
council to deliberate on this affair ; and the refult 
of their confultation was, that the marriage would 
endanger the religion and fafety of England, in 
eftablifhing the Roman catholic doctrine in Scot- 
land y and uniting the intereft of two houfes which 
pretended to the Englifh crown. Sir Nicholas 
Throgmorton was immediately difpatched with in- 
flections to expostulate with Mary againft the 
match ; and reprefent that by fuch a ftep, which 



Was extremely difagreeable to the Englim nation, (lie A c ' *5 6 4. 
would run the rifque of feeing all her hopes of the 
fucceffion defeated. Mary replied, that fhe had 
gone too far to recede •, and that queen Elizabeth 
had the bis reafon to complain, as fhe had followed 
her advice, in chufing for a husband an EngliiTi 
nobleman of the royal blood of both kingdoms. 
The queen of England finding her remonftrances 
ineffectual, fent orders to the earl of Lennox and his 
fon to return, on pain of forfeiting their eftate •, hue 
they did not think proper to obey her command : 
then fhe directed Throgmorton to encourage the 
malcontents of Scotland, with the prefmife of her 
affiftance and protection ; but, notwithstanding all 
her endeavours, the marriage between the Scotnuh andisitisir- 
queen and Darnley was celebrated on the twenty- riedtoC j^ 

•*• * ' J queen or 

ninth day of July. Mary putting herfelr at the that coun- 
hcad of fome troops, purfued the malcontents from try - 
place to place, until they were obliged to take re- 
fuge in England. Murray being chofen their de- Theeariof 
puty, repaired to London, and ibllicited the pro- Murray and 
tection of Elizabeth, who gave him to underftand, i ng Scottish 
by her emiffaries, that he had nothing to expect from [jjjf'^ 
her, unlefs he would publicly own that fhe had no England, 
concern in their revolt. Having extorted iuch a MeivU. 
confeffion from this mean-fpirited nobleman, in pre- 
fence of the French and Spanifh ambafTadors, fhe 
reviled them as rebels and traitors, and forbad them 
to appear before her face : neverthelefs, they found 
protection in her dominions ; and the earl of Bed- 
ford, by her private order, fupplied them with mo- 
ney for their fubfiftence. Mean while Mary con- 
voked an affembly of the eitates of her kingdom, \^' X J 
that the fugitives might, by an edict, be degraded waifing" 

o o ' J J '-> harp 

and banifhed. 

As Mary and her new husband engaged in frefli 
fchemes againft the intereftof Elizabeth, this prin- 
cefs fent a perfon called Tarn worth, with a letter 

Numb. LVI. R 


a. c. i 5 6 4 t0 the queen of Scots, demanding that the lord" 
Darnley mould be delivered into her hands, accord- 
ing to the ftipulation in the laft treaty, by which 
the two queens obliged themfelves to give up the 
rebellious fubjecls of each other. To this letter 
Mary replied, that me would attempt nothing in 
England during the life of Elizabeth, provided me 
might be declared prefumptive heir of the crown by 
Keith, act of parliament. She had, however, fent Yoxley 
to the court of Spain, and put herfelf and her huf- 
band under the protection, of Philip. After the 
diflblution of the council of Trent, the pope had 
endeavoured to form a league with the courts of 
France, Spain, and the empire, for the extirpation 
of the reformed religion : at length, in a conference 
between the queen of Spain and her brother the 
French king, who met on the frontiers •, and, by 
means of a correlpondence between the queen-mo- 
ther and the duke of Alva, the refolution was taken, 
and meafures were concerted for crufhing the Hugue- 
nots in France, the proteilants in the Low Coun- 
tries, and the reformation in all parts of Europe. 
This league, thus formed at Bayonne, was fent over 
gl^ll'm'thb to Scotland, and fubfcribed by Mary ; and her re- 
embolic lations, of the houfe of Guife, prefTed her to pro- 
Bayonne. cee ^ w ^ tn rigour againft the fugitive lords. Thefe 
folicitations were fupported by her minifter Riccio, 
Tiiuanu;. wn0 maintained a correfpondence with the pope %. 
and Mary's council agreed that the forfeiture of 
the rebels mould be propofed in the parliament, 
which had been prorogued immediately after its laft 
meeting. In a word, the Roman catholic intereft 
now prevailed at court : fhe admitted the earls of 
Huntley and Bothwell into her council and confi- 
dence, and every thing feemed to portend the re- 
eftabliiliment of the old religion. 

Almofl: all the common people of Scotland were 
proteltant fanatics. The majority of the nobles. 

7 h^ 


"had embraced the fame religion, becaufe they found A - c - '5^ 
their account in porTefUng the church-lands, which 
they feized at the beginning of the reformation. 
Some of thefe reformers dill maintained an in- 
fluence at court •, namely, the earl of Morton, and 
the lords Ruthven and Lindfay. They dreaded 
the forfeiture of the fugitive lords, which would 
have ruined the protefrant intereft in Scotland. They 
perceived the king was difgufted at Riccio, on the 
fuppofition that he had hitherto prevented him 
from obtaining the matrimonial crown : that he 
engrofTed too great a (hare in the queen's favour, 
and aflumed the whole administration. Henry was 
weak, giddy, and inconftant \ difiblute, proud, and 
imperious. He had folicited the matrimonial crown 
with the utmoft impatience, and treated the queen 
in the mod infolent manner. Mary could not 6ra*&4 
help defpifing his character, and refenting his pre- 
fumption. The earl of Morton knew his difpofi- 
tion, and tampered with his paffions, by means of 
his emiflary George Douglas, the king's natural 
uncle. His refentment was inflamed againft Ric- 
cio, whom they reprefented as his inveterate enemy* 
who would alienate the queen's affection from htm$ 
and entirely fuperfede his authority, unlefs he would 
form a balance of power in his own favour, by pro- 
curing the pardon of the exiled lords. In which cafe 
they would not only fix the matrimonial crown 
upon his head, but alfo pafs an act of parliament 
for continuing the royal fucceffion in his perfon, 
(hould he furvive queen Mary. They refolved up- Keitfej 
on the death of Riccio, as a neceffary (lep towards 
the fuccefs of this alliance. Henry took an oath of 
fecrecy. Articles were drawn between him and the 
rebel lords. He bound himftlf to obtain their re- 
mirTion, reftore them to their eftates, efpoufe their 
juft quarrels, and concur with them in fupporting 
and eftablifliing the proteflant religion, They 

R 2 obliged 

• * 


a. c. 1565. obliged themfelves to procure for him the matri- 
monial crown, and to maintain his title to the fuc- 
ceflion, fliould the queen die without iflue. He 
likewife figned a bond, declaring, that as the mur- 
der of Riccio was undertaken at his own defire, he 
would bear the perpetrators harmlefs. Thefe arti- 
cles being fettled, the king, on the ninth day of 
March, about feven in the evening, entered the 
queen's apartment, while fhe was at fupper with the 
countels of Argyle, her natural brother the com- 
mendatorof Holy rood- houfe, David Riccio, and fe- 
veral other perfons. He was followed by Patrick 
Ruthven, who commanded Riccio to follow him, 
in the king's name. Mary afking if her husband 
had given fuch orders •, and he anfwering in the ne- 
gative, me ordered Ruthven out of her prefence, 
declaring that Riccio fliould appear bofore the par- 
liament, and anfwer to what might be laid to his 
charge. Then Ruthven attempting to feize the fe- 
cretary, he fled for refuge behind the queen's chair. 
Da '-' d ^ ! n : At that inftant George Douglas, with a party of 

CIO IS 3113111- j rt. " ' • I nil* 

aatedinthe armed men, ruining into the apartment, itruck him 
prefenceof w i tn a dagger over her fhoulder, while the queen 

oueenMary. . Do . r . . . * 1 . , 

attempting to interpole in his defence, was with- 
held by her husband. He was then dragged into 
another chamber, and butchered by the confpira- 
tors. Ruthven returning to the queen, upbraided 
her with following the counfels of Riccio •, with 
having favoured the Romifh religion ; admitted 
Huntley and Bothwell into her council ; engaged 
with foreign powers for the deftrudtion of the pro- 
teftants 5 and with having attainted the fugitive 
lords, who were expected in Edinburgh next day, 
in confequence of the king's pardon and meffage. 
While the confpirators acted this tragedy, the earl 
of Morton fecured the gates of the palace with a 
body of troops. Huntley, Bothwell, and fome 
others, efcaped out at windows 7 but the earl of 



Athol, fecretary Lidington, Tullibardin, and Sir A>c - l $ 6 s> 
James Balfour, were permitted to retire. The queen 
was detained all night a prifoner in her apartment. 
Next morning Henry iflued a proclamation, com- 
manding all the lords ipiritual and temporal con- 
vened in parliament to retire in three hours from 
Edinburgh; and, in the evening, the earls of Mur- 
ray and Rothes, with their friends, arrived from 
England. A council being held, it was relblved 
that the queen mould be fent under a guard to the 
caftie of Stirling, to remain in cuftody until fhe 
fhould approve in parliament of all they had done, 
eftabliih, the proteftant religion, bellow the matri- 
monial crown upon the king, and refign the whole 
adminillration into his hands. 

Mary, in this deplorable fituation, had recourfe 
to the friendmip of her brother Murray, who, ra- 
ther than incur any fhare of the odium refulting 
from the murder of Riccio, refufed to join the per- 
petrators. The king, who was extremely fickle 
and irrefolute, began to repent of that barbarous 
tranfaclion •, and the queen perceiving him fluc- 
tuating, propofed an accommodation, which they 
were now glad to embrace. When the articles 
were drawn up, (he obferved that it would be of no 
force fhould fhe fign them while fhe remained in 
captivity •, and the guard being withdrawn, fhe ef- 
caped to Dunbar, whither fhe was accompanied by Mary ef- 
her husband. Having thus recovered her liberty, ca P es to 

Dunbar • 

fhe pardoned the earls of Murray, Argyle, Rothes, 
and Glencairn ; as for the duke of Chateleraud, he 
had parted from them before their flight to Eng- 
land. Then fhe gave vent to her indignation againft 
the murderers of Riccio. Morton, Ruthven, and 
Douglas, fled to Newcaftle ; but fome of their ac- 
complices were executed ; and now fhe laid afide ail 
marks of regard for Henry. Indeed, when we con- 
£der 3 over and above the former provocations fhe 

R 3 had 


a. c. 1565. } iac | undergone from his infolent behaviour, this lad 
additional outrage, we cannot fuppofe that any wo- 
man of fpirit and fenfibility could help looking 
upon him with abhorrence and detedation. He 
had even contrived the murder of her favourite in 
m1, fuch a manner as would mod conduce to her hor- 
ror and affliction. He infided upon Riccio's being 
affailinated in her prefence, although die was at that 
time fix months advanced in her pregnancy ; al- 
lowed her to be infulted by Ruthven, while her 
mind mud have been in the utmoft agication -, and 
afterwards confined her in a chamber, fecluded from 
her attendants, when mod (he needed their aflif- 
fesabody tance and confolation. No wonder then that fne 
-I.^Sk now treated him in her turn with indifference and 
the diftorb- difdain. When Hie affembled a body of forces and 
kngto. t: returned to Edinburgh, he difowned the tranfac- 
tion in the privy-council, and figned a declaration 
to this effect, which was publifned by way of pro- 
clamation j fo that he incurred the univerfal con- 
tempt of the people. The queen effected a formal 
reconciliation between the fugitive lords and the 
earls of Huntley and Bothwell ; though it does not 
feem to have been fincere on the part of the latter, 
who endeavoured to perfuade her that Murray in- 
tended to bring back Morton and his confederates, 
while (he mould be confined in child- bed. 
a. c. 1566. On the nineteenth day of June, Mary was de- 
is deii- jivered of a fon, in the cadle of Edinburgh : and 
prhi«° af- Sir James Melvil immediately difpatched to the 
prwa.ds court of England, to notify this event to Eliza- 
n$and. beth, who was delired to (land godmother to the 
prince of Scotland. The ambaffador found Eliza- 
beth at Greenwich, where he was gracioufly re- 
ceived ; and the queen expreffed uncommon joy at 
the news of Mary's delivery. But this was all af- 
fectation : for when Cecil made her acquainted with 
the event on the preceding evening, while (he was 



engaged in a ball with the nobility, £he forthwith a. c. i S 6$, 
•difmiifed the company, and exhibited marks of for- 
*row and mortification. She feemed to think Mary's 
pregnancy a reproach upon her own barrennefs. 
She looked upon that princefs with the eyes of jea~ 
joufy and envy. She had been lately fei-zed with a 
diforder ; and during her indiipofition, the miniftry 
began to cabal about the fucceffion. Eoth parties, 
though ignorant of each other's refolution, had de- 
termined, in cafe of Elizabeth's death, to raife Mary 
to the throne of England. Perhaps the queen had Meivii. 
received fome intimation of their defign, and con- 
fidered the birth of this child as an event that would 
corroborate the interefl of her rival. Her fears from Secret P rac- 
that quarter were lately increafed by the intelligence Jwo'queens 
received by one Rooksby, whom Cecil employed as ">.the<k>- 
a fpy at the court of Mary. This man pretended to SchTther. 
be a refugee from England, andprofefTed the deeped 
rancour againft Elizabeth. He found means to 
infinuate himfelf into the confidence of Mary, and 
diicovered all her practices in England to his patron 
Cecil. Sir Robert Melvil, the Scottifh ambaffador 
at London, was forbid the court, for having ca- 
balled in favour of his mifixefs among- the Enslifh 
malcontents. He, being informed of Rooksby 's 
real character, gave notice to his miftrefs, who or- 
dered the fpy to be arrefted, and feized upon his 
papers, among which were fome of Cecil's letters 
in cypher. Sir Henry Killigrew had been ieht to 
Scotland as ambaiTador-extraordinary, to congratu- 
late Mary upon her recovering her liberty •, and to 
allure her that the queen of England had, by a pro- 
clamation, ordered the earl of Morton and his ac- 
complices to quit her dominions : notwithstanding 
which proclamation, they were privately afiured of 
her protection. Killigrew was likewife inftructed 
to complain of fome diforders upon the border; of 
Mary's correfponding with O'Neal of Ireland, to 

R 4 Ipiri: 


a. c. r 5 66. fpjrit up a rebellion in that country; and of her pro- 
tecting Rooksby, who was a rebellious fubjedt of 
England. This la(t article of complaint furnifhed 
the Scottifh queen with a pretext for arrefting 
Rooksby ; but Killigrew hearing of the difcovery 
{he had made, communicated the particulars to 
Cecil, and Elizabeth thought proper to drop the 
affair. t 

Thefe circumftances confidered, the two queens 
mud have hated one another with the moft impla- 
cable animofity. Yet they ftill preferred the ex- 
Camden. ternal marks of friendfhip. Mary, in order to ef- 
face the impreffions which Rooksby's intelligence 
muft have made upon the mind of the Englifti 
queen, wrote a letter to Sir Robert Melvil, forbid- 
ding him to maintain any correfpondence with the 
malcontents of England ; and fent another to fe- 
cretary Cecil, protefting that me v/ould give them 
no fort of countenance. Elizabeth, on the other 
hand, confented to ftand godmother to. the young 
prince of Scotland, who was baptized by the name 
of James, at Stirling, in prefence of the ambaffa- 
dors from France, England, and Savoy. After 
the ceremony, the earl of Bedford, who was Eliza- 
beth's ambaffador, prefTed the queen of Scotland 
to ratify the treaty of Edinburgh : but Mary de- 
clined complying with this requeft. Neverthelefs, 
flie offered to fign a new treaty, importing, that me 
fhould not affume the title or arms of the queen of 
England, during the life of Elizabeth and her 
Henry, king pofterity. By this time her husband was treated 
d!|i£i la by' with fuch indignity, that the earl of Bedford, when 
the queen n ,» departed from Scotland, defired Sir James Mel- 

Sn^ge- V ^ t0 te ^ tne °i ueen fr° m mm > tnat *h e ought to live 

nerai. m another manner with the king, for the fake of 

Meivii. ner own reputation. He is even faid to have been 

kept deftitute of decent apparel, fo that he could 

not appear in public y while the earl of Bothwell 



flourifhed in the queen's favour, and (hone with the A - c * *5 66 * 
utmoft magnificence, to the manifeft diffatisfaction 
of the people, who looked upon him as an ambi- 
tious and profligate nobleman, devoid of principle 
and decorum. 

About this period Elizabeth vifited the univer- The queen 
fity of Oxford, where fhe was magnificently enter- un ; ve rfity 
tained for a whole week, during which (he affifted of orford, 
at feveral academical exercifes. She anfwered a Camden, 
Greek oration in the fame language ; and, in a 
Latin fpeech, afTured the univerfuy of her conftant 
favour and protection. She had been at Cambridge 
on a former occalion ; and, in the fame manner, 
teftified her approbation of that univerfuy. On her 
return to London from the fummer progrefs, the 
parliament was aflembled ; and a motion was made 
in the lower houfe for petitioning her majefty, that 
fhe would be pleafed to marry, and fettle the fuc- 
ceflion of the crown. This motion was fuggefted 
by the earls of Pembroke and Leicefter, who had 
openly declared for the fucceffion of queen Mary, as 
well as by the duke of Norfolk, who acted more 
covertly in her behalf \ yet, in the debates which it 
produced among the commons, no mention was 
made of that pnncefs. Some maintained the claim 
of Catherine Grey countefs of Hertford -, others pro- 
pofed her younger filler the countefs of Cumber- 
land. Cecil oppofed the motion, and was reviled 
without doors, in lampoons and defamatory libels. 
The populace inveighed againft the queen's phyfi- 
cian doctor Huic, who was faid to have diffuaded 
her from marrying, on account of fome bodily in- 
firmity •, and fome members within the houfe ven- 
tured even to charge her with abandoning her coun- 
try and pofterity. The addrefs being prefented, The par]l - a _ 
fhe fignified her intention to marry ; but obferved mentaddreis 
that fhe could not declare her fucceffor without dan- m ar?y, ee a nd° 
ger to her own perfon. The commons, dififatisfied J5 ttle * he 



A.c. 1566. w ; tn t hj s anfwer, began to refume the matter; and 
fhe fent two meffages, requiring them to proceed 
no further. At length fhe remitted the third pay- 
ment of a fubfidy they had granted, in hope of pre- 
vailing upon her to declare her fucceflbr ; and dif- 
miffed them with a fpeech, in which fhe reprimand- 
ed them harfhly for their officious interpofition. 
She knew, that although they had not named Mary, 
fhe was the perfon at whom they aimed : fhe could 
diftinguifh the friends and abettors of that princefs; 
and the earls of Pembroke and Leicefter were for 
ibme time difgraced on account of their attachment 
to the -queen of Scotland. Nor was it without 
reafon that Elizabeth declined taking any open flep 
in favour of Mary's fucceffion, if there was any 
truth in the afTertion of MelviJ, who affirms the 
friends of the Scottifh queen were increafed to fuch. 
a degree in England, that fome whole counties 
were ready to take up arms in her favour, under 
officers already named by the chief nobility. 

Thefe fteps taken in behalf of Mary, by her 
friends in England, were fruftrated by an unfortu - 
nate event which about this time happened in her 
own jkingdom. She had for fome time lived un- 
happily with her hufband, whole folly, caprice, 
and prefumption, feemed daily to encreafe. He had 
!©(! all credit at court, and of confequence hated 
thofe who feemed to have fuperieded his influence. 
Among thefe were Both well, Murray, and Liding- 
ton, who had by this time prevailed upon the queen 
to pardon Morton and Lindfay, for the murder of 
Riccio : Ruthven would have enjoyed the fame fa- 
vour, had not he died at Newcaftle before the re- 
miffion could be obtained. Henry was fo incenfed 
againft Murray, that he threatened to take away 
his life •, and the other receiving intimation of his 
defign, is faid to have contrived a fcheme for anti- 
cipating his purpole, by afTaffinaung the king him- 




felf. That this project might operate the more AC - 's 66 * 
effectually for his own intercft, he is faid to have 
engaged Bothwell in the execution of the murder, 
by foothing his vanity and ambition with the hope 
of efpoufing his fovereign. He looked upon this 
nobleman as the rival of his intereff ; and therefore 
fought to raife him to a dangerous pinnacle of pow- 
er, from which his fall would be the greater. Mor- 
ton and Lidington were the confidents and abettors 
of Murray in this enterprife. They had propofed 
a divorce to the queen, and fhe could not be averfe 
to a feparation from the man whom me could nei- 
ther love or effeem : but flie charged them to take 
no ftep which mould hurt her confcience, or ble- 
mifh her reputation. The king being taken ill at 
Glafgow, of a diftemper which fome people believ- 
ed to be the effect: of poifon, adminiftred by thefe 
confederates, Mary halted thither, and attended 
him with the moil conjugal tendernefs, until he 
was in a condition to travel ; then he was conveyed 
in a litter to Edinburgh ; and, as the air of Holy- 
roodhoufe was damp and unhealthy, lodged in a 
higher fituation, at a place called the Kirkfield, 
on the fouth fide of the city. The houfe being Henry, king 

•j • i , , J . y i-i or Scotland, 

undermined, was blown up with gunpowder in the i s blown up 
middle of the night, and his body found at fome with s un - 

o ' j powder. 

diftance under a tree. The earl of Murray had fee 
out for St. Andrews on the preceding day, on a vi- 
fit to his wife, who had mifcarried : but, as he de- 
clared to one of his attendants, that the lord Darn- 
ly would lofe his life before morning, many peo- 
ple fufpe&ed that he was acceflfary to the murder. 
But the voice of the public became fo clamorous 
againft Bothwell, that he could not help taking 
fome fteps for his own j unification. 

Mean while Murray, being informed of the king's 
fate, returned to court, where he found the queen 
inconfolable : yet Bothwell ttill engroffed the great- 


i^z H 1 STORY of EN G LAN 

a.c. *$€£. e ft fl iare of the adminiftration. He offered to main- 
tain his innocence in fingle combat ; and a paper 
was fixed up in feveral public places, accepting his 
challenge, provided he would fight in a neutral 
place, where his own influence did not predominate. 
The earl of Lennox wrote a letter to the queen, im- 
peaching Both-well of the murder, and demanding 
juftke of her majefly : on the other hand, Murray, 
and feveral other noblemen, recommended him to 
the queen, as a proper peribn for her hufband, both 
on account of his ancient family, and faithful fer- 
vices, A proclamation had been iiTued for detect- 
ing and apprehending the perpetrators of the king*s 
murder - % and Murray having concerted proper rnea- 
fores with his anociates, obtained leaye to retire 
from the kingdom , that his abfence might the bet- 
ter fcreen him from fufpicion. He accordingly fet 
out for France* taking his way through England, 
where his conduct feems to have been countenanced. 
That he was concerned with the regicides, we may 
conclude from his declaration above mentioned, 
which the lord Herries affirmed to his face, at his 
own table, a few days after the murder ; from the 
protection of the earls of Huntley and Argyle to 
queen Elizabeth, in which they accufed Murray, 
Morton, and Lidington, as the contrivers of the 
alfafTination ♦, and from many other circumftances 
of Murray's character and conduct* At the fame 
time we mud own, it is very ftrange that neither 
Bothwell on his death-bed, nor Morton in his con- 
feflion, nor any one perfon concerned in the mur- 
der, directly accufed Murray of being an accom- 
plice. The earl of Lennox continuing to impor- 
tune Mary for juftice on Bothwell, and the other 
affaflins of his fon, this nobleman applied himfelf 
to the earl of Argyle, lord judiciary of Scotland, 
defiring that he might be brought to his trial, The 
day was accordingly fixed, and intimation given to 



the earl of Lennox: but this accufer, confeious of A c a 5 u - 
his own weaknefs in point of, did not think 
proper to appear againft Bothwell, who had the 
whole power of the kingdom in his hands. Hede- eau-fea, 
fired that the trial might be poftponed •, and his re- 
queft being denied, contented himfelf with fending 
an agent to proteft againft the proceedings of the 
court; notwithstanding which proteft, Bothwell was B ° a T® 

P a t -acquitted aw 

acquitted, as no perion appeared to carry on the the :murifcr, 
profecution ; and his acquittal afterwards approved 
and confirmed by parliament. Then a good num- Keith. 
ber of the nobility engaged in a bond of affeciation 
to maintain his innocence with their bodies, heri- 
tage, and goods, and to promote and advance his 
marriage with her majefiy. 

Thus fupported, Bothwell refolved to marry the 
queen by force, provided he could not obtain her 
voluntary confent: v/ith this view he raifed a body 
of eight hundred horfe, and intercepting her on 
her return from Stirling, conveyed her to his caftle 
of Dunbar, where he completed his rape. He 
forthwith commenced a fuit for a divorce from his 
wife, who was filler to the earl of Huntley, on 
pretence of confaneuinity 9 in the court of the arch- 
bifhop of St. Andrews j and me profecuted him at 
the fame time, before the commiffary- court for 
adultery with his maid-fervant. He was convicted 
of the adultery, and fentence of divorce awarded 
againft him; and the archbimop declared his mar- 
riage null and void, becaufe he had,, without a dif~ i; ,;u... 
penfation, married a perfon within the prohibited Bothw, 
decrees of confanguinity. Being now fepa rated from capvl ™ - r: 
his wife, in due courfe of law, he conducted the to w wa« 
queen to the caftle of Edinburgh, where Ihe par- is af8er - 
doned him for the rape, created him duke of Ork- nea. 
ney, and finally married him, on the fifteenth day 
of May, contrary to the general fenfe of her peo- 
ple, and that regard fhe ought to have preferved 
for her own reputation, Notwithftandmg the for- 


a. c. i 5 66 geries and calumny of her enemies, fhe appears to 
have been noc only innocent and ignorant of the de- 
fi^n againfl her hufband's life, but alfo convinced of 
Bothwell's integrity. Neverthdefs, we cannot vindi- 
cate her from the charge of indifcretion, in efpoufing 
a profligate nobleman, equally notorious for info- 
lence and bad morals, fuppofed by the generality of 
her people guilty of her hufband's murder ; one who 
had preiumed to ravifh her, while his wife was flill 
living, and his marriage in force ; and who was 
afterwards convicted of adultery with another wo- 
man. This was undoubtedly an imprudent and 
fatal ftep, by which fhe entailed upon herfelf 
numberlefs mortifications, mifery, and ruin. Both- 
well, not fatisfied with the honour of efpoufing 
his fovereign, endeavoured to make himfelf maf- 
ter of the perfon of the young prince, who had 
been committed to the care of the earl of 
Marr •, but this nobleman refufed to part with 
his charge. On the contrary, he engaged in an 
aflbciation againfl Bothwell, with thofe very lords 
who had bound themfelves to maintain his in- 

He had now rendered himfelf odious to the na- 
tion •, and Murray, by whofe inftigation they a&ed 3 
thought it was high time to labour at his deftruc^ 
tion. Having formed a league at Stirling, they 
raifed a body of troops, on pretence of defending 
the young prince from the machinations of his ftep- 
father -, and they had well nigh furprifed the queen 
and her hufband at Holyrood-houfe, from whence 
Hie efcaped with difficulty to the caftle of Borthwick : 
there fhe was beleaguered by the earl of Home - 9 but 
he could not prevent her efcaping to the caftle of 
Dunbar. Mean while the rebel lords entering 
Edinburgh, declared by proclamation, their defign 
was to take vengeance on Bothwell for murdering 
the king, ravilhing the queen, and confpiring 
againft the life of the prince. From hence they 

F9 : 


proceeded againft the queen, who had levied forces, A,c - l s 6 *- 
and advanced as far as Preftonpans. The confede- 
rates found her polled upon Carberry-hill, and both 
fides prepared for an engagement. De Croc, the 
French ambaffador, endeavoured in vain to effect an 
accommodation. After his mifcarriage, fhe defired 
to fpeak with Kirkaldy, laird of Grange, who aflur- 
ed her, the confederates defired nothing elih than 
that fhe would fend away the murderer of her huf- 
"band. Bothwell challenged any man that would 
tax him with that crime. His challenge was ac- Meivii. 
cepted fucceffively by Kirkaldy, Tuliibardin, and 
fhe lord Lindfay : but his heart failed, and he chofe 
to retire. The queen having complied with the 
conditions propofed by the confederates, was con- 
ducted to Edinburgh, where the populace treated Crawford. 
her with the utmoit indignity. From her palace 
of Holyrood-houfe, fhe was fent under a fcronp: Qii e?nM ^ r r 

11 n r >i'i O is confinea' 

guard to the cattle of Lochlevin, belonging to Wil- to the caft& 
liam Douglas, uterine brother to the earl of Mur- ofLocW3 - 
ray, who received an order figned by the aflbciated 
lords, to detain her in fafe cuftody. She was accord- 
ingly clofely immured, and cruelly infulted by Mur- 
ray's mother, who pretended fhe had been lawfully 
married to James V. and that Murray was the le- 
gitimate fruit of that marriage. 

The lords having taken this rebellious flep againfl 
their fovereign, apprehended feveral perfons fuipect- 
ed of having been concerned in the murder of the 
king ; and among thefe William Blackadder, who 
was convicted and condemned by a packed jury, 
and declared at his death that he was innocent of 
the crime laid to his charge j but that he believed 
Murray and Morton were the contrivers of it. 
They allowed Bothwell time to efcape to the Ork- 
neys, and then they fet a price upon his head by 
proclamation. The laird of Grange equipped two 
vcfTels 5. and, being accompanied by the bifhop of 


2 4 6 HIS TOR Y of ENGL AND. 

A. c. 1566. the Orkneys and the laird of Tullibardin, failed di- 
rectly to thofe ifles, from whence Bothwell efcaped 
with difficulty to Norway : but they took one 
of his fhips, with fome of his fervants and adhe- 
rents, who were afterwards executed for the murder. 
Some noblemen, who difapproved of the proceed- 
ings of the confederates, affembled at Hamilton, to 
deliberate upon means for releafing their fovereign ; 
and to thefe the general aflfembly of the kirk, then 
fitting, fent an invitation to come and afiift in regu- 
lating ecclefiaftical affairs ; but they refufed to truft 
themfelves in a place where they imagined their per- 
QueenEii- fons would not be fafe. The queen of England 
zabethin- being informed of Mary's imprifonment, affected 
hwbehaif. to refent fuch an outrage offered by fubjects to their 
fovereign ; and perhaps me actually felt an emotion 
of jealoufy at their prefumption againft the regal 
power, though from the beginning fhe had certainly 
fomented the troubles of Scotland. She difpatched 
Sir Nicholas Throgmorton to intercede for the cap- 
tive queen, and to exprefs her difpleafure at Mary's 
confinement. He was inftructed to threaten, in her 
name, that fhe would releafe their queen by force, 
Hiould they refufe to fet her at liberty on reafonable 
terms. He was furnifhed with a plan of accommo- 
dation between their fovereign and them ; and di- 
rected to propofe that the young prince fhould be 
educated in England. He was not permitted to 
fee the queen, and all his endeavours proved inef- 
A. c. 1567. Knox and all the other prefbyterian preachers, 
exerted their talents and influence to inflame the 
minds of the people againft the perpetrators of 
Queen Mary Darnley's murder ; and did not fcruple to accufe the 
is compelled queen as an accomplice in that afifafii nation. The 
crownfLiiT rebel lords prepared three inftruments to be figned 
Murray is by tne q Ue en ; namely, her refignation of the crown 
to her infant fon ; a commifiion appointing the earl 






of Murray regent during his minority ; and another A * c - 1 5 6 7 
nominating a council to govern the realm in cafe 
of that nobleman's death, or his declining the of- 
fice of regent. Theie deeds, fhe was compelled, Cdmden « 
by the mod brutal ufage, to fubfcribe; and Mor- 
ton accepted her refignation, in the name of the 
three eftates of Scotland, though he was veiled with 
no fuch power by that afTembly. Then they pro- 
ceeded to crown the prince, who was but thirteen 
months old -, and the ceremony was performed at 
Stirling, by Adam Bothwell bifhop of Orkney ; 
but Throgmorton refufed to affilt at the corona- 
tion, and was, in a very little time after this tranf- 
a£tion> recalled by queen Elizabeth. The lords, 
arTembled at Hamilton, now entered into an aflb- 
ciation for effecting the queen's releafe ; and had 
they been unanimous, they might have faved that 
unhappy princefs from deftrucYion : but when Mur- 
ray returned, and reaffumed the regency, they en- 
deavoured fingly to make peace with him ; and he 
perceiving their di (union, compelled them to accept 
of fuch terms as he thought proper to propofe. In j e bb« * 
his way through England, he was indulged with a 
penfion from queen Elizabeth. When he vifited his 
fovereign at the caftle of Lochlevin, far from com- 
forting her under her affliction, he reviled her with 
the moft injurious reproaches, and treated her fo 
barbaroufly, that from thence forward me confider- 
ed him as her mortal enemy. His regency being 
confirmed, in a parliament convoked by him at 
Edinburgh, he figned a warrant for the execution 
of Dalgleifh, Powry, and two other fervants of 
Bothwell, who had been tried and convicted of af- 
(ifting in the king's murder. They folemnly pro- 
tefted before God and his angels, they had heard 
Bothwell declare that Murray and Morton were the 
contrivers of the murder ♦, and that the queen was camdenj; 
entirely innocent. 

N2 a6, S The 


a. c. 1567. The p renc h king being informed of Mary's mif- 
fortune, was fo incenfed at her rebellious fubjects, 
for fuch an outrage againfl the royal prerogative, 
that he fent over Pafquier to London, to concert 
meafures with the queen for compelling the Scottifh 
rebels to fet their fovereign at liberty. Elizabeth 
declined ufing violent methods, on pretence that 
they would endanger the life of her dear coufin -, but 
fhe propofed that the Scots mould be entirely pro- 
hibited from trading with France and England, un- 
til their queen mould be releafed. This was the on- 
ly meafure in which Elizabeth and the French king 
were likely to concur. The term of eight years 
fince the treaty of Cateau being now expired, Sir 
Thomas Smith was fent over to Picardy, with 
"Winter matter of the ordnance for the fea-lervice, 
to demand the reftitution of Calais, which they ac- 
cordingly claimed by found of trumpet, at one of 
the gates, in prefence of a notary, and feveral wit- 
k^g^efufo neffes. Then Smith proceeded to Paris, where, in 
to deliver conjun&icn with Sir Henry Norreys, the Englifh. 
Enl'^ac- refident at that court, he made the like demand of 
cording to Charles, who appointed the chancellor de L'Hopi- 
treaty. ta j tQ fig n jf v t ^ e rea f ons w hich hindered him from 

reftoring Calais. Thefe arguments were anfwered, 
and refuted by Smith ; and the affair produced a 
long difpute, which was not finifhed when the civil 
wars broke out in France : but the place was never 
reftored. Mean while the emperor Maximilian 
fent the count of Stolberg into England, to renew 
the treaty for a marriage between his brother Charles 
the archduke, and queen Elizabeth, who had often 
expreffed her approbation of fuch an alliance : but, 
after long debates touching the maintenance of 
Charles, his affuming the title of king, and the 
fettlement of the fucceflion, it was wholly broke off, 
on account of their differing in, point cf religion -, 
and Charles efpoufed Mary, daughter to the duke 



of Bavaria. At the fame time ambafladors arrived A - c « f s 6 7 
from John Bafilowitz, emperor of Ruffia, with rich Embafly 
prefents of furs to the queen, and afiurances of Bafiiowt™ 
friendfhip and protection to the Englifh merchants, emperor of 
who mould fettle or trade in his dominions. An- qu " e nEH- 
thony Jenkinfon, a*h Englifhman, who had travel- Be ^. 
led through part of the Ruffian dominions, accom- 
panied the ambafladors, with directions from the Czar 
to propofe an offenfive and defenfive alliance with 
the queen of England againft all the world. 
Though fhe civilly declined fuch a league, he indul- 
ged the Ruflia company with an exclufive trade to 
Archangel ; and the Englifri merchants in general 
with a monopoly for their cloth and other commo- 
dities throughout all his dominions. 

About this period, Sir Henry Sidney, the queen's 
lord lieutenant for Ireland, extinguifhed fome dan- 
gerous commotions which had arifen in that coun- 
try. Shan O'Neale had tyrannized over the inha- l^°*j a 
bitants of Ulfter, reduced Armagh to allies, expel- shan 
led Macguire from his paternal inheritance, ravag- ONea,e « 
ed the lands of Macguire and others, who were un- 
der the protection of the Englifh, and openly rebel- 
led againft Elizabeth. But, upon his fubmiffion,  
me created him baron of Dungannon, and earl of 
Tyrone. Not fatisfied with thefe honours, he af- 
fembled an army of his vafials, afiumed the title of 
king of Ulfter, and offered to hold the kingdom of 
Ireland under the fovereignty of Mary queen of 
Scotland. Randolph, a brave officer, being fent 
againft him by the lieutenant, routed him with 
great (laughter at Derry, though the victor loft his 
life in the engagement. Shan fled to the bogs and 
faftneffes, while Sir Henry bidney built fome forts 
to ftraiten him in his quarters, and re-eftablifhed 
O'DonneL who had been driven from his country. 
But Sidney being called away to comprife a quar- 
rel between the earls of Ormond and Defmond, 
Shan re aflembled a bodv of troops, and attacked 
; S.2 Dun- . 


a c. ifr. Dundalk, from whence he was repulfed by the gar-* 
rifon. Then he carried off O'Donnel's wife, and 
retired to Clandeboy, to follicit the affiftance of the 
Scottifri Highlanders, who had formerly joined his 
enemies, and been defeated by his forces. He had 
even (lain two brothers of the Highland chieftains, 
who received him with feeming courtefy; but whether 
they had determined to make away with him, or he 
provoked them over his cups with brutal language* 
touching the chaftity of their mother, they (lew him 
with all his company. Though he left two legiti- 
mate fons, his eltate was conftfcated by the lrifli 
parliament, and Tirlogh O'Neile was, by the queen's 
permiflion, elected chief of the fept, by the appella- 
tion of O'Neile. Neverthelefs, as a check upon 
this new chieftain, (he received into favour Shan's 
nephew Hugh baron of Dungannon, a young man 
of a very intriguing genius. The diforders of Ul- 
fter being thus appeafed, the quarrel between the 
earls of Ormond and Defmond, who had fought a 
battle near Dromille, was partly quelled by the au- 
thority of the lieutenant, who was afterwards oblig- 

Camden. e d to furprife Defmond and his uncle near Kilmal- 

a.c. i 5 68. loc, and fend them prifoners to England. 

By this time the kings of France and Spain feem- 

civiiwaiin ec j t0 | iave engaged in a league to exterminate the 

* ranee ic~ *^ ^ '-' 

jiev.ed. proteftants from their dominions. The duke of 
Alva entering the Low Countries, at the head of a 
powerful army, committed unheard-of cruelties 
upon thofe who profeffed the reformed religion. 
The court of France levied fix thoufand Swifs, irt 
order to crufh the Huguenots. The prince of Con- 
de and the admiral reaffembling fome forces for 
their own defence, attempted to furprife the king 
at Meaux : but, failing in that enterprife, the prince 
blocked up Paris ; and in the neighbourhood of that 
capital, engaged the conftable, who was (lain in the 
action. The prince was afterwards joined by Cafi- 
mir count Palatine, with ten thoufand horfe and 

foot ; 


foot : and La Noue, one of the chief of the Hugue- a.c. i 5 6g. 
nots, made himfelf mailer of Orleans. Queen Eli- 
zabeth, looking upon her own fafety as infeparably 
connected with the proteftant intereft, ordered Nor- 
reys, her ambalTador, to intercede with Cnarles in 
behalf of the Huguenots-, and to allure him thac 
me would not tamely fufter them to be opprefTed. 

This infinuation, together with the fuccours they 
received from Germany, induced the French court 
to confent to a pacification ; the terms of which, 
however, they had no intention to obferve. Cathe- 
rine de Medicis, the queen-mother, forefeeing 
a fpeedy rupture, endeavoured to alienate Eliza- 
beth from the interefts of the French proteftants ; 
and for that purpofe propofed a marriage between 
the Englim queen and her ion the duke of Anjou, 
who was then but feventeen years of age. While Caufe* of 
this was in agitation, Philip king of Spain took oc*jJ^j° n 
cafion to manifeft his difgufl to the Englim nation. Elizabeth 
Man, who was Elizabeth's ambaffador at Madrid, %\*ffi 
was forbid the court, and confined to a country vil- 
lage, for having dropped fome difrefpectful expref- 
fions concerning the pope and the Roman catholic 
religion •, and Sir John Hawkins, who commanded 
a fleet of merchant-fhips in the bay of Mexico, 
was attacked by the Spaniards, who flew a great 
number of his men, and took and plundered three 
of his veftels. The queen was not a little incenfed 
at thefe outrages, though me found it convenient to 
fupprefs fome part of her refentment. Her atten- 
tion was turned upon events that ftill more nearly Camdcn - 
affected her intereft. 

Mary queen of Scotland having efcaped from the Mary of 
caftle of Lochlevin, by the means of George Douglas eS^Lm 
the governor's brother, repaired to Hamilton, where her confine. 
me found herfelf, in a few days, at the head of fix ment * 
thoufand men 3 affembled by the earjs 0/ Huntley, 

S 3 Suthez- 


a. c 1568. Sutherland, Errol, Montrofs, Crawford, Argyle, 
Cafiils, Rothes, and Eglington, the lords Somer- 
ville, Yefter, Livingfton, Borthwick, Herries, San- 
quhar, Rofs, Boyd, Ogilvy, Oliphant, Drummond, 
Elphinfton, Sinclair, Cathcart, Claude Hamilton, 
and a great number of bifhops, abbots, lairds, and 
perfonsof diftinction. Thefe engaged in an aflbci- 
ation for the defence of her perfon, and the fupport 
of her royal authority : fhe ifTued a proclamation, 
declaring that the inftrument fhe had figned at 
Lochlevin was extorted from her by the fear of 
death •, and the lords there aflembled adjudged her 
refignation to be null and invalid, as the effect of 
compulfion. Murray was at that time within 
eight miles of Hamilton, holding a juftice-court 
at Glafgow, attended by the earls of Morton, 
Marr, Glencairn, and the lord Sempil, and others 
of the council. He forthwith fent for a fupply of 
five hundred men from Stirling, and was joined by 
the earl of Home, with fix hundred men from the 
Merfe and Lothian •, fo that he refolved to give 
battle, though his army did not exceed the num- 
ber of four thoufand. The queen fent John Beaton 
to England to foliicit the afiiftance of Elizabeth; 
and he was ordered to proceed to the court of 
France on the fame errand : but the queen of Eng- 
land, who did not relifh her application to the 
French monarch, arTured this envoy that fhe would 
aflifthis miilrefs ; and, in her inftructions to Leigh- 
ton, whom fhe difpatched to Scotland with offers 
of her mediation, fhe directed him to tell Mary's 
rebellious fubjects, that the whole power of Eng- 
feate^i l aR d fhould be employed in her behalf. In the 
Langfide by mean time the loyahfts advifed the queen to march 
hisTo^fe^ towards Dumbarton, which was a fcrong fortrefs, 
derates. where fhe could remain in fafety, until all her 
faithful fubjedts fhould affemble in arms for her 




defence. In their rout, they found Murray ad- A » c -'5 68 - 
vantageoufly pofted at Langfide ; and, attempting Keith. 
to diflodge him, were defeated. J ebb * 

The queen fled wirh the utmoft precipitation to she flics 
the abbey of Dundrenan, near Kirkudbright, in Gal- t0 E n g!"» d 
loway *, and embarking with the lord Hemes, and 
a train of fixteen perfons, landed at Wirkington in 
Cumberland. From thence fhe was conducted to 
Cockermouth, and afterwards conveyed to the caf- 
tle of Carlile by Lowther, depury-governor of that 
fortrefs. On her firft arrival in England, fhe wrote 
a letter to Elizabeth, giving a detail of her misfor- 
tunes, intimating her confidence in her filler's 
princely affection and affiftance ; and requesting that 
fhe might be conducted immediately into her pre- 
fence. Sir Francis Knolles was fent to comfort her 
with a verbal promife of affiftance ; but me declin- 
ed feeing her, on pretence of her being charged 
with divers attrocious crimes, of which it would 
be neceffary to acquit herfelf. From Carlile, Mary 
fent the lord Henries with another letter, renewing 
her requeft of being admitted into Elizabeth's pre- 
fence, that fhe might anfwer to the crimes laid to 
her charge. It was but reafonable, fhe faid, that 
a princefs fo near to her in blood, mould hear and 
relieve her in her diflrefs ; fhe therefore defired that 
Elizabeth would either affifl her againft her rebellious 
fubjects, or allow her to follicit fuccour in fome other 
country -, obferving it was unjuft to detain her a pri- 
foner in the caftle of Carlile, as fhe had voluntarily 
come into the kingdom, confiding in the affection 
of her majefty, fo often expreffed by meffengers, 
letters, and remembrances. The council of Eng- 
land were not a little perplexed at this event. They 
forefaw that fhould Mary be allowed to retire, fhe 
would find refuge in France, and the Guifes would 
revive her claim to the crown of England -, the old 
alliance between France and Scotland would be re- 

S 4 newed; 


a. c. 1568. newec j . anc ] t } ie Englifh. faction in this lad king- 
dom be wholly fupprefied. On the ether hand, 
her detention in England would be condemned all 
over Europe as an act of the mod flagrant inhu- 
manity and injuHice : and perhaps excice the com- 
panion of the Englilh, (o as to produce fome dan- 
gerous commotion in favour of a princefs whom 
the majority of them efteemed as the prefumptive 

tained'p"-" ^ xir to tne crown * Notwithstanding this apprehen- 
foneratcar. f l0 n, they determined to detain her as a prifoner, 
until (he fhould renounce her prefent claim to the 
crown of England, and vindicate herfelf from the 
charge of being accdlary to the murder of lord 
DarnJy, who was a natural fubjedt of England. 
This determination may be afcribed to the political 
maxims of Cecil, whole conftant aim was to em- 
broil all the neighbouring kingdoms-, but in all 
probability it was influenced by the private pafljons 
of Elizabeth, who hated Mary as her rival in royal- 
ty, and her fuperior in beauty and other female ac- 
complifhments. She wanted nothing but a pretence 
for detaining this i'lluftrious captive wirh fome fba- 
dow of juftice-, and (he feemed to be aihamed of 
founding her detention upon the accusation of rebel- 
lious fubjects, againft whofe treafon it was her duty 
to have protected her kinfwoman. Befides, fhe had 
no right to exercife any jurifdiction over an inde- 
pendent fovereign, who was moreover intitled to all 
the rights of hofpitality j aud, by admitting the 
charge of notorious rebels againft their miftrels, fhe 
would have created a precedent equally difgraceful 
and dangerous to regal authority. On thefe confl- 
derations, (lie tampered with Margaret countefs of 
Lennox, Darnley's mother, who had been impri- 
foned on account of her ion's marriage, and releaf- 
cteied«fher cd after his deceaie. This lady, who entirely de- 
huiland's pended upon Elizabeth, was perfuaded to prefent 
a petition to the queen, praying that Mary of Scot- 


land might be profecuted for her hufband's murder. A * c - '5 68 « 
The countefs, afterwards being convinced of Mary's 
innocence, implored forgivenefs of that princefs, 
alluring her (lie had been deceived with falfe fug- 
geftions, by the exprefs command of Elizabeth, 
and the perlbafions of the lords of the privy-council. Keith * 

The earl of Murray in the mean time punifhed 
the Hamiltons, and all who were concerned in the 
queen's defence, with the utmoft rigour ; he had 
fpies among the pretended friends of queen Mary, 
who perfuaded her to forbid all her loyal fubjects to 
carry on hoftilities in her behalf, and to rely entirely 
on the afliftance of Elizabeth, who fent Mr. Mid- 
dlemore to fummon the earl of Murray, either in 
perfon or by proxy, to appear in England, and 
Jhew caufe for the cruel treatment to which he had 
fubjecled his own fovereign, and her kinfwoman ; 
otherwife fhe would aflift her to the utmoft of her 
power againft ail her enemies. Murray, who was 
perfectly well acquainted with the real fentiments 
of queen Elizabeth, caufed a commiflion to be ex- 
pedited under the great feal of Scotland, empower- 
ing himfelf, the earl of Morton, the bifhop of 
0. kney, the lord Lindfay, and the abbot of Dum- 
fermling, to meet the Englifh deputies, and explain 
die reaibns which induced them to proceed infucha 
manner againft Mary. To thefe com miiTioners, James 
Macgill, Henry Balnaves, and the celebrated George 
Buchanan, were joined as afiiftants. They were 
accompanied by the bifhop of Murray, fecretary 
Lidington, the lairds of Pittarrow, North-Berwick, 
and Cleiili, Nicholas Elphinfton, and Tohn Wood-,. ■. , 
fecretary to the regent. They were met at York, appoints 
in the beginning of October, by the duke of Nor- comn ; iffi<> - 

o P J rrrs to exa- 

folk, the earl of Suffolk, and Sir Ralph Sadler, ap-minethe 
pointed commiflioners by Elizabeth,* to hear and^^" 
examine all difputes between Mary and the regent, ana her re- 
At the fame cim? the Scottifli queen lent thither John S£ 



a.c. 1568. L e fl e y btfhop of Rofs, the lords Livingftone, Boyd, 
and Herries, Gavin Hamilton commendator of 
Kilwinning, with the lairds of Lochinvar, Kirling, 
Roflin, and Garntully, as her friends and commif- 
fioners, to promote an agreement, under the media- 
tion of Elizabeth * for they did not at all expect 
tefley; that the queen of England intended to act the part 
of a judge. When they were undeceived in this 
particular, they entered a proteft in the name of 
their fovereign, importing that though fhe had con- 
fented to her coufin's hearing and terminating 
in perfon or by commiffioners, the differences be- 
tween her and her rebellious fubjects, fhe did not 
acknowledge herfelf fubject to any judge upon earth, 
being a free princefs, and holding her imperial crown 
of God alone. The Englifri commiffioners made 
a proteft in their turn, for faving the fuperiority 
which England claimed over Scotland. Next day 
Mary's agents exhibited a paper, containing a de- 
tail of the rebellions which had been raifed againfl 
U h Te m k en This was anfwered by Murray, who alledged 
ray accufcs that the lords had taken arms to revenge the death 
^Ln° vc " °f king Henry upon Bothwell ; and that the queen, 
being weary of the toils of government, had volun- 
tarily refigned the crown to her fon, and appointed 
the earl of Murray regent of the kingdom during 
his minority. Mary's commiflioners refuted thefe 
allegations, and requefted that the queen of England 
would affift and fupport their miftrefs in the reco- 
very of her crown, and the fuppreffion of fuch re- 
bellious attempts : they likewife prefented an at- 
tefted copy of the proteflation made by the earls of 
Huntley and Argyle, charging Murray and Mor- 
ton as the contrivers of the king's murder. 

The duke of Norfolk, a nobleman of an amiable 
character, who had ever been zealous for Mary's 
fucceffion to the crown of England, was fo fcanda- 
lized at this renunciation, and apprehenfive of its 




being ufed to the prejudice of the Scottifh queen, A - c « x 5 6& * 
that he contrived an expedient for putting a flop at . 
once to the proceedings. He contracted a friend- greement" 
fhip with the regent ; and in a private conference, between the 
reprefented the difgrace and injury that would ac- Norfolk 
crue to him and his nation, as well as to the young andthe 
prince, from this accufation of his mother. Hegave rege 
him to underftand that queen Elizabeth would not 
determine either for or againfl the queen of Scots, 
whether fhe mould be found innocent or guilty; 
and he advifed him to demand, at their next meet- 
ing, whether or not the Englifh commiffioners had 
authority to pronounce a definitive fentence, in cafe 
of conviction. Murray, who began to fear, not only 
that he mould fail in his endeavours to give an air 
of probability to his allegations, but alfo that 
Mary's agents would retort the guilt upon his own 
head, relblved to comply with the duke's advice ; 
and next day, when he was called upon to produce 
his evidence againfl Mary, he defired to know 
whether they had power to pronounce the Scottifli 
queen guilty, or not guilty ; whether, in cafe of 
her conviction, fhe mould be delivered into his 
Rands, or detained in England ; and whether or not 
queen Elizabeth would maintain the authority of c d 
the young king, and his own regency? When the 
commiffioners anfwered they had no fuch power, 
but the queen's royal word was fufflcient, Murray 
refufed to proceed, until he mould fee the queen's 
hand and feal for the performance of what he re- 
quired ; and this demur produced a delay, during 
which the duke of Norfolk and the regent agreed Keith. 
that this laft fhouJd not accufe queen Mary ; that 
the duke fhould reflore Murray to the queen's fa- 
vour, and obtain her confirmation of his regency ; 
and that thefe two new friends mould labour jointly 
for the good of both nations. Elizabeth, without MelvH - 
taking the leafl notice of Murray's demands, evoked 


evoked to 


a.c. 156s. t h e w h j e a ff a j r t0 London, and conftituted a new 
Thecaufeis conimiffion, from which the duke of Norfolk was 
excluded, becaufe the Scottifh deputies reprefented 
him as a favourerof Mary, who entertained thoughts 
of marrying that princefs. She had been conveyed 
from Carlifle to Bolton in Lancamire : but this 
country being full of Roman catholics, who might 
raife a rebellion in her favour, me was now, at the 
requeft of her accufers, removed to the caftle of 
Tutbury, in Staffordshire, and committed to the 
charge of the earl of Shrewsbury- The duke of 
Norfolk had found means to make Mary acquaint- 
ed with what had paffed between him and Murray ; 
and fhe communicated the tranfacYion to one of her 
confidents, who was a fpy employed by Morton, to 
whom it was immediately imparted. He forthwith 
difcovered it to the earl of Leicefter, who durft not 
conceal it from the queen ; and fhe was incenfed 
againi! Norfolk, who candidly owned the corres- 
pondence, and declared his zeal for the fucceffion 
of young James to the throne of England ; while 
Morton was exafperated againft the regent for hav- 
ing taken fuch a Hep without his privity and con- 

Murray wanted to return to Scotland, on pre- 
tence of a fcheme which he faid the earl of Argyle 
had formed for furprifing the caftle of Stirling, in 
which the prince refided : but now the real caufe of 
his backwardnefs to proceed in the accufation being 
difcovered, he was importuned in fuch a manner by 
his own colleagues, who reproached him with his 
falling off, and fo artfully cajoled with the Englifh 
miniftry, that he at length, with an appearance of 
reluctance, exhibited his charge, containing the 
pretended confeftions of Dalgleifh, and thofe whom 
he had put to death as accefifary to the king's mur- 
der j the queen's extorted refignation of the crown ; 
the decrees of his own facYion affembled in parlia- 

Mary pro- 
ceed? with 
the accufa- 


ment, and fome copies of letters and verfes, with- A * c « l s&. 
out date or fubfcription, faid to be written by the 
queen's own hand to Bothwell, and found in a box 
given by Sir James Balfour, governor of the caftle 
of Edinburgh, to Bothwell's domeflic Dalgleifh, 
upon whom it was feized, before he could convey it Lefl *^ 
to his matter. Thefe letters and verfes, produced 
in order to prove a criminal correfpondence between 
the queen and Bothwell, even before the death of 
her former husband, were forged for the purpofe 
by Murray and his confederates ; and now rein- 
forced by a paper called The Detection, written by 
Buchanan, to the eternal difgrace of that incompar- 
able genius. It contained a mod virulent accufa- 
tion of the queen's conduct, founded upon falfe and 
malicious mifreprefentations, and the pretended con- 
fefiion of fome unhappy people who were executed c dP „ 
as accefTaries to the king's murder. 

Elizabeth, although pleafed with thefe calumnies, 
which ftained the character of her rival, could not 
help defpifing and detefting the authors of fuch 
treachery and (lander. She even wrote a letter to 
Mary, comforting her in her affliction, declaring 
fhe believed the accufation was falfe and malicious, 
and exhorting her to be patient under her gentle 
confinement, where fhe was nearer the crown of 
England, than me would have been in her own 
country. Notwithstanding this profefiion of friend- 
fhip, me payed no regard to the remonltrances of 
Mary's commiflioners, who defired, in her name, 
that fhe might be heard in perfon before the Eng- 
lifh nobility, and the ambafTadors of foreign princes ; 
in which cafe, fhe did not doubt of being able to 
clear her own innocence, and prove the guilt of 
her adverfaries. Perceiving fhe had nothing to 
hope from the impartiality of Elizabeth, who treat- 
ed her fo cruelly, fhe inhibited her commiflioners 
from proceeding farther in what related to the dif- 


a. c. r 5 68. -fertn Ce between her and her rebellious fubjects of 
Scotland. The commiflion tor hearing the caufe 
was difiblved *, but the queen of England did not 
Ser" 11 " t ni * n k proper to pronounce any fentence. Before 
gent as the a flop was put to the proceedings, the bifhop of 
herht> V f- C R°^ s delivered to the council a meflage from his 
band's mur- rniftrefs to queen Elizabeth, importing^that mould 
me be admitted to the prefence of her good lifter, 
as her adverfaries Jjad been, fhe would undertake not 
only to vindicate her own character from their af- 
perfions, but even to prove that they themfelves 
were the authors of that murder which they had laid 
a.c. 1569. to her charge. The accufers were not a little ftartled 
at this declaration •, and lord Patrick Lindfay fent a 
perfon to give lord Herries the lie, and challenge 
him to fingle combat, mould he charge him with 
Levy's the king's murder. Herries replied, that he did 
tiofs. Ua * not charge Lindfay in particular ; but the names 
of the guilty mould be fpecified in proper time ; 
and then, if Lindfay would undertake their de- 
fence, he (Herries) fhould be ready to accept his 
challenge. The bifhop of Rofs perfifted in his 
propofal, and demanded a copy of the procefs and 
allegations produced againft his rniftrefs, that fhe 
might know how to frame her anfwers ; but the 
council excufed themfelves from complying with 
thefe demands. M. de la Mothe Fenelon, the 
French ambaffador, interpofed in her behalf, and 
importuned Elizabeth and her minifters to grant 
Mary's requeft ; but he was amufed with evafive 
anfwers, and general profeffions of Elizabeth's good 
■**nl. w iH towards her gentle filler. 

By this time Murray, through the mediation of 
Sir Nicholas Throgmorton, and fecretary Liding- 
ton, was admitted again into the. favour of the duke 
of Norfolk, who communicated his intention of 
marrying the queen of Scots, and effecting a match 
between young James and his only daughter Mar- 


garet. He likewife became bondfman to Eliza- 
beth, for two thoufand pounds lent to the regent, 
which he was afterwards obliged to pay. He made 
Mary acquainted with this new bond of friend- 
fhip ; and, as he had, in the firft emotion of his 
refentment, engaged the earl of WeftmoreJand to 
cut off the regent in his return to Scotland, he now 
delired thjui nobleman to let him pafs unmolefted. 
In return for all this generality, the perfidious 
Murray betrayed the correlpondence to Elizabeth, trays^L 
who engaged in a verbal league with the traitor, for^ uk « of 

/• Norfolk * 

the defence of the young prince, and the mainte- 
nance of his own adminiftration. She accommo- Rymer * 
dated him with the loan of five thoufand pounds, J*.* ™ Int0 
promifed to fupply him with three times the fum, country, 
and permitted him to retire into Scotland. Before 
his departure from London, the duke de Chatele- 
raud arrived in that city from France, where he had 
relided during the late troubles in his own country, 
and demanded of the Englifh court that Murray 
fhould be degraded from the regency, on account of 
his fpurious birth, and ambitious practices. He 
told Elizabeth, that fhould the regency be con- 
ferred upon him, to whom it of right belonged, ac- 
cording to the cuftom of the country, he would 
foon put an end to the civil war, and reftore his fo- 
yereign, without bloodfhed. This propofal was 
far from being agreeable to the queen of England, 
who declared fhe would oppofe him by force of 
arms, fhould he pretend to any (hare in tjie admi- 
niflration, or refufe to acknowledge the young 
prince's authority. She would not even allow him 
to fee his captive miflrefs at Tutbury, but caufed 
him to be detained at York, until he was releafed, 
at the inftances of Mary and the French ambafla- 
dor. When he returned to Scotland with the lord 
Hemes, and the conimendator of Kilwinning, he 
raifed fome forces, by virtue of a comrniffioh from 


2 62 

A. C. 1569. 

and impri- 
fons the 
duke of 


Philip and 


his fovereign : but in a conference held at Edin- 
burgh, with Murray and his partifans, touching a 
pacification, he was arretted, and, with the lord 
Herries, committed prifoner to the caftle of Edin- 

During thefe tranfactions the court of France, 
notwithstanding the late accommodation with the 
Huguenots, formed the defign of furprifing the 
prince of Conde in his own houfe •, but he received 
intimation of the fcheme, and efcaped to Rochelle. 
Then trte king forbade the exercife of the protec- 
tant religion, and banifhed all the minifters who 
preached up that doctrine. The perfecution raged 
at the fame time in the Low Countries ; and the 
prince of Orange was obliged to take refuge among 
the French Huguenots, whom Elizabeth fuccoured 
with a fupply of one hundred thoufand crowns, and 
a fine train of artillery. A great number of Fle- 
mifh families removed to England, and fettling un- 
der the queen's protection, in different parts of the 
kingdom, contributed greatly to the improvement 
of commerce. Towards the latter end of the laft 
year fome Bifcayan vefTels being taken by French 
pirates, who carried them into Englifh harbours, 
Elizabeth understanding that there was a confider- 
able fum of money on board, for the ufe of the 
duke of Alva, who was the great enemy of the pro- 
teftants in the Low Countries, feized it for her own 
purpofes, by way of loan, and gave fecurity to the 
Spanifh ambaflador for the payment. The duke of 
Alva demanding it in a peremptory manner, and 
receiving nothing but evafive anfwers, caufed all 
the Englifh merchants in the Netherlands to be ar- 
retted, and feized upon their effects. Elizabeth re* 
torted this act of hoftility upon the Flemings in 
England, and publifhed a proclamation on this 
fubject, which was anfwered by the Spanifh ambaf- 
fador, ' who likewife circulated fcandalous libels, 


h 1 2 A B E T H, £ty 

&fperfing the queen's reputation. She ordered him ^^ l &9* 
to be put under a guard for two days, and com- 
plained of his infolence to Philip ; from whom, 
however, fhe received no fa'tisfadiion. Thi3 qUar- 
rel having interrupted all commerce between Eng- 
land and the Low Countries, the Englifil mer- 
chants fent their commodities to Hamburgh ; and 
the duke of Alva not only forbade all communica- 
tion between the Flemings and Elizabeth's fubjects, 
but appointed fpies to inform him of whatever 
ihould be tranfacted contrary to this prohibition. 
Among thefe was* an Englifh papift called Story, 
who had been a violent perfecutor in the reign of 
Mary, and taken refuge in the Low Countries, at 
Elizabeth's acceflion. He was now extremely active 
againft his countrymen, till at length being decoyed 
on board of a veflel, laid to be loaded with contra- 
band goods, he was brought over to England, and 
afterwards executed for treafon. Mean while the 
Englifh fhips in Spain were confifcated, and the? 
crews either confined in the inquifition, or fent to 
the gallies. Philip prohibited the importation of 
oil, allom, fugar, rmd aromatics, from his domi- 
nions into England ; and tampered with the duke 
of Norfolk and the earl of Ormcnd to excite do- 
meftic difturbances : but they rejected his propofals, 
and difcovered his defigns to their fovereign, who> 
granted letters of marque againft the lubjecls of % 

Philip, until fuch a number of prizes were taken, 
that fhe found it neceifary to recal the commiflio- 
ners, rather than involve Herfelf in a war for which 
Ihe was not provided. 

At this period, a ftorm was brewed againft Cecil, 8c J£** f. 
by the duke of Norfolk, the marquis of Nor- 8amc 
thampton, and the earls of Arundel and Pembroke* 
They refented his great influence in the council j 
and, on the fuppofition that his deflgn was to inter- 
rupt th6 advantageous commerce with the Low 
N?. 56. T Cour^ 


a. c. 3569, Countries, and engage the nation in an expenfive 
war with a powerful enemy, they refolved to call 
him to account for his evil adminiftration, and the 
fal (hoods by which they affirmed he had milled her 
majefty. They were even joined by the earl of 
Leicefter, who complained to the queen of Cecil's 
management ; but he met with a very cold reception 
from Elizabeth, who efpoufed the caufe of Cecil, 
becaufe he had always flattered her private animo- 
fity againft the queen of Scotland. The earl of 
Murray, in his return to Scotland, had fent Sir 
Robert Melvil to Mary, with proteftations of the 
mod dutiful regard, and a propofal of marriage 
betwen her and the duke of Norfolk, which could 
not but be agreeable to queen Elizabeth, as well as 
to her own fubjects, and be attended with her im- 
mediate reftoration. To this meffage he received a 
favourable anfwer from his miftrefs, who confided 
in his fincerity, which had been vouched by Nor- 
folk •, and flie not only fent orders to Chateleraud, 
Argyle, and Huntley, to difmifs the forces they 
had raifed againft the regent ; but alfo furnifhed 
lord Herries with inftrudlions to accommodate mat- 
ters with him in a private treaty. Elizabeth, with 
whom Murray correfponded, had begun a treaty for 
the releafe and reftoration of Mary, with monfieur 
de Fenelon and the bifhop of Rofs, who acted as 
the ambalTador of the captive princefs. This pre- 
late prefented articles to the council, which were 
deemed not unreafonable, though fome few alte- 
rations were made. To thefe Mary took no ex- 
ceptions i but fhe defired time to procure the ap- 
probation of the French king, without which her 
friends in Scotland would not agree to the treaty. 
In this interval, her hnglifh parti fans, at the head 
of whom were the earls of Leicefter, Arundel, and 
Pembroke, fent Mr. Candifh to Mary, with a let- 
ter recommending Norfolk to her as an hufband > 
6 and 


and alluring her of their attachment and a Gl fiance, A> c - l s 6( >\ 
touching her fuccefllon to the crown of England. 
When fhe accepted of their recommendation in 
good part, they fecured the approbation of the earls 
of Derby, SufTex, Northumberland, Weftmoreland, 
and Cumberland : the duke of Norfolk prolecuted his 
fuit with Mary by letters, meffages, and tokens -, the 
French ambafTador obtained the confent of his ma- 
tter, of the duke and dutchefs, and cardinal of r „ , MM 

Lelley s n2* 

Lorrain 5 and Mary figned the contract, which wa$?otiat.e* 

deposited in the hands of monfieur de Fenelon, Anderfori. 

Mean while the public treaty between Elizabeth , Eli f abeth i8 
and the Scottifh queen was interrupted by the mu-inthe 


tual jealoufy and diitruft of the parties. Mary fnf- tiatkm *?T * 
pected Elizabeth of a deilgn to fecure the perfon Mary. 
of her fon, together with fome of the fortrefles in 
Scotland. Her couriers had been intercepted, 
and her letters feized upon the Englifh border* 
while thofe of her adverfaries pafild to and fro un - 
molefted. On the other hand, the queen of Eng- 
land dreaded Mary's intriguing with the kings of 
France and Spain, in confequence of the ieague of 
Bayonne, formed for the deitruction of the protef- 
tant religion. She apprehended a double invafian 
from France and Flanders ; and pretended to have 
received intimation that Mary had ceded her preten- 
tions to the crown of England, in favour of the duke 
of Anjou, whom fhe propofed to marry. The, 
Scottifh queen not only denied this ceffion and pur- 
pofed alliance, but even procured a declaration 
from the French king, the queen -mother, the duke 
of Anjou, and the cardinal of Lorraine, importing 
that no fuch ceftlon had ever been made or intend- 
ed. Then the . French ambafTador Fenelon, and 
the bifhop of Rofs, infixing upon the performance 
of Elizabeth's promife to releafe and reftore queen 
Mary, fhe delayed giving her final anfwer, until 
Hie Ihould have confidered this declaration* and 

T 2 afcer- 


A. e. J569. afterwards craved longer refpite, until fhe could' 
hear from the earl of Murray. She accordingly 
received letters from that nobleman, intimating 
that the eitates of Scotland would not confent to- 
their queen's reftoration upon any terms whatfo- 
ever *, and making her acquainted with the pro- 
grefs of the projected match between Mary and the 
duke of Norfolk. 

Elizabeth was equaUy chagrined and perplexed 
st this intelligence. She wifhed that Mary was 
removed from her dominions, where fhe acquired 
new intereft every day -, and fhe could not bear the- 
thoughts of releasing a princefs, who might join her 
enemies and endanger her royalty. Leiceiter, who* 
attended'the queen in her progreis, pretended to be 
taken ill at Titchfield ; and, when the queen vi- 
fited him in his apartment, he in conlequence of 
the meafures he had taken with his confederates, 
difclofed to her the whole defign of the marriage. 
On all other emergencies, fhe could difTemble her 
fentiments •, but, when Mary was the fubject of the 
difcourfe, fhe could not command her temper. 
Even in prefence of foreign ambalTadors, her paf- 
fion fometimes vented \tkW in very indecent terms* 
©n this occafion Pne. ftormed with extraordinary^ 
violence. Arundel and Pembroke had retired from 
court •, but Norfolk was loaded with reproach, for 
prefuming to treat of fuch an alliance without hei 1 - 
knowledge, and ordered to defift from the purfuit, 
on pain of her higheft difpleafure. He retired 
abruptly from the court at Southampton to Lon- 
don, where, being apprifed of the queen's menace:,, 
he repaired to his howie of Kenninghall m Nor- 
folk. He was fo much beloved in that country, 
that he could Jhave aflembied a confiderable army 
in his own defence : but he piqued himfelf upon his 
loyalty, and quietly accompanied a lieutenant or 

the band of pensioners, who was feat to bring him 



<wp to London. He was confined at Burnham near a.c. i 5 6 9 . 
Windfor, where he underwent divers examinations Dukeof 
touching the marriage: his coffers were fearched, Norfolk 
his papers feized, and then the queen committed t ed to&lT 
him prifoner to the Tower of London. Leicefter, Tower, 
after an examination, obtained his pardon. Pem- 
ibroke, Arundel, and Lumley, were confined to other^o- 
their houies •, Sir Nicholas Throgmorton, and Ro- Memen ais 
bert Ridolphi, a Florentine merchant, were im- con nc 
prifoned ♦, the earls of Northumberland and Weft- 
moreland made their fubmiflion to the earl of Suf- 
fex, lieutenant of the northern Marches. All thefe 
noblemen, as well as the bimop of.Rofs, agreed 
in declaring that the marriage had been propofeU 
by the eari of Murray ; and that neither the queen L ^ Vt 
of Scots nor they would have concluded the MeVrf. 
match without the knowledge and confent of Eliza- eiieon ' 

The queen did not think proper to declare all me 
knew relating to this confederacy : but hearing that a 
defign was formed for the efcapeof Mary from Wink*, 
field, fhe iffued orders for removing that princefs 
to Tutbury, where fhe was €lofe confined, under 
the joint charge of the earls of Shrewsbury and 
Huntingdon ♦, notwithstanding the remonftrance of 
the bifhop of Rofs, who reprefented the injuftice 
of putting the perfon of his miflrefs in the hands 
of the earl of Huntingdon, he, as a pretender to 
the faccehion, having an intereftin her death. The 
fcheme for her efcape was projected by Leonard 
Dacres, uncle to the lord Dacres of Gillefland, who 
undertook to conduct her fafely into Scotland. But, 
when fhe communicated this defign to the duke of 
Norfolk, he oppofed it with all his influence, fear- 
ing that mould fhe efcape by means of the papifts, 
they would difTuade her from marrying him, who 
was a proteftant, and promote a match between 

T 3 her 


a.c. 15G9. her anc } don John of Auftria, which had been pro* 
Scheie of P°fed by Philip king of Spain. This plot mifcar- 
an infurrcc- rying, Mary follicited the affiftance of the duke of 
llnVtobe^" Alva towards her deliverance: and that nobleman 
fopportedby promifcd to fupply her with a body of forces, and a 
AWa" f um °f money, to fuppart any infurrection that 
T ' ' , fhould be raifed in her favour. But this expedient 

4-ej!ey s ne- •■ •*■#•• 

locations, was declined by her Englifh friends, who declared, 
that whatever inclination they had to releafe her 
from captivity, and fettle her fucceiTion to the 
crown, they would never affift the Spaniards in 
making a conquer! of their country. Neverthelefs, 
the duke of Alva afiernbled a body of forces, to be 
tranfported to England, in cafe of any difturbance. 
La Mothe, governor of Dunkiik, was fent to found 
the Englifh harbours, in the difguife of a failor 5, 
and the marquis of Cetona was difpatched to Lon- 
don, in the character of a public minifter, on pre- 
tence of demanding the money which Elizabeth 
had intercepted, and compromising the differences 
between the two nations ; though his real errand 
was to watch the progrefs of the expected rebel- 
lion, and take the command of the Spanifh forces 
on their arrival from the Netherlands. 
The taris of Xhe malcontents of the North were certainly 
beriln^a r '-P e f° r revolt. The earl of Northumberland, a 
Weftmore^ bigot ted Roman catholic, had been exafperated 

land excite , ° « , r . . . i • 1 

^tebeUion, by the queen s leizing a copper mine which was 
found on his eftate. He and Weftmoreland had 
been concerned in the fcheme of Norfolk's mar- 
Mage with the queen of Scots ; and though they 
had excufed themfelves in fuch a manner as to fa- 
tisfy the earl of Suifex, they were {till fufpected by 
Elizabeth, v/ho had received fome dark hints of an 
intended rebellion. She fent an herald to fummon 
the two earls to appear at court, on pain of being 
^teemed rebels ; but, before they received this cita- 
tion, the earl of Northumberland was befet in his 



houfe by fome gentlemen of the country, who re- A - c - l 5 6 ^ 
folved to fignalize their loyalty on this occafion. 
He found means, however, to make his efcape to 
Brancepath, the feat of the earl of Weflmoreland, 
where the Roman catholics flocked to them in great 
numbers, and prefTed them to take arms in their 
own defence. Thus flimulated, they publifhed a 
proclamation, declaring their defign was to re-efta- 
blifh the catholic religion : but this was foon fol- 
lowed by another manifefto, in which they pretend- 
ed their motive for taking arms was to fettle the 
fucceflion of the crown, and prevent the deflruction 
of the antient nobility. Theydifpatched an officer 
to BrulTels, to implore the affiftance of the duke of 
Alva •, but they had engaged in the rebellion fo 
precipitately, that he had not provided vefTels for 
tranfporting his troops, and he liftened to their fo- 
licitations with great coldnefs and indifference. In 
the mean time, the infurgents entering Durham, 
caufed the Bible and book of Common Prayer to 
be torn in public, a crucifix to be erected in the 
cathedral, and mafs to be folemnly celebrated. They 
propofed to feize York and Newcaftle •, but were 
prevented by the vigilance of the earl of SurTex. 
Their numbers daily increafing, they detached five 
hundred horfe to releafe the queen of Scots -, but, 
before their arrival, flie was removed to Coventry. 
Then they reduced Bernard -caftle, and fortified 
Hartlepool. Their army now amounting to eigh- 
teen thoufand men, they made excurfions to the 
gates of York, in which the earl of SufTex, the lord 
Hunfdon, and the marfhal of Berwick, were lb ut 
up with five thoufand men, who could not pretend 
to keep the field againft fuch numbers: but, as 
they were deftitute of money, they neither could 
profecute their fcheme of marching to London, nor 
keep their forces together. A considerable defer^ 

T 4 tioa 



^.hich is 
«h-utfied by 
fhe earl of 




£.c. 1569. tion enfued among their troops; notwithftanding 
which, they made a iriift to maintain their ground, 
until Suffex was reinforced with a ftrong body of 
forces raifed by Sir George Bowes in the palatinate 
of Durham; and the earl of Warwick, with the 
lord admiral Clinton, approached at the head of 
the eari of another army, levied in the midland counties. Then 
|7arwick. t fe re be]s being intimidated, retired to Hexham, 
and from thence to Naworth in Cumberland, where 
they difperfed. The two chiefs, with the principal 
gentlemen, and five hundred horfe, took refuge in 
Scotland, Where Northumberland was apprehended 
by the regent, and lent prifpner to the caftle of 
Lochlevin •, but the earl of Weflmoreland efcapec) 
tp Flanders. 

The infurre&ion being thus fuppreffed, Eliza- 
beth affected to laugh at it as a ridiculous enter- 
prize, while the earl of Suflex, and ,Sir George 
Bowes, caufed a great number of the infurgents to 
be tried by martial law, and hanged in different 
places,. Leonard Dacres had raifed three thoufand 
men, on pretence of auditing the government ; but 
he privately encouraged the rebels with a promrfe 
of joining them, after lie mould have cut off the 
lord Scroop, warden of the weftern Marches, and 
the bifhop'of Carlifle. Finding himfelf, however^ 
unequal to this enterprize, he 'furprifed the caftlei 
of Greyftoke, Naworth, and other houfes belong- 
ing to the Dacres family, as his right of inheri- 
tance, though they were in effect the property of 
his two nieces, contracted to the fons of the duke 
of Norfolk their father-in-law." As he had now- 
pulled off the maique, and appeared a declared re- 
bel, the lord Hunfdori marched againfl him with 
the garrifon- troops of Berwick ; and Leonard meet- 
ing him at the little river Gelt, was defeated after 
& very obftinate engagement. He retired to the 


by Leonard 


neareft part of Scotland, from whence he w*s coit- A - c - i s** 
veyed to Inland, and ended his days miferably at 

In the courfe of the war that flill raged between the Afoirsof 
French miniftry and the Huguenots, the prince of f h ™£^* 
Conde was (lain in the batttle of Jarnac ; and the Country 
admiral receiving a reinforcement of Germans under 
count Mansfeldt, engaged the king's troops at 
Montcontour, where he was defeated. Then he 
demanded fucgours of Elizabeth, who lent him 
fome money, on the jewels of the queen of Na- 
varre, and permitted a company of Englifb gentle- 
men to ferve as volunteers in his army : but not- 
withstanding all his efforts, the king made himfelf 
rnafter of St. Jean d'Angely \ with the conqueft of 
which the campaign ended. In the Low Countries, M«ew t 
the duke of Alva eftablifhed the inquifition, and 
fei^ed, in behalf of the king, all the privileges of 
the towns, univerfities, and provinces. He laid 
grievous impofitions on the people : thofe who pre- 
fumed to complain were feverety chaftifed : in a 
word, the provinces were treated as a conquered 
country, and the iubjecte driven to defpair. 

Queen Elizabeth had engaged in a treaty with Grotius« 
the regent of Scotland, obliging herfelf to deliver 
Mary into his hands, on condition of his furrender- 
ing fome of the Scottifh fortrefies, and the perfon 
of the young prince, to the queen of England : but 
the execution of this treaty was prevented by the 
northern infurrection. Murray having feized the A,c, 57^ 
perfon of Northumberland, fent Sir Nicholas El- 
phinfton to London, %p propofe that queen Mary 
Ihould be exchanged for this nobleman, and fome 
Scottifh hoftages as a fecurity for Murray's adhering 
to the intereft of England, in cafe of a war between 
France and Elizabeth. This fcheme being vigo- 
rou-fly oppofed by the bilhop of Rofs, Murray ac- 
£ttfed him of having majnr,aine4 intelligence with the 

' re- 


a.c, icjoi rebels; and he was committed prifoner to London- 

Feneion. houfe, where he remained four months in cuftody 
of the bifhop. The propofal of Murray was de- 
bated in council, and all the members being ene- 
mies to the Scottifh queen, it was favourably re- 
ceived •, but the effect of their deliberation was pre- 
vented by the death of the regent, who, in paffincr 
through Linlithgow, was fhot by James Hamilton 
of Bothwellhaugh, who had been forfeited after the 

fpwford. batde of Lang .f lde# T he eftate of his wife, who 

was an heirefs, Murray gave away to one of his 
favourites - 9 and the officers who took polTefiion act- 
ed with fuch inhumanity as deprived the unhappy 

Buchanan, woman of her fenfes. The hufband was fo exai- 
perated againft the regent, on account of this me- 
lancholy event, that he vowed revenge, pofted him- 

Death of felf at a window, before which he knew Murray 

^Sttf' rc ° wou ^ P a * s > fa ot n ^ m m tne belly, took horfe, and 
Scotland, efcaped into France. Elizabeth was tranfported to 
an excefs of grief, when fne received the tidings of 
Murray's death. She fhut herfejf up in her cham- 
ber, weeping and lamenting that fhe had loft the 
moil ferviceable friend fhe had in the world. 

Montluet ambafTador-extraordinary from France, 
fent over to prefs the conclufion of the treaty for 
the reft-oration of the Scotrifh queen, having an au- 
dience at this j unci: ure, the queen complained of Ma- 
ry's practices with the earl of Northumberland-, faid 
fhe was not obliged to give an account of her actions 
to any perfon upon earth ; that the queen of Scots 
mould be tenderly treated -, and with refpect to her be- 
ing fet at liberty, fhe (Elizabeth) would fignify her re- 
CarrefFtr- folution to the French king by her own ambafTa- 
s'rtofBuc- ^ crs ' Immediately after Murray's death, Thomas, 
cieugh, Carr of Ferniherft, and Waiter Scot of Buccleugh, 
make an m- ftaunch adherents to Mary, aflembled a number of 

ruption into , . J ' 

Engiaud. borderers, and joining the Engiifh rebels^ laid wade 



the frontiers with fire and fword. Elizabeth, who a. c. 1570. 
would let flip no opportunity of maintaining the ci- 
vil war in Scotland, difpatched Thomas Randolph 
with complaints of this outrage to the afTembled 
ftates of Scotland, and with intimation that if they 
could not fupprefs thofe difturbers of the peace, on 
account of the diforders of their kingdom, fhe would 
fend forces to chaftife the offenders. In the mean 
time, fhe ordered the earl of Suffex to raife an ar- 
my, and invade Scotland, on pretence of punifhing 
Carr and Scot, though her real defign was to fo- 
ment the troubles of Scotland. The laird of Grange, 
who commanded in the caflle of Edinburgh, had 
fet at liberty the duke of Chateleraud, lord Herries, 
and others of the queen's party, who had been con- 
fined by Murray in that fortrefs; and the chiefs of 
the two factions engaged in a negotiation, on pre- 
tence of re eflablifmng the peace of the kingdom ; 
though nothing was farther from their thoughts 
than a coalition for the good of their country. 
Mary's partifans expected afliftance from the king 
of France, and the duke of Alva ; and the other 
party, headed by Morton, depended upon the pro- 
tection of Elizabeth. When Huntley and Argyle 
heard of her preparations, they endeavoured to di- 
vert her from her purpoie, by demanding a truce, 
which (he refufed. 

in the month of April, the earl of Suffex, with The eari of 
the lord Hunfdon, and Drury marfhal of Berwick, v^Scot. 
entered Scotland at the head of an army, ravaged land, 
the lands of Ferniherft and Buccleugh, burned a- 
bout three hundred houfes, and fifty caftles -, and 
garrifoned Home and Faftcaftle, belonging to lord 
Home, who had hitherto obferved a kind of neu- 
trality. The eftates of Scotland affembling in the 
beginning of May, deputed Robert Pitcairn to con- 
ciliate the favour of Elizabeth, and afifure her they 
were difpofed to elect fuch a regent as ihould be 

agree • 


/>,<:. 157©, agreeable to her inclination. This afTembly, how? 
ever, was compofed of Mary's enemies. Thofe 
who adhered to that unfortunate princefs, con- 
vened in the Weft, and attacked the caftle of Glaf- 
gow, that it might not ferve as a retreat or fortrefs 
to the earl of Lennox, who was expected from Eng- 
land, where he had for fome time refided. The 
place was vigoroufly defended by the friends of that 
earl, until Sufiex fent Drury to its relief. The be- 
fiegers retiring at his approach, he joined a party 
of the Scots who were averfe to Mary, ravaged the 
]ands of the Hamiltons, and took the caftle of that 
name, plundering and burning the adjacent country. 
During thefe tranfactions, Pitcairn returned with 
Elizabeth's aniwer to the eftates, propofing a con- 
ference for an accommodation between the two 
parties ; in which cafe fhe offered herfelf as media- 
trix; and the defired they would poftpone the elec- 
tion of regent, until they fhould fee the fuccefs of 
that expedient : bur, as the nation could not be go- 
verned without a chief, they chofe the earl of 

The eari cf L ennox lieutenant or interex *, and he was after- 
Lennox 15 * 

chofenre- wards confirmed regent, with the approbation 
IX'Apia! 6 D f Elizabeth, who knew he would not venture to 
act contrary to her inclination, while his wife rer 
m^ned as an hoftage in England. The duke of 
Alva, by order of Philip, fent a fupply of arms 
and ammunition to the duke of Chateleraud, the 
earls of Huntley and Argyle, who acted as Mary's 
lieutenants In Scotland ; fo that they were enabled 
to take the f^eld, and Huntley fortified the caftle 
of Brechin, which, however, was foon reduced by 
the regent. They at this juncture difpatched lord 
Seaton, as their queen's ambaffador, to the duke 
of Alva, whom they follicited for further afiiftance 
in troops and money ; and he amufed them with 
fair promifes, while a truce was concluded in Scot- 
land, at tht defire of Elizabeth. 


£ L I 2 A E E f H. 27^ 

The bifhop of Rofs, having recovered his liberty, a. c.. 1570* 
ftill laboured for the releafe of his fovereign ; and 
the French and Spanifh monarchs ordered their am- 
barTadors to join him in his remonftrances to the 
court of England. Elizabeth's hatred to the queen 
ef Scots was now become habitual : fhe imputed 
all the dangers and difquiets fhe had undergone 
fince her acceffion to the throne, to the ill offices of 
Mary and her adherents -, and ihe was in particular' 
irritated by the conduct of pope Pius V. who, with- 
out any previous admonition or citation, ifTued a 
private bull againft her and her heretical adherents, 
excommunicating herfelf, abfolving her fubjects 
from their oath of allegiance, and denouncing an 
anathema againft all who fhould yield her obedi- 
ence. This bull was fixed on the gate of the bi- 
fhop's palace in London, by one Felton, who being 
detected and apprehended, gloried in the fad, and 
was hanged for his ofncioufnefs. The fame punifh- 
ment was inflicted upon John Throgmorton, and 
two other perfons, v/ho formed a fcheme to fet the 
duke of Norfolk at liberty, by afTembling forces 
at Hurlefton fair. That nobleman owning he had 
been guilty of indifcretion, and giving bond and 
fecurity that he would proceed no farther in the 
marriage between him and Mary, without his queen's 
confent, was releafed from the Tower, and permit- 
ted to refide in his own houfe, under the eye of Sir 
Humphrey Nevil. About the fame time Thomas conf P ;rae>* 
and Edward Stanley, fons to tlie earl of Derby, to- in England 
gether with Thomas Gerard, Rollflon, Hall, and iTveranWo'f 
other natives of Derbyfhire, contrived a fcheme for ^eScottife 
delivering the queen of Scots ; but this being dif- * 
covered by Rollfton's fon, who was one of the 
band of penfioners, the confpirators were imprifon- 
ed before they could execute their refolution. 

Notwithstanding thefe provocations, Elizabeth 
confented to the renewal of the treaty for the Scot- 




Progrefs of 
the treaty 
for the re- 
lea fe of 

A. c. 1570. tifh queen's releafe and reftoration : but the true 
motive of this condefcenfion was her apprernn- 
fion from France, where a peace was likely to en- 
fue between the king and the Huguenots. In that 
cafe, me knew Charles would be more at liberty 
to take effectual meafures for the afliftance of the 
captive queen: (he knew he was well difpofed to- 
wards that princefs ; and, in order to amufe him, 
ihe confented to a renewal of the negotiation, tho* 
fhe was determined againfl fetting Mary at liberty. 
She affected great good humour and affection for 
her kinfwoman, favoured the bifhop of Rofs with 
a mod gracious reception, and fent by him certain 
propofals to his miftrefs, who forthwith difpatched 
the lord Livingfton to communicate them to her 
friends in Scotland. That nobleman, after having 
been detained twenty days at Alnwick by the earl 
of Suffex, who had returned from his Scottifh ex- 
pedition, at length found the queen's lieutenants, 
with fome other noblemen of her party, at Strath- 
tay in Athol, where they confidered the articles, 
and appointed deputies to affift at the treaty in Lon^ 
don. Mean while Elizabeth pretending to have 
received intimation that a body of troops was ready 
to embark in France for Scotland, fhe ordered ad- 
miral Clinton to put to fea with a fquadron of fhips 
of war, and the earl of Suffex to re-enter Scotland, 
where he ravaged Annandale with fire and fword, 
until the queen's lieutenants, Chateleraud, Hunt- 
ley, and Argyle, obliged themfelves by bond to 
abftain from all ac~h of hoftility againfl the Engliih: 
then he returned to England, and was appointed 
one of the queen's privy-council. Fenelon afluring 
Elizabeth that the report of the French armament 
was entirely without foundation, Ihe revoked her 
order to the admiral, received with uncommon ci- 
vility M. de Joigny, whom the French king had 
fent over to prefs the conclufion of the treaty, and 





declared her refolution to reftore her dear coufin. a.c«»57* 
Neverthelefs, when flie heard the peace between 
Charles and the Huguenots was concluded, and 
that fome of the articles were kept fecret, fhe fent 
Sir Francis Walfingham to the French court, on 
pretence of afluring the king of her good will to- 
wards Mary •, but he had inftructions to learn the 
tenour of thofe private articles-, and, if poffible, to 
difcover the real intention of Charles with regard 
to the queen of Scotland. At the fame time fhe 
fent Sir Henry Cobham to Bruffels, with compli- 
ments to Anne of Auftria, daughter to the emperor, 
who arrived in the Low Countries in her way to 
Spain, as a wife to Philip ; and Howard, with a 
fquadron of mips, efcorted this princefs through 
the Englifh channel. Cobham proceeded to the 
court of the emperor, to make him acquainted with 
the affairs of Scotland, the differences between Eng- 
land and the Low Countries, to obtain his protection 
for the Engliih merchants fettled at Hamburgh, 
and endeavour to renew the negotiation for a 
match between Elizabeth and his brother Charles ; 
though fhe certainly had no intention to conclude 
fuch an alliance. 

TheambsffadorsofMary, France, and Spain, conti- 
nuing dill to importune her on the fcore of the trea- 
ty, (he appointed Cecil, and Sir Waiter Mildmay 
chancellor of the exchequer, her commiffioners to 
treat with the queen of Scots ; and they accordingly 
fet out for Chattefworth, where that princefs was 
confined. Walfingham returning from France im- 
mediately after their departure, affured her that the 
French king was warmly attached to the intereil: of 
Mary % and he extolled the capacity of Charles in 
fuch a manner, that Elizabeth being afraid of em- 
broiling herfelf with fuch an antagonist, difpatched 
an exprefs to Cecil, with orders to proceed in ear- 
ned on the treaty. The minifter thus inftrucled, 


2 7 s HISTORY of ENG LAN D. 

a. c. 1570. offered the following propofitions for effecting £ 
Propofais lafting peace between the two kingdoms : That the 
t^quefnof treat Y of Edinburgh fhould be ratified : That Ma- 
Scotland, ry fhould renounce her claim to the crown of Eng- 
land, during the life of queen Elizabeth, and her 
heirs lawfully begotten r That fhe fhould not enter 
into any confederacy againft England ; nor permit 
forefgn forces to land in Scotland ; nor maintain cor- 
refpondence with the Englifh of.Irifh, but with thg 
knowledge of Elizabeth : That fhe fhould deliver 
up the Englifh fugitives who had taken refuge in 
Scotland, and repair the damage done to the Eng- 
lifh frontier : That fhe fhould punifh the murder- 
ers of her hufband and the earl of Murray, and fend 
her fon to be educated in England : That fhe fhould 
not marry an Englifhman, without the confent of 
Elizabeth, nor any other perfon, except fuch as 
fhould be approved by the e dates of Scotland : 
That her iubjecrs fhould not crofs the fea into Ire- 
land, without permifiion from the queen of Eng- 
land : That this treaty fhould be figned by Mary 
and her delegates : That, for the ratification of the 
articles, Cix hoftages, to be named by Elizabeth, 
fhould be fent into England : That Mary, by en- 
gaging in any attempt againft the queen of Eng- 
land, fhould forfeit all title to the fuccefTion of the 
crown : That Hume-caflle and Faft-caftle fhould 
remain three years in pofTeflion of the Englifh, and 
fome other fort in Galloway or Cantyre be deliver- 
ed up to Elizabeth, for preventing the Scots 
from infefting Ireland : and, laftly, That the eftates 
of Scotland fhould ratify thefe articles by acl: of par- 
liament. Queen Mary referred Cecil and Mildmay 
for an anfwcr to the bifhop of Rofs, her ambaffa- 
dor, the bifhop of Galloway, who was uncle to the 
earl of Huntley, and William lord Levingfton, de- 
legates from her lieu tenants in Scotland. Thefe 
agreed to fome of the articles, but refufed to re- 



nounce the ancient league with France, becaufe the A - C. 157®' 
queen would lofe her dowry, and the Scottifh na- 
tion forfeit the valuable privileges they enjoyed 
in that kingdom. They promifed that no foreign 
troops mould be admitted into Scotland, except m 
cafe of a rebellion, which could not be fuppreifed 
by the domeftic forces of the nation. That the 
queen of Scots mould not maintain any corref- 
pondence with the fubjecls of England to the 
prejudice of Elizabeth, provided this laft would 
enter into the fame engagement with refpecl: to 
the fubjecls of Mary. They laid they could net 
deliver the prince to Elizabeth, becaufe they were 
not matters of his perfon. That the demand with 
refpecf to their queen's marriage was altogether nn- 
reafonable, confidering fne was an independent 
princefs. That the Scots fhould not moleh: Ireland, Cam a e?li 
provided the Irifh were prohibited from making 
defcents on Scotland. That any hofrages required 
iliould be given, except the duke of Chateleraud, 
the earls of Huntley, Argyle, and Athol. That 
Mary fhould forfeit her title to the crown of Eng- 
land, according to the prcpofal oh that fubject, pro- 
vided queen Elizabeth fhouid be retrained by the 
fame penalty from attempting aught to the pre- 
judice of the Scottifh queen: but they abfolutely 
infilled on Elizabeth's reftoring Hume-cafde, and 
Faft-caftle to the proprietor, and refufed to deliver 
any fortrefs either in Galloway or Cantyre into the 
hands of a foreigner. After thefe articles had been Lefl 
debated twenty days fucceffively, theEngiifh com- 
mifhoners returned, and made luch a report to Eli- 
zabeth, that me declared herfelf perfectly well fa- 
tisfied with the anfwers of the Scottifh queen ; and 
faid fhe did not doubt that the only difference re- 
maining would be removed at the arrival of the 
commiiiioners from the regent of Scotland, with- 
Numb. LVH. U out 


a.c. i 57 c. ou r w hofe confent the young prince could not be 
conveyed to England. 

In the mean time the propofals and anfwers were 
by Mary communicated to the kings of France and 
Spain, with intimation, that (he mould be obliged 
to fubmit to the conditions, unlefs they would fend 
immediate fuccour to her friends in Scotland. But 
all fhe reaped from this remonflrance was their in- 
terceflion with Elizabeth, whom they prefTed by 
letters and embaffies to haften the conclusion of the 
treaty. Charles of France had never heartily en- 
gaged in the intsrefts of Mary, and at prefent his 
whole attention wes employed in lulling the Hugue- 
nots into a falfe fecurity by an infidious peace. 
And the duke of Alva faw himfelf on the brink of 
a fevere war, maintained by the prince of Orange, 
who had raifed an army in Germany to join the mal- 
Lefley. contents of the Netherlands. Mary queen of Scots 
being feized with a dangerous diflemper, Elizabeth 
Elizabeth fent two eminent phyficians to attend her; and, up- 
prefents on ner recovery, prefented her with a ring, as a to- 
aring. ;v ken of her friendfhip renewed -, but, in fact, fhe 
had no intention to relieve that unfortunate princefs. 
The commiffioners appointed by Lennox and his 
faction arriving in London, refufed to give up the 
prince on any conditions -, and defired the treaty 
might be laid afide. Elizabeth was not only refolv- 
ed againft releafing her rival, but alfo averfe to the 
Ion's being educated in England, where his prefence 
might ftrengthen his mother's intereft ; and Lennox 
and his confederates now acted by her particular di- 
a. c. 1571. when the Scottifh commiffioners arrived, with 
Morton at their head, the conferences were opened 
in prefence of the lord keeper, the lord chamberlain, 
the lord admiral Clinton, the earls of Leicefter and 
SuiTex, Cecil lately created lord Burleigh, Sir James 
Crofts, Knolles, Mildmay, and Sir Thomas Smith, 



now appointed fecretary of (late in the room of Ce- A c * '57*. 
cil. Thefe^ in the name of their fovereign, demand- 
ed that the duke of Chateleraud, the earls of Hunt- 
ley and Argyle, the lords Hume and Herries> 
ihould be detained three years as hcftages in Eng- 
land, and the caftles of Dumbarton and Hume be 
delivered for the like caufe, to be kept as a fecuri- 
ty for the performance of articles. The bifhop The a<*getf* 
of Rofs and his colleagues rejected thefe demands, £X&2T 
alledging that a compliance with them would rob 
their miftrefs of her belt friends and places of fecu- 
rity. The lord-keeper told them, in a contemptu- 
ous manner, that their whole kingdom, though de- 
livered up, would not be a fufficient fecurity j and 
declared, that if his advice might be followed, the 
queen mould not releafe Mary upon any condition 
whatfoever. The bimop oblerved, that if queen 
Elizabeth was of the fame opinion, it would be 
needlefs to proceed in the treaty, and defned to 
know her refolution in that particular. The Eng- 
lifli deputies promifed to confult her majefty on the 
fubject ; and in the mean time, having conferred 
with Morton and his affociates, declared at their 
next meeting, that the commiflloners from Lennox 
refufed to treat about the delivery of the prince, 
or the reftoration of his mother, alledging that their 
commiffion did not extend fo far; but that Morton 
would return to Scotland, in order to procure full 
powers from the parliament of that kingdom. The &"*<&», 
bifhop of Rofs could not help recapitulating the 
particulars of Elizabeth's evafive conduct and in- 
sincerity, fince the beginning of this difpute ; and 
then declared he and his followers had no power to 
agree to any further delay. The Englifh commif- Le n ev% 
fioners infifted upon having the concurrence of the 
whole Scottifh nation for their fecurity. The con- 
ferences were broke up : the bifhop of Rofs was 
ordered to withdraw from London 5 but his mif- 

U 2 trcfs 


a. c. 1571. trefs commanded him to remain in that city, as her 

ambaffador and agent. 
PropofaUf After the mifcarriage of this negotiation, Cathe- 
"veenTi- 06 " r ' ne ^ e Medicis, queen mother of France, propofed 
zabethand a match between her fecond fon Henry, duke of 
Ar"ou ke ° f ^ n j° u 5 anc * queen Elizabeth, who expreffed no 
averfion to the alliance. She agreed to be (low up- 
on him a matrimonial crown, with a fhare in the ad- 
miniftration cf public affairs •, but fhe would not 
confent to his hearing mafs even in private-, and 
this difference was the pretext for breaking off the 
treaty : but indeed there was no fincerity on either 
fide. The queen mother of France wanted to di- 
vert Elizabeth from a rumoured match between her 
and the king of Navarre, and to create a falfe con- 
fidence in the chiefs of the Huguenots, whom me 
devoted to deftruclion •, while, on the other hand> 
Elizabeth's aim was to amufe the king of France 
with a negotiation, which would prevent him from 
Fendon. fending fuccours to Mary's friends in Scotland. 
After this treaty was laid afide, Francis duke of 
Alencon, younger brother to Henry of Anjou, was 
propofed as a hufband to the queen of England ; 
but the fame difficulties about religion recurred. 
Elizabeth objected to his youth j and declared fhe 
would not engage in any contract of marriage 
before fhe mould have feen the perfon propofed for 
hir husband. The plague, which had raged two 
years in London, being now abated, the queen made 
a public entry into that capital \ and vifiting the 
itruclure which Sir Thomas Grefham had raifed for 
the convenience of merchants, it was denominated 
Camden t ^ e R°Y a l Exchange, by found of trumpet. 

In the beginning of February *, the lord Buck- 


* On the feveateenth day of Fehru- Hereford, was moved from the place 
ary, at fix o'clock in the evening, Mar- where it ftood, and continued in mo- 
ds-y hill in the neighbourhood of ticn from Saturday till Monday* 



fourft was fent to congratulate Charles IX. of A - Cl 57i» 
France, en his marriage with Eiizabeth of Auftria, 
daughter to the emperor Maximilian; and a new- 
parliament was fummoned to meet on tfte fecond of 
April. The firft law ena&ed was levelled at thofe^ tutes ™- 
who mould attempt any thing again It the queen, or the paplfts" 
queftion her right to the crown, or call her heretic, 
fchifmatic, infidel, or ufurper, either by word or 
writing, or maintain during her life, that any per- 
fon was or ought to be her luccerTor, except the na- 
tural iffue of her body. Another lav/ denounced 
the pains of high-treafon againil thofe who mould 
obtain, publifh, or execute, any papal bull or writ- 
ing, or reconcile any perfon to the church of Rome; 
it likewife decreed the penalties of a pemunire againft 
the aiders and abettors of fuch offenders, and thofe 
who mould introduce into the kingdom, or receive 
agnus dei, croffes, pictures, beads, or any thing 
hallowed by the blihop of Rome; and all thofe 
who mould conceal fuch bulls and offenders were 
pronounced guiky of mifprifion of treafon. By a 
third flatute, all natives and denizons of the realm 
departing the kingdom, and not returning within 
fix months of the proclamation, were fubjecled to 
forfeiture of perfonal or real eftate, to be reftored 
however on their fubmiffion - and it annulled all 
fraudulent deeds and conveyances, executed in order 
to prevent the queen's enjoying the benefit of their 
confifcation. The attainders of the earl cf Weft d'Ewc. 
moreland and fifty-feven other perfons, concerned 
in the northern rebellion, were confirmed, and the 
forfeited eftates veiled in the queen, to reimburfe 
her for the expence of quelling that infurreclion. 
Some other acts were paffed, to prevent the fraudu- 

when it refted. It carried along the an opening where it flood, forty fret in 
trees, hedges, and fheep, that grew and depth, an height ells in length, and form- 
fed upon its furfacej overturned Kyna- ed a large hiil twelve fathom highj in 
Hon chapel, which flood ini:s way, left the place where it iefh;d. Camden. 

U 3 lent 


a.c. J5 7i.] enC d eec } s of ecclefiaftics, defrauding their fuccef- 
fors of remedy for dilapidations ♦, to regulate the 
leafes of lands belonging to fpiritual promotions, as 
well as the admiffion of perfons prefented to benefi- 
ces. The commons voted a large fubfidy, and the 
convocation followed their example, after having 
revifed the thirty-nine articles, which were fubferib- 
ed by all the members of both houfes. 

Mary, queen of Scotland, having loft all hopes 
of being delivered from her confinement by fair 
means, refolved to avail herfelf of the afTiftance 
which the pope and the king of Spain had offered 
;■ during the treaty. The lords of her party in Scot- 
land had loft the fortrefs of Dumbarton, which was 
furprifed by Lennox ; and John archbifhop of St, 
Andrews, brother to the duke de Chateleraud, being 
found in the caftle, was fhamefully put to death, for 
having rebelled againft the young prince in behalf 
of his mother. The war being renewed between 
the two parties, Lennox was worfted in feveral en- 
gagements : the friends of Mary convoked a par- 
liament at Edinburgh, in which the queen's reflg- 
nation was declared of no force or effect -, and ail 
fubjects were enjoined to obey the queen as their 
lawful fovereign. Sir William Drury, marfhal of 
Berwick, was ordered by Elizabeth to march with 
a body of forces to the neighbourhood of Edin- 
burgh, where he found borh parties drawn up in 
order of battle : he interpofed his good offices to 
prevent mifchief ; and they confented to wheel about 
and retire from each other, when he mould throw 
up his hat for a fignal. Accordingly, the queen's 
party turned their faces towards Edinburgh •, when 
Morton perceiving that they marched in a carelefs 
and tumultuous manner, fell upon their rear, and 
purfued them to the gates of the city. This trea* 

Crawford, chery the Scots afenbed to the inftigation of Dru- 
ry, It was denominated Drury's peace, or the 



black Saturday ; and that officer became extreme- A - c< *&*: 
ly odious to the Scottifh nation. Mary's friends 
had difpatched one Mr. ChiiTolme to follicit fuc- 
cours from the French king, who fent M. Verac 
with afupply of money, arms, and ammunition, part 
of which fell into the hands of the regent; but he 
did not long furvive this good fortune. While he 
held a parliament at Stirling, he was furprifed by 
the earl of Huntley and lord Claud Hamilton, who, 
at the fame time, feized the earls of Morton, Glen- 
cairn, Caffils, Eglington, Montrofs, and Buchan, to- 
gether with the lords Sempiil, Cathcart, and Ochil- Deafho f the 
tree ; but the earl of Marr, fallyingfrom the caftle, re- earl or Len- 
took all the prifoners alive, except Lennox, who was eadf^M^r 
(lain in the tumult : and his death being known, the ^cred re 
lords chofe their deliverer Marr regent in his place. f^ d ° 

At this period a new confpiracy was hatched in 
England, by Robert Ridolphi, a Florentine mer- Confpira-cy 
chant and banker, who long refided in London, and ' 
adted privately as agent for the pope. He had, at 
the defire of the Scottifn queen, conferred with 
the bifhop of Rofs about the offers which had 
been made to her by the pope and the king of 
Spain -, and the fubftance of this converfation was 
fent in cyphers to the duke of Norfolk. They were 
conveyed to him by Banifter and Barker, two of his 
domeftics, in whom he chiefly confided, and decy- 
phered by his fecretary Hickford. Ridolphi, being 
introduced to the duke, prefled him to head an enter- 
prize which he had projected for the releafc of Ma- 
ry. This was no other than an infurrection at home, 
raifed by the friends of that princefs, and fupport- 
ed by an invafion of Spanifh troops from the Low 
Countries. The duke of Norfolk, who was a 
good proteftant and a loyal fubject, could not reliflj 
a fcheme patronized by the pope and the catholic 
intereft; but he civilly told Ridolphi, that he 
would do every thing in his power for the relief of 

U 4 the 


4* q. 1571. t£ e Scottifh queen; and that his project was fea- 
iible. Me abfolutely refufed to fign letters of cre- 
dence, which Riciolphi had prepared, to the pope, 
the king of Spain, and the duke of Alva. He 
would not even confer with the noblemen whom 
the Italian reprefented as friends to the undertaking; 
and he ordered Hickford to burn the papers which 
he had received ; .though, in this particular, the fe- 
cretary did not obey his matter's command. Ri- 
dolphi, repairing to BruMels, imparted the project to 
the duke of Alv<% who promifed to recommend it 
m the ifrono-eii' manner to his mailer the king of 
Spain. Then the Italian explained the refult of his 
conversation with the duke of Alva, to one Charles 
Bailiff, in the fervice of queen Mary, who was at 
that time in BruiTeis, and ready to depart for Eng- 
land. This man he likewife intruded with letters 
to the queen of Scotland, the duke of Norfolk, the 
Spanifh amhaffadcr, the lord Lumley, and the bi- 
fhop of Rofs. Being fearched at Dover, he was 
committed to the Marfhalfea, after all his packets 
had been feized. When put to the torture, he con- 
feifed the whole tranfaclion. The bifhop of Rofs 
was immediately examined ; and, though he had 
previoufly fecreted all the letters of any confequence, 
the council difmiffed all his fervants but two, and 
confined him to Ely-houfe in Holbourn. 

While he continued in cuftody, the French am- 
balTador having occafion to fend a fupply of money 
to Verac the agent in Scotland, it was intruded to 
the care of one Browne, a domeftic to the duke of 
Norfolk, in order to be forwarded to the frontiers. 
This man, being a fpy in the family, delivered the 
money to the council, declaring he had received it 
from Hickford ; and that it came from the French 
ambalTadcr. Hickford being committed to the 
Tower, and afked if he knew of any letters which 
had paffed between the queen of Scots and his 



matter, owned that he had fecreted fome papers A ' c - 1 S7*. 
under the mats of the duke's bed, where they were 
immediately found •, and the whole correfpondence 
was difcovered. Barker being apprehended and 
threatened with the rack, confeflfed all he knew of 
the trail faction between Marv, the duke of Nor- 
folk, the bifhop of Rofs, and Ridolphi. The duke 
himfelf, fuppofing all the letters had been burned, 
according to his directions, denied at firit that he 
maintained any correfpondence with the queen ofFeneion. 
Scotland by letters. Neverthelefs, he was lent pri- Theduke 
foncr to the Tower, together with lord Cobh am of Norfolk 
and his brother lord Lumley, Sir Thomas Stanley, £™ ittcd 
the earls of Arundel and Southampton, Sir Henry Tower, 
Piercy, and many other gentlemen. The queen strype. 
returning from her fummer-progrefs, ordered the 
duke to be re-examined. When he heard the con- 
fefiions of his fervants, and knew that the letters 
were difcovered, he exprefTed great aftonifhment ; 
delired the council to intercede with the queen in his 
behalf, and allured them he would explain all his 
tranfaclions, affirming, that whatever might have 
been propofed to him, he had never agreed to any 
fcheme which might tend to tne prejudice of his fo- 
vereign, or difturb the quiet of her kingdom. He 
owned, that the greater!: pare of the defigns formed 
for fetting the queen of Scots at liberty had been 
imparted to him, but that he had always declared 
againft their being put in execution : and that he 
was no ftranger te Ridolphi's project ; in which he 
had never engaged. The fubftance of the duke's and his con- 
confeffion, together with thofe of his domeftks, was, [f^™ P ub " 
with many exaggerating annotations, drawn up in 
a kind of narrative, and delivered in the Star-cham- 
ber to the lord mayor and aldermen, who after- 
wards communicated the contents, in a common- 
hall to the citizens. Another tract of the fame im- 
port was publifhed and difperfed over the nation, 



a»c. J57J. j n order to diminifh the duke's popularity, and pave 

the way for his deftruction. 
Bi/hopof The next ftep of the council was to extort a con- 
ttcatoi. ; y feflion from Lefley bilhop of Rofs, who was brought 
before the council, and told he was a falfe traitor 
Scot, to whom no credit mould be given. He 
pleaded his own caufe fo ftrenuoufly, that his exa- 
miners were puzzled -, and, after having threatened 
him with the rack, committed him prilbner to a 
dungeon called the Bloody Tower, where he was 
deprived of light and frefh air, and debarred the 
ufe of pen, ink, and paper. From thence he was, 
in a few days, brought to the houfe of the gover- 
nor of the Tower, where Burleigh, and the other 
counfellors, renewed his examination. They gave 
him to underftand, that the queen looked upon him 
as the author of all the confpiracies which had been 
hatched againft her government : neverthelefs, he 
fhould fuflain ho hurt, if he would freely declare 
the part which he had acted in thofe defigns. They 
did not defire him to own any thing which was not 
already confened. They allured him his evidence 
fhould not be ufed to the prejudice of any perfon 
whatever: whereas, fhould he refufe to anfwer, fhe 
would, without hefitation, caufe him to be exe- 
cuted, as one of her own fubjects who had fought 
the fubverfion of her efiate. The bifhop being 
allowed to perufe the depositions of the other prifo- 
ners, and finding all the papers were difcovered, 
confirmed their confeflions, except in the article of 
breaking up the parliament and feizing the queen, 
which he denied, in oppofition to Barker, with 
v/hom he was confronted. Elizabeth fufpecting 
that there was fomething more in referve, which 
he had not confeffed, he was again examined, and 
required to tell the names of the noblemen who 
had treated with him about bringing over foreign 
troops into England; but he iblemnly declared, 

. that 

Howard Buke oSWohfoijK. 


that no nobleman of England had ever fpoke to A - c -»57*» 
him of fuch a defign. Camden. 

On the fixteenth day of January, the duke of The duke 
Norfolk was brought by water from the Tower to rf Norfolk 
Weftminfter-hall, in order to be tried by his peers ; condemned. 
George Talbot earl of Shrewsbury being appointed 
high-iteward for the occafion. He was arraigned 
for having entered into a treafonable correfpon- 
dence againft the queen's dignity and life : for hav- 
ing treated of a marriage with the queen of Scot- 
land, contrary to his folemn engagement : for hav- 
ing fupplied the earls of Northumberland, Weft- 
moreland, and other traitors, with money : for 
having craved auxiliary forces of the pope, the 
king of Spain, and the duke of Alva, to fet the 
queen of Scots at liberty, and reftore the popifh 
religion in England : and, laftly, for having re- 
lieved the lord Herries, and others of the queen's 
enemies, in Scotland. He was denied the privi- FeneI °n. 
lege of council ; and though no part of the charge 
which amounted to treafon could be proved againft 
him, he wasfound guilty, to the aftonifhment of all 
wife and unprejudiced perfons, and the unfpeakable 
regret of the nation in general. About this time T rl eSp:, ,V 
the Spanifh ambalTador was ordered to quit the fadorcom- 
kingdom, on account of his connexion with Ridol- ™ t nd t h d e to 
phi, and the part he had acted in other conipiracies. kingdom. 
He had exerted all his endeavours to prevent the 
match between Elizabeth and the duke of Anjou. 
He offered, in the name of Philip, to acquit her 
of the money me had detained ; and to repair the 
damage fuftained by the Englifh merchants in the 
Spaniih territories. He propofed a marriage be- 
tween the queen and the emperor's Ton Rodolphus : 
he attempted to bribe the ladies of the court, and 
the lords of the council •, and all his efforts mif- 
carrying, he charged Cecil as the caufe of all the 
mifunderftanding between the courts of London 



A- C. 1572. 

Recueil des 

Traites par 

concludes a 
treaty with 
Charles of 
France at 


lam s 




and Madrid. Borghefe, his butler, was accufed of 
having hired Kenelm Barney, and Edmund Mather, 
to murder the lord Burleigh, and they being con- 
victed of the undertaking, were executed according 
to law *, but Borghefe's life was fpared in confide- 
ration of his being fervant to an ambafTador. 

The difgraceful difmiffion of the Spanifh ambaf- 
fador was fo highly refented by Philip, that he or- 
dered all the Englifh fubpcts in Spain to be impri- 
foned, and their effects confifcated, and prohibited 
all commerce between the two nations. His re- 
fentment was very little regarded by Elizabeth, 
who, in the month of April, concluded a defenfive 
league at Blois, with Charles IX. of France, by 
which both parties engaged to afliffc each other 
againfl all invafion. They agreed that no innova- 
tion fhouid be made in the kingdom of Scotland ; 
but that they would jointly defend it from all 
foreigners •, and it was ftipulated, that in cafe any 
Englifh (hips mould be taken or feized in the Low 
Countries, or in Spain, the French king mould fol- 
licit reftitution at the court of Madrid * or that in- 
terceMion failing, make reprifals upon the Spanifh 
and Flemifh fubjects in his dominions, Elizabeth 
engaging to act in the fame manner in his behalf. 
The earl of Lincoln, lord-admiral, was fent with a 
magnificent train to Paris, to fee this treaty ratified 
by Charles ; and the marechal de Montmorency 
arriving in England to procure Elizabeth's ratifi- 
cation, was invefted with the order of the garter. 
Immediately after this event, the poft of lord trea- 
furer, vacant by the death of the old marquis of 
Winchefter, was conferred upon lord Burleigh •, 
the privy-feal was given to lord Effingham •, the 
earl of Su (Tex was appointed lord-chamberlain of 
the houfhold, and fecrecary Smith created chancel- 
lor of the order of the garter. 



The fatisfaction produced by this alliance was A * c>, 572« 
foon interrupted by an event which evinced the 
French king and his mother two monfters of per- 
fidy and diffimulation. They had invited the ad- 
miral de Chatillon, and the count deRochefoucauk, 
the chiefs of the Huguenots, to Paris, on pretence 
of their aflfifling at the marriage of the princefs 
Margaret with the king of Navarre, and there they The tef- 
were cruelly butchered on St. Bartholomew -tide, tantsmafla- 
togcther with about two thoufand other perfons p a e r d is m and 
who profefled the reformed religion. The fame 0: her pans 
maflacre was perpetrated upon the Huguenots f ofFrance * 
Rouen, Meaux, Troyes, Orleans, Anjou, Bourges, 
Lyon, Tholoufe, and other places, where above 
thirty thoufand were facrifked. This butchery, 
which was highly approved at Rome, overwhelmed 
ail the proteftants in Europe with lbrrow and con- 
firmation. Elizabeth, in particular, looked upon 
it as the fird overt-act of the league of Bayonne, 
which was formed for the extinction of the protec- 
tant religion. Charles perceiving that the mafTacre 
had driven the remaining Huguenots to defpair, 
infomuch that they began to take up arms in feve- 
ral provinces, while the city of Rochelle refufed to 
admit his forces, refolved to cajole Elizabeth, in 
order to prevent her afTifting thofe malcontents. 
When her ambalTador Walfingham told him, in her 
name, that no confidence could be repofed in a 
prince who could be guilty of fuch an infamous 
action, he endeavoured to excufe himfelf, by alledg- 
ing that the admiral had formed a confpiracy to 
aflaffinate him and his whole family •, and he pro- 
tefted that he had nothing fo much at heart, as to 
live in friendlhip with Elizabeth. This princefs 
found it convenient to diffemble in her turn. She 
received intimation from Walfingham, that there 
was an intimate union between the kings of France 
and Spain, notwithstanding the- profefiions cf 



a.c.i 5 7z. Charles, who pretended to dread the defigns of 
Philip : that the duke of Guife had frequent con- 
ferences with the Scots in Paris ; and that the 
queen-mother conferred in private with the bifhop 
of Glafgow, who redded at the court of France as 
Mary's ambaflador. From this information, Eliza- 
beth and her council concluded, that the friendfhip 
of France was not to be depended upon ; but that 
it would be neceffary to dhTemble, until they mould 
procure farther intelligence touching the defigns of 
the catholic princes. The queen therefore admitted 
of the excufes made by Charles j affured him of the 
continuance of her friendihip; confented to the re- 
newal of the treaty for a match between her and the 
duke of Alencon ; and the queen of France being 
delivered of a daughter, flood godmother to the 
infant, which was chriftened by the name of Mary- 
Elizabeth, in prefence of the earl of Worcefter, 
who acled as proxy for the queen of England. 

Notwithstanding this mark of her confidence, fhe 
iflTued orders for fortifying Portfmouth, and other 
fea-port tov/ns ; for exercifmg the militia; and 
keeping a flrong fleet ready equipped for fervice ; 
and by popular ads fhe fecured the affection of her 

Camden, fubjecis. She continued to foment the troubles in 
Scotland, where fhe fupported the intereft of Mor- 
ton againfl the friends of Mary, publicly declaring 
that llie would never fee that princefs at liberty ; 
but would maintain the government of the young 
prince with all her power. Her agent, Sir W. 
Drury, and the French minifter Du Croc, on pre- 
tence of mediating a pacification, found means to 
keep up a diffention betv/een the two parties. The 
earl of Marr, and the laird of Grange, governor of 
Edinburgh-caftle, were fo fincerely difpofed to an 
accommodation, that Morton, who gaped after for- 
feitures, and found his account in the troubles of 
the kingdom, knowing no other method for pre- 


venting a reconciliation and coalition, is faid to A c - *$fc m 
have poifoned the regent at a banquet. Certain it The«ariof 
is, the earl of Marr was fuddenly taken ill at Mor- JJjgJ^ 
ton's houfe, and dying in a few days, was fucceed- gent of 
ed by this nobleman in the regency. Scotia^. 

The parliament meeting in May, the commons Mdv ' d * 
addreffed her majefty, that the duke of Norfolk 
might be put to death without further delay, alledg- 
ing this ftep was necefTary for her own preferva- 
tion, and the peace of the kingdom. This addrefs 
furnifhed her with a pretence for doing that which 
fhe had hitherto affected to poftpone, from confede- 
rations of piry : me granted a warrant for his exe- Thedukeof 
cution ; and he was beheaded on Tower-hill, where ^ T ° rlo J kbe - 
he fuifered with great fortitude, procefting the in- 
nocence of his intention towards the queen, and 
profeffing the protectant religion. He was the 
worthier!: and bed beloved nobleman of all Eng- 
land. The tears ran down the cheeks of the earl 
of Shrewsbury when he pronounced his fentence - 9 
and the multitude wept bitterly at his death. The 
queen dreaded his popularity fo much, that fhe did 
not think herfelf fafe while he exifled, ccnfcious 
as (lie v/as of his attachment to the interefl and per- 
fon of Mary* This unfortunate queen was the 
other great object, of her jealouly and apprehenfion. 
She had fent the lord Delawar, Sir Ralph Sadler, 
Sir T. Bromley, and doclor Wilfon, to expoftulate 
with her upon her afiuming the Englifh arms, up- 
on her intrigues with the duke of Norfolk, the 
pope, and the rebels of England •, and fhe acquitted 
herfelf of every imputation. Mary had been more 
chearful than ordinary on the eve of the maflacre of 
Paris-, a circumltance from which her keepers con- 
cluded that fhe knew of their deteftable enterprize 
before it was executed : they fignified their fufpi- 
cion to. the miniftry, and fhe was more clofely im- 

2 The 


a. c. 1572. Y] ie commons of this parliament were chiefly pu* 
Ksncour of ritans ; a ic6t which had darted up fince the refor- 
pari^.menf mation, pretending to greater purity in doctrine and 
againfiMa- wordi'p, than they couid find in the eftablifTied 
ry queen c ^^^ They were the mod rancorous enemies of 
queen Mary-,- as a popifh princefs ; they were returned 
to this parliament on that account, and tutored for 
the occafion. They refolved to proceed asainft 
Mary as a perfon guilty of high treafon-, and had 
actually made fome prcgrefs in a bill of attainder, 
when the French ambafTador remonftrating againft 
their outrageous prefumption, the queen fenta mef- 
fage to the houie, thanking them for the care they 
took of her fafety, and approving their method of 
proceeding, in concurrence with the lords : but, 
for certain refpects, fhe defired they would podpone 
' that defign, and bring in another bill to fecure her 
from the machinations of the Scottifh queen, with- 
, out either impairing or confirming her title to the 
journal, crown of England. An act was accordingly parted, 
importing, that whofoever mould devife the en- 
largement or efcape of any prifoner committed for 
. treafon, or fufpicion of treafon, againft the queen's 
perfon, mould be held guilty of mifprifion of treafon, 
even before the faid prifoner's indictment. Another 
ftatute declared it felony to take, detain, burn, 
or ruin any of her majedy's mips, fortreffes, or 

Elizabeth, at this juncture, had very little to 
fear, either from her domeftic or foreign enemies. 
All the malcontents of England were intimidated 
into fubmiflion, by the fate of the duke of Nor- 
folk •, and the duke of Alva was lb embarrafTed in 
the Low Countries, that he could not fpare the 
lead affidance to the friends of Mary queen of Scot- 
land. The cities of the Netherlands, that refilled 
to pay the exhorbitant taxes which he impofed, 
were deprived of their privileges, and garrifoned 



With Spanifh foldiers, who lived at difcretion among A - c - '57*. 
the inhabirants •, fo that all the provinces were ripe 
for revolt. The prince of Orange, who was atp rogrc f S of 
the head of the oppcfition, follicited the zrTiftance ^princeof 
of Elizabeth, offering to cede Holland and Zea- the Low 
Jand to her, if fhe 'would join the infurgents in ex- Countries ' 
pelling the Spaniards : but Hie declined engaging 
in an expenfive war; though fhe granted refuge to 
the Gueux Marins, a confiderable party of noble- 
men, and others, who had fled from the Low 
Countries, and fubfifted by exercifing piracy on the 
fhips belonging to the fubjects of Philip. They 
fold their prizes in England, and their veffels lay 
at anchor in the Downs, or fonne harbour in that 
neighbourhood, until the duke of Alva agreeing with 
Elizabeth to expel all the Englifh refugees from 
Flanders, fhe ordered the Gueux to quit her ports, 
and forbad her fubjecls to furnifh them with pro- 
vifions. In this emergency they united under the 
count of La Marche, to whom the prince of Orange 
granted a commiffion ; and failing for Holland, 
madethemfelves mafters of the Brille, which afford- 
ed them the convenience of a good harbour. The 
count de BofTu, governor of Holland, attempted to 
retake it, but mifcarried. Flufhing and Campvere 
revolted from the Spaniards; Delft, Rotterdam, 
and Dort, foon followed their example ; and Enck- 
huyfen, with all the towns of North Holland, de- 
clared for the prince of Orange, who reduced feve- 
ral towns in Friefland, as well as upon the Meufe ; 
while Mons was furprifed by count Lewis of Naf- 
fau. The duke of Alva immediately invefted the 
place ; and the prince of Orange attempted in vain 
to raife the fiege. Failing in that enterprize, he Grotius. 3 : 
marched into Holland, and convening an affembly 
of the Hates, fettled a plan for the eflablifhment of 
good order. Then he took Haerlem, Alckmaer, 
N? 57. X Leyden, 

2€) G 


dation be- 
tween Eli- 
sabeth and 
Philip of 


a. c. 1573, Leyden, and Middleburgh -, and, in a little time,, 
cleared all Zealand of the Spanifh forces. 

Philip, in this low ebb of his affairs, folicited an 
accommodation with Elizabeth, who, with a view 
to obtain fome advantages in trade to her fubjects, 
agreed to adjufl the differences fubfiftincr between 
the two crowns. Commiffioners were appointed 
for fettling the accompts of the feizures made on 
both fides : the balance was paid to the king of 
Spain, and the commerce between England and 
his territories renewed, by a treaty concluded at 
Briftol. The queen took care that the Englifh 
merchants mould be indemnified for the lofTes they 
had fuftained ; fhe likewife difcharged the debts 
which had been contracted by her father, brother, 
and filter ; and the bonds granted by the city of 
London, for the payment of thofe incumbrances, 
were now delivered up, to the inexpreffible joy of 
the inhabitants. 

Rochelle, the great bulwark of the proteflants, 
being befieged by the duke of Anjou, and reduced 
almoft to extremity, for want of powder and pro- 
vifions, large contributions were raifed in London, 
to equip an armament for its relief. When re- 
monftrances were made to the queen on this fu eject 
by the French ambaffador, fhe faid fhe did not be- 
lieve fo much money as he mentioned could be 
found in the city of London -, but that it was very 
natural for the merchants to fell their provifions and 
commodities where they could find the bed market. 
The count of Montgomery was at the head of this 
armament, confiding of five and fifty fhips, that 
failed in April for Rochelle ; but rinding it imprac- 
ticable to fuccour the place, they returned next 
month to England, in order to raile a greater num- 
ber of forces. The bilhop of London, and the 
earl of Effex,. in the name of the clergy and nobi- 


iity, demanded her majefty's permifllon to levy ten a. c. 1573, 
thoufand men, by private collection, for the fup- 
port of the inhabitants of Rochelle-, but this fhe 
refufed, as an act contrary to her laft treaty with 
France. M. de Fenelon demanded that Montgo- 
mery and his accomplices fhould be delivered into 
the hands of his matter, that they might be punifli- 
ed for their rebellion : but Hie told him fhe would 
repeat the anfwer which Henry II. of France made 
on the like occafion to her fifter Mary : She would 
not be the French king's executioner. The duke The duke 
of Anjou loft four and twenty thoufand men before cieaTking 
Rochelle, which was defended with fuch defperate of Poland. 
obftinacy, that he had made but little progrefs in 
the fiege, when he received the tidings of his being 
elected king of Poland. This event affording him 
a falvo for his reputation, he concluded a treaty 
with the inhabitants, in which their allies of Nif- 
mes and Montauban were comprehended. Queen 
Elizabeth took offence at her lover, the duke of 
Alencon, for acting as volunteer at this fiege, againft 
the French protectants % but he excufed himfelf, on 
account of his honour's being engaged in fuch a 
manner, that he could not quit the fervice without 
a blemifh on his reputation. He profecuted his fuit 
in a great number of letters : his picture was fent 
over to England \ and the queen granted a fare- 
conduct, by virtue of which he might fafely viflc 
the court of London : another was expedited for 
the duke of Anjou, who purpofed to pafs through 
the Britifh feas to Poland : but no ufe was made of 
either. The duke of Anjou repaired to Poland by 
land \ and his brother's intended voyage was pre- Feneloa? 

By this time the friends of Mary in Scotland 
were compelled to fubmit to Morton the regent. 
They confided of two parties, one of which had 
adhered to her from the beginning, and the other 

X 2 favoured 


a.c.i 573 -favoured her caufe that the troubles of their coun- 
try might be the fooner pacified. The firft was 
headed by the duke de Chateleraud and the earl of 
Huntley. The chiefs of the other were the earl of 
Home, fecretary Lidington, and the laird of Grange, 
governor of the caftle of Edinburgh, in which they 
redded. Morton employed Sir James Melvil to 
effect a feparate accommodation with thefe laft, and 
propofed fuch terms as they would have willingly 
embraced, provided the reft of the queen's friends 
might have been comprehended in the treaty. But 
Morton did not defire to be at peace with the whole 
party : his view was to enrich himfelf with forfei- 
tures. He therefore propofed a feparate peace or 
none ; and Grange rejected his propofal from mo- 
tives of honour. Then the regent had recourfe to 
the duke and Huntley, who were not fo fcrupulous. 
They accepted of a feparate peace ; and now he 
 would not indulge Grange and his afTociates with 
fegesthe the terms he had offered before. Sir W. Drury 
* arde ° f . marched from Berwick with a reinforcement, and 

Xoirc burgh, „ 

a train of artillery, to afiift him in reducing the 
caftle of Edinburgh, which was very ill provided 
with ammunition ; and the number of the foldiers 
in garrifon did not exceed one hundred and fixty, 
Notwithftanding thefe difadvantages, the governor, 
who was a man of great courage, conduct, and ex- 
perience, made a vigorous defence for three and 
thirty days, during which the water in the draw- 
well failed. Then the befieged were fain to let 
down the foldiers by ropes over the walls, to fetch 
water from a neighbouring fountain, which being 
poifoned by the enemy, the garrifon that drank of 
it fell fick and died j fo that it was now reduced to 
fifteen individuals. In this emergency, Grange 
furrendered to Sir W. Drury, upon an honourable 
capitulation : but Elizabeth refufing to accept of 
him and his friends as her prifoners, they were de- 


livered to Morton, who caufed the governor, and A - c - '573- 
his brother Sir James Kirkaldy, to be hanged on a and puts the 
gibbet, at the market-crofs of Edinburgh : fecre- Grmls t 9 
tary Lidington is faid to have died at Leith like an d " th » 
old Roman ; and Home, paying ten thoufand 
pounds to Morton, was put in pofTefTion of his 
caftles. The regent, not yet fatisfied with blood, 
demanded that Elizabeth would deliver into his 
hands the bifhop of Rofs, who had been releafed 
from the Tower, at the interceffion of the mare- 
chal de Montmorency, and committed in cuftody 
to the bifhop of Winchefter. But the French am- 
baffador remonftrating againfl fuch an outrage upon 
good faith, and the law of nations, the queen of 
England rejected Morton's demand, and allowed Eendon. 
the bifhop to withdraw himfelf into the French do- Laiey." 

Charles IX. of France being feized with a lin- 
gering diftemper, the queen- mother fufpe&ing that 
the duke of Alencon intended to fupplant his bro- 
ther Henry in his abfence, in cafe the king mould 
die, prevailed upon this monarch to confine him, 
and the king of Navarre, his fuppofed confident 
and couniellor. Charles dying in May, his mo- A,c ; T 57<; 
ther refumed the regency by virtue of his will, and Anjou'r^ 1 
governed the kingdom until the king of Poland «eds to the 
arrived, and fucceeded him on the throne of France, rvlnce.° 
by the appellation of Henry III. This was a for- 
tunate event for Elizabeth, as the new monarch 
was extremely averfe to the family of Guife, and 
to Mary queen of Scotland as their relation. Every 
thing feerned to confpire for the quiet of the Eng- 
lifh queen. The duke of Alva was recalled from 
Flanders, and fucceeded in command by don Lewis 
Zuniga de Req.uefenos, who fent an envoy toaflure 
her of his endeavours to cultivate a good under- 
Handing between England and the Low Countries. 
Scotland was united under her creature the earl of 

X 3 Morton i 


a.c. 1574. Morton ; the friends of Mary in England were ef- 
fectually quelled ; and the nation enjoyed the moft 
profound tranquillity. In the preceding year, 
Walter Devereux, lately created earl of Eflfex, had 
been fent into Ireland with fome forces, to fupprefs 
Brian Macphelim in Claneboy, who had rebelled, 
together with Tirlogh Leinigh, fupported by the 
Scottifh highlanders. The earl advancing againft 
Macphelim, defeated and took him, with his wife 
and brother-in-law; but finding himfelf thwarted 
by the earl of Leicefter, in the plans he had formed 
for keeping the Irilh in awe, he defired leave to re- 
turn to England. Being ordered to relume the 
command next year, he made peace with Tirlogh, 
and drove the Scots out of Claneboy. Then he 
was required to refign his authority : Sir Henry 
Sidney was fent over as lord lieutenant, and re- 
ceived the fubmiflion of the Irifh chieftains in Ul- 
fler and Leinfter. 
a. 0.1575. Elizabeth no fooner underftood that Henry III. 
of France was returned to Poland, than fhe fent an 
ambalfador to compliment him upon his accefTion 
to the throne, and know his fentiments with re- 
gard to the treaty of Troyes •, which he readily con- 
firmed, and was elected knight of the garter. 
Neverthelefs, as he renewed hoftilities againft the 
Huguenots, fhe furnifhed John Cafimir, fon to the 
elector palatine, with a fum of money to levy a body 
of German auxiliaries for the fervice of the duke of 
Alencon, who had made his efcape from court, 
and joined the malcontents. The queen of Eng- 
land had now accompiifhed all her aims, but that 
of having the prince of Scotland in her hands ; and 
the earl of Morton would have willingly gratified 
her in that particular, had* not young James been 
carefully protected by his governor, Alexander 
Erfkine, in the caftle of Stirling, who refufed to 
give up his charge without an order of parliament. 



Elizabeth fent large Turns to Scotland with Sir H. A C - I 575. 
Killewrew, to facilitate this event; but the Scots 
would not differ their prince to be carried out of 
the kingdom. Sir John Carmichael, warden of the 
Scottifh Marches, meeting, at a place called the 
Redfquair, with Sir John Fofter, who acled in the 
fame capacity on the Englifh borders, and was be- 
fides governor of Berwick, the Scottifh warden de- 
iivered up the Englifh fugitives who were in his 
-hands, according to cuftom and convention ; and 5 
when he demanded the Scottifh refugees in return, 
Sir John Fofter treated him with intolerable info- 
knee. A fkirmifn immediately enfued, in which s ^rmlfhon 
the Englifh were worfted. Sir George Heron and between the 
four and twenty perfons were fiain on the fpot : Sir EngiiA and 
John Fofter, Francis Ruffel, fon to the earl of Bed- wardens of 
ford, Sir Cuthbert Collingwood, James Ogle, themarches * 
Henry Fenwick, and other gentlemen, v/ere carried 
prifoners to Edinburgh, v/here they were fumptu- 
oufly entertained and difmiffed by the regent. Nay, Crawford. 
at Elizabeth's defire, he fent Carmichael to Lon- 
don to afk her majefty's pardon ; but, upon in- 
quiry, file found Fofter had been the aggrefTor, 
and the Scot was gratified with an honourable re- 

The commerce between the Englifh and Philip's A - G - '576. 
fubjecls in the Netherlands haa been reftored, to- Affair of the 
gethcr with the s;ood underftanding between that Low Co " a ~ 
prince and Elizabeth. Zuniga, in confequence of 
this harmony, defired leave to hire fhips and mari- 
ners in England ; and demanded that all the Dutch 
rebels (hould be expelled from the kingdom. Al- 
though me refufed to comply with thefe requefts ; 
yet, upon his fending away the earl of Weftmore- 

• land, and the Englifh fugitives, from the Low 
Countries, and diilblving the feminary at Douay, 

% £he banifhed all the Dutch who carried arms again ft 
the king of Spain, and prohibited her fubjects from 

X 4 receiving 


A. c. i 57 6. receiving any fuch perfons into any of the ports or 
harbours of England. The prince of Orange, and 
theeftates of Holland and Zealand, finding them- 
felves unable to lupport the v/ar much longer againft 
the wcaith and power of Philip, fent deputies to im- 
plore the affiftance of Elizabeth, and offer to her 
the fovereignty of their country, as the lineal heir 
of Phiiippa, wife of Edward III. and daughter of 
William count of Hainault, Holland, Zealand, and 
Friclland. Thefe deputies were kindly received by 
Elizabeth, notwithstanding the remonftrances of 
Champigny, whom the governor of the Netherlands 
fent over to traverfe their negotiation •, but fhe was 
very loth to engage in a war upon their account. 
The governor of the Low Countries dying fuddenly, 
the council of ftate took the government into their 
own hands, until the arrival of don John of Auftria, 
who was appointed governor of thofe provinces. 
The Walons in garrifon at Ziriczee, expelled the 
Spanifh troops, who, to the number of two thou- 
fand, plundered the villages of Brabant, and even 
made themielves matters of Antwerp. The fpirit 
of mutiny fpreading among their countrymen, they 
rendezvoufed at Aloft, beino- now increafed to fix 
thoufand infantry, and twelve hundred horfe; and 
fome German regiments joined them in this rebel- 
lion. They plundered Maeftricht and Antwerp, 
where they ma^kcred feventeen thoufand perfons, 
without diftincYion of age or fex. At length the 
eftates of the Walon provinces called in the prince 
of Orange to their affillance. They engaged with 
the ftates of Holland and Zealand, in a treaty for 
driving the Spaniards, and other foreign troops, out 
of the country, and holding a general affembly for 
regulating the article of religion, and eftabjiihing a 
ib!id union among all the provinces. Accordingly, 
the Spaniards were expelled from many towns and 
caftles, wiien don John of Au Una arriving at Lux- 

The Haul o£ Leicester* 1588 


embourg, demanded the fo!e command of their AC * 'S/** 
ftanding forces, and a certain number of hoftages 
for his fafety. The elates, alarmed atthefe marks 
of diftruft, infifted upon having a fhare in the go- 
vernment. They refolved that no forces mould be 
levied, nor towns garrilbned, without their confent ; 
they demanded that he fhould take an oath to main- 
tain their antient privileges ; and refufed to treat 
with him, until the Spanifh and other foreign troops 
mould be fent out of the country. In order to fup- Grotlus, 
port thefe refolutions, they began to levy forces, 
and fent an envoy to England, to reprefent their 
grievances to queen Elizabeth, who fupplied them 
with a loan of twenty thoufand pounds, and pro- 
mifed to advance four times the fum on the credit 
of the fcates- general. She at the fame time dif- 
patched agents to the king of Spain and don John, 
prefling the departure of the foreign troops from the 
Low Countries ; declaring, that fhould they re- 
fufe to comply with this remonftrance, fhe would 
aflat the natives in expelling them by force. 

Slit was the more enabled to fuccour the ftates at 
this juncture, as the parliament, which met in 
February, and the convocation, had granted a con- 
llderable fubfidy. In return for thefe fuccours, the 
queen renewed the treaty of commerce with Portu- 
gal, by which her fubje&s were allowed to trade to 
Madeira and the Azores. The fuccefs of the Por- M ; F 
tuguefe had infpired the Englifh with a fpiritof ad- bifher fails 
venture by fea : and Martin Forbifher now fet fail in q " efto / f a 

3 - r north-weft 

from Harwich with five mips, on the difcovery o; paffage to 
a north- weft- pafTage to the Eaft Indies 5 but this f* d f^' 
enterprize did not fucceed. * In the courfe of this 
year too, Walter Devereux earl of EfTex died Camden. 


* The earl of Leicester, who had, two hundred thoufand crowns in the 
in the courfe of this laft year, re- revenues of vacant bifhopric-, and 
Reived from ths queen's bounty above other grants, entertained the que.: n at 




.*.«• 1576. i n the caftle of Dublin, not without fufpicion of 
having been poifoned by the dire&ion of the earl of 
Leicefter, who repudiated his own wife, and mar- 
ried the widow of EfTex. Several infurrections were 
raifed in Ireland, by the fons of the earl of Clanri- 
card in Connaught, and by Rory Oge in Leinfter ; 
but the rebels were reduced by the valour of Sir 
Henry Sidney, the lord deputy, and Sir W. Drury, 

jpamden. now p re fident of Munfter. 

The court of France was not lefs embaraffed 
than the new governor of the Low Countries. The 
duke of Alencon had levied an army againft the 
king, in favour of the Huguenots •, and he was 
. joined by the prince of Conde, with the troops of 
prince Cafimer : in a word, the proteftants were 
fupported by the duke of Alencon, the king of Na- 
varre, and the prince of Conde, with an army of 
thirty thoufand men. Neverchelefs, the queen- 
mother found means to difunire their councils, and 
then offered fuch terms of peace as they did not 
think proper to refufe. The treaty was confirmed 
by the parliament of Paris •, the duke of Alencon 
repairing to court, was detached from his party, 
and affumed the title of the duke of Anjou. The 
peace was no fooner ratified, than the queen-mother, 
in conjunction with the pope's legate, the duke of 
Guife, and don John of Auftria, began to concert 
meafures for exterminating the proteftant religion. 
The zealous catholics all over the kingdom engaged 
m affociations againft the enemies of the ancient re- 
ligion. Thefe were known by the appellation of 

Kenilworth-caftle, for nineteen days 
iuccefiively, with fcrprifing magnifi- 
cence. One and thirty baron?, be- 
fides the ladies of the queen's hou- 
ftiold, were lodged in the caftle, and 
attended by four hundred fervants be- 
longing to Leicefter, all in new live- 
ries. His gentlemen who w«ked at 

tab!? were cloathed in velvet. Six- 
teen hegfheads of wine, forty of beer,, 
and 'ten oxen, were confumed every 
day, befides a vaft quantity of fruit 
and comfitures. Their paftime con- 
fifted in hunting, ruftic revelry, co- 
m«dies, concerts, and mafqu erases. 




the holy union, or league. Of this, the king of A « c « f S7^ 
Spain affumed the title of protestor, and the duke ThekI f 
of Guife declared himfelf the chief. It was promoted France fub- 
by the pope, patronized by the queen-mother •, and £" b u " ^ e 
Henry himfelf, an indolent and effeminate prince, gainftthe 
was hurried into the fcheme by the torrent of evil Hu s uenots « 
counfel. He was even inflamed with extraordinary 
zeal upon this occafion. Being jealous of the duke 
of Guife, he declared himfelf chief of the league, 
which he figned with his own hand. All the gran- 
dees followed his example, and it was fent through, 
the provinces to be fubfcribed by all the catholics. 
The ftates afTembled at Blois fent a deputation, de- 
firing he would not fuifer any other woribip but 
that of the old religion •, and- -he aflured them it MezeiaI * 
was his intention to abolifh all innovation. 

Don John of Auftria, whofe great aims were to a.c, 1577^ 
fubdue the Low Countries, and become mailer of 
Great Britain, by a marriage with the queen of 
Scotland, was obliged to hgn the pacification of 
Ghent, which Philip thought proper to confirm by 
edict. Then it was refolved, in anaffembly of the 
ftates convened at Marche en famine, to publifh, a 
perpetual edict for compelling the Spaniih troops to 
quit the country, Thefe troops were accordingly _ 
fent into Italy, and all the places remained in the 
hands of the ftates. At length don John pulled 
off the mafque, and furprifed the caftle of Namur. 
Then he attempted to gain over the German Hoops, 
who waited for their arrears, to deliver the places 
where they were in garrifon : but his fucceJs was 
anticipated by the ftates, which engaged thofe troops 
in their fervice. Thofe of Brabant conferred the 
fuperintendency of their country with the title of 
Ruart, upon the prince of Orange ; and this ftep 
excited the jealoufy of the duke de Arfcot, and 
fome other Brabantine noblemen, who, in order to 
diminifh the credit of the prince, propofed to the 



A.C. 1577. 

brother to 
tke emperor, 
is eholen 
goyernor of 
tke Nether- 




confederate provinces that they fhould elect one go- 
vernor-general. The election fell upon Matthias, 
brother to the emperor Rodolphos II. and the 
prince of Orange was declared his lieutenant. Mat- 
thias, pretending to efcape from the imperial court, 
repaired to the Netherlands, where he was inverted 
with his office -, and then the eftates declared war 
againft Don John, who had already prepared for 
the rupture, by fending for the troops from Italy. 
Elizabeth being informed of the fcheme which Don 
John had projected, with regard to her dominions, 
interested herfelf fo warmly in the caufe of the con- 
federates, that me infifted upon being made ac- 
quainted with every material deliberation of the 
ftates-general : but, at the very time when fhe lent 
them money to maintain the war againfl: Philip, fhe 
afTured him by letters, that fhe had no intention to 
infringe the ancient alliance between England and 
houfe of Burgundy, alledging that her fole view in 
fupplying the confederates with money, was to hin- 
der them from throwing themfelves into the arms 
of France. Philip was not at all fatisfied with this 
argument ; but, he diffembled his real fentiments, 
left fhe mould be tempted to engage more effectu- 
ally in their behalf. With reipect to the affairs of 
France, the Huguenots feeing the king bent upon 
their destruction, formed a counter league for their 
own preiervation, declared the king of Navarre 
their general, and the prince of Conde his lieute- 
nant. The edict of pacification being revoked, hof- 
tilities recommenced, though greatly to the difad- 
vantage of the Huguenots, : but, as the duke of 
Guife derived great credit from the management of 
the war, the king, who hated that nobleman, grant- 
ed another peace to his protefcant fubjects. From 
this period Henry abandoned himfelf to effeminate 
pleafures, and the moft exceffive expence, by which 
conduct he loft- the cftcem and affection of his people. 


England mean while enjoyed peace and plenty A * c « '577* 
wnder the wife ad miniftration of Elizabeth •, though Black affize 
in the courfe of this year, the nation was alarmed at 
with the fear of a contagion, from an accident that 
happened at the fummer aflize in Oxford, where the 
ftench and putrid air brought from the jail by the 
prifoners, affected the bench, juries, and fpectators 
in fuch a manner, that three hundred perfons were 
taken ill and died of the infedion. The plague a- Camd€J> * 
bout the fame time broke out in the temple at Lon- 
don ; but was hindered from fpreading, by the 
great care of Fleetwood the recorder. Cuthberc 
Maine, a Romifh pried, was condemned and exe- 
cuted at Launcefton in Cornwall, upon the laft fta- 
tute enacted againft the pope's emiffaries ; and Tru- 
geon, a gentleman who entertained him in his houle, 
was confiscated, and fentenced to perpetual impri- 
lonment. Philip of Spain being apprifed of Eliza- 
beth's connection with the confederate dates of the 
Low Countries, to whom fhe had promifed by trea- 
ty a loan of one hundred thoufand pounds, and a 
reinforcement of five thoufand foot, and one thou- 
fand horfe, endeavoured to retort her ill offices by 
exciting a rebellion in Ireland, by means of Tho- 
mas Stukely, an Englifh fugitive, on whom pope 
Gregory XIII. conferred the titles of earl of Wex- 
ford and marquis of Leinfter. The defign of his A.c.157*. 
holinefs was to procure the crown of Ireland for 
his own fon or nephew James Buon Campagno -, and 
eight hundred Italians were levied for the enterprize. 
With thefe Stukely fet fail from Civita Vecchia, and, 
arriving at Lifbon was perfuaded to engage in the 
fervice of Don Sebaftian king of Portugal, juft 
ready to embark for Africa, where both he and 
Stukely perifhed in the battle of Alcazar. 

In the Netherlands, Don John of Auflria being 
reinforced by the Spanim troops from Italy, and 
another body of forces from that country, under 


a. c. 1578. th e command of Alexander Farnefe, obtained a fig- 
nal victory at Gemblours ever the confederates* 
whofe affairs began to decline in confequence of re- 
Diflentions ligious difputes. The towns of Amfterdam, Haer- 
amougthe i erri) and Utrecht, expelled their magiftrates and put 
S^heLoT tne government into the hands of the protectants. 
Countries. The catholics, alarmed at thefe events, which feem- 
ed to portend the deftruction of the old religion, 
propofed to confer the government of the (late up- 
on the duke of Anjou, who was accordingly declar- 
ed protector of the Belgic liberty. The proteflants 
demanded that they mould be admitted to the ex- 
ercife of public employments, as well as the catho- 
lics. This demand was granted by the frates, on 
condition that the catholics mould enjoy the fame 
privilege in Holland and Zealand. Thefe two pro- 
vinces eluded this article, and hence difTentions arofe 
among the confederates. This divifion was increa- 
fed by the inhabitants of Ghent, who expelled the 
Roman priefts from their city •, while the people of 
Artois and Hainault banifhed the proteflants in their 
turn. Don John, in hope of profiting by this ani- 
mofity, attacked the army of the dates in their camp 
at Rymenant in Brabant, and was repulfed after a 
very cbftinate engagement, in which Sir John Nor- 
reys, fecond Ton of the lord Norreys of Rycot, and 
colonel Steuart, at the head of two regiments of 
Englim and Scottifli volunteers, fignalized them- 
felves by remarkable acts of valour. This attempt 
mifcarrying, Don John endeavoured to amufe them 
with propofals of peace, until his army mould be 
reinforced. They agreed to the negotiation for the 
fame reafon \ for they expected to be joined by 
prince Cafimer, and a confiderable body of Ger- 
mans •, and the duke of Anjou had already advan- 
- ced to the frontiers of Hainault, v/ith eight thou- 
fand auxiliaries. By thefe junctions on both fides* 
Don John found himfelf at the head of fifty thou- 
4 : fand 


fand men, including infantry and cavalry ^ and the a. c. 1575* 
army of the eftates amounted to threefcore thoufand ; 
but this laft v/as rendered ufelefs by the difputes be- 
tween the inhabitants of Ghent, and the provinces 
of Hainault and Artois. Some of their troops mu- 
tinied, and, joining the people of Artois, made in - 
curfions into Flanders ; and the inhabitants of Ghent 
brought over prince Cafimer to their intereft, by 
promifing to pay his foldiers, he having fquandered 
away the money which Elizabeth had remitted to 
to him for that purpofe. Davifon was fent over 
by the queen to make fevere remonftrances on this 
fubjecl -, but* he made fuch ^n apology as me ad- 
mitted ; for in the winter he vifited her court, where 
he was gracioufly received, and invefted with the 
order of the garter. Don John dying fuddenly, Don * ohn 
not without fufpicion of poifon, was fucceeded in dying, is 
command by the prince of Parma, to whom the ^prince 7 
eftates of Artois and Hainault fubmitted ; and the of Parma. 
duke of Anjou feeing this defection, difrmfled his Grotius. 
troops, and retired to France. While he refided in Elizabeth 
the Low Countries, he had difpatched Martel de receives a 
Bacqueville to England, in order to renew the ne- S^^"*' 
gotiation of his marriage with Elizabeth : afterwards France, 
the king of France fent over Rambouillet for the ^J"^ e 
fame purpofe ; and both thefe envoys were received with the 
in fuch a manner as feemed to denote her approba- f u u ^ eof Aft " 
tion of the pfopofal. This was thought to be the 
more fincere, as fhe had now no diffemble 
her fentiments. 

Morton, the regent of Scotland, had by this 
time rendered himfelf odious to the whole nation, 
by his lewd life, perfidy, oppreflion, and rapaci- 
oufnefs. Elizabeth, whofe creature he was, alarm- 
ed at his conduct, fent Randolph into Scotland, on 
pretence of congratulating the young king upon the 
progrefs he had made in his ftudies : but his real 
errand was to recommend moderation to the re- 


a, C. 1578. gent, and to exhort him to live in good underftand- 
ing with the earls of Argyle and Atho], and fome 
other malcontent noblemen, who might otherwife 
Meivii. excite frefh difturbances in the kingdom. Notwith- 
JbiTeTto ft anc ^ n g tn * s ^lutary advice, he dill perfifted in his 
reiign the own way, until Erfkine the king's governor, and 

&tfJand° f n * s ^ our P rece P tors 5 infpired him with an antipathy . 
to that nobleman. The earls of Argyle and Athol 
being apprized of this circumftance, repaired pri- 
vately to court, and perfuaded him to take the reins 
of government into his own hands, though he was 
no more than twelve years of age •, and meafures 
were taken for this .purpofe fo expeditioufly that 
Morton could not prevent the execution of their 
fcheme. The parliament afTembling, confirmed 
what the king had done, and appointed twelve no- 
blemen for his privy- council. Morton was one of this 
number •, but he feigned himfelf difgufted with the 
world, and retired to his caftle of Lochlevin, where 
he employed his time in cultivating his garden. 
James The young king fent an embafTy to make Eli* 

fcS3fi«Tof zabeth acquainted with his having affumed the ad- 
Ms grandfa- miniftration, to renew the alliance between the two 
of Lennox."" nations, an ^ demand the fucceflion of his grandfa- 
ther the late earl of Lennox. The queen had no 
intention to deprive him of this eftate ; but that he 
might fee his fucceflion to the crown of England 
depended in a great meafure upon her good will, 
fhe pretended that the effects of the earl of Lennox 
were claimed by Arabella Stuart. This lady, 
though the daughter of the earl's younger brother, 
was a native of England, and therefore conceived 
herfelf preferable to James, who was a foreigner. 
The eftate, however, was fequeftred in the hands of 
lord Burleigh. The commifTioners appointed to 
treat of the alliance, demanded that the king of Scot- 
land mould not engage in any treaty or contract of 
marriage, without the confent of the queen of En g- 
6 L land: 


land: but the ambaffadors rejected this propofal. In A c * * 57«« 
the mean time, the earl of Morton, who entertained 
fpies about the king's perfon at Stirling, -entered that 
town in the night with a troop of armed men, and 
relumed the poft which he had been obliged to refign. Camden. 

The queen of England feemed now more than 
ever intent upon her marriage with the duke of An 
jou ; befides Bacqueville and Rambouillet, the Carriage 

V L 1  1 j r rf r • 1 between the 

rrench king had lent over Simier, a iubtJe agent, queen and 
pofTeiTed of the moil infinuating addrefs, who eairi- th v l,ikedf 
ed fuch an afcendency over the paffions of Eliza- feem^ngiyia 
beth, that fhe feemed to have conceived a vejy 8rtl ! ft J 1 
warm affection for the perfon of the duke of Anjou -, 
infomuch that Leicefler and others affirmed fhe was 
infatuated by the arts of incantation. Simier, in 
revenge, did the earl ill offices with the queen; and 
was the fir ft who informed her of that noble- 
man's private marriage with the widow of EiTrx. 
She v/as fo incenfed at this information, that fhe 
ordered the earl to be confined in the caftle of 
Greenwich, and would actually have committed 
him to the Tower, had not the earl qf SufTex, tho' 
his enemy, generoufiy interpofed in his behalf, and 
reprefented the injuftice of punifhing any fubject for 
contracting a lawful marriage. Leiceiter, enraged 
to find his influence thus fuperfeded by an obfcure 
foreigner, is faid to have employed one Teuder, a 
fife-guard man, to afiarfinate Simier •, and the queen 
being apprized of his refentment, ifTued a proclama- 
tion, forbidding all perfons to injure or affront this a- 
gent or any of his attendants, In a few days after this 
proclamation, Elizabeth, being in her barge upon the 
Thames, with Simier, the earl of Lincoln, and the 
vice-chancellor Hatton, one of the rowers was 
wounded in the arm with a mufket bullet, difcharg- 
ed from a fhip-boat; and the young man who fired 
the piece was apprehended and convicted of trea- 
fon : but protefting even at the gallows, that the 
- N°. $j, Y . (hot 


A - c - 'srs-fhot was merely accidental, the queen pardoned 
him, declaring that fhe could not believe any thing 
of her fubjects which a mother would not believe 
of her own children. The duke of Anjou, Batter- 
ed by the intelligence he received from his agent, 
came over to England incognito, attended by two 
domeftics only. He was introduced to Elizabeth, 
who expreffed great fatisfaction at his unexpected 
arrival -, and, after they had conferred feveral times 
together in private, he returned to France, in fall 
hope of feeing his aim accomplifhed. This match 
was very difagreeable to great part of the nation, and 
to the puritans in particular. John Stubbs of Lin- 
coln's Inn publifhed a virulent in-ve olive againft it, 
called the Gacins; Gulch, for which he was fenten- 
ced to lofe his right hand, and underwent a long 
imprifonment. The queen appointed a felecl com- 
mittee of her council, to consider and draw up in 
writing the advantages and inconveniences which 
might attend the match, and to confer with Simier 
on the articles. Thefe, however, they neither re- 
jected nor approved •, but referred the difcufiion of 
them either to a parliament, or a conference be- 
tween the queen and the duke of Anjou. 

While Elizabeth was employed in thefe meafures 

for cementing her friendship with the French king, 

the duke of Guife refoived to embroil her with the 

KfmeStuart prince of Scotland . For this purpofe, he made ufe 

lord d'Au- f ]Vf me Stuart, baron D'Aubigny, fon of Tohn 

btgny arrives D J - 

in scoiJanc, Stuart, fecond brother to Matthew earl of Lennox. 

This young nobleman, who was educated in France, 

repairing to Scotland, on pretence of paying his 

refpeets to king James, who was his near kinfman, 

infinuated himielf into the good graces of the Scot- 

andbecomrs tifh monarch. He was created earl, and afterwards 

the chief fa- fafe of Lennox, and divided the king's favour with 

James! another youth called James Stuart, fon of the lord 

Ochiltree. Thefe two uniting their imereit for the 



deftruction of Morton, eafily found means to render A - c - , 5?9' 
that nobleman cdious and deteftable in the eyes of 
his fovereign. The regent perceived the progrefs 
they had made againft him, and endeavoured to 
baffle their arts, by reprefenting Lennox as a papift, 
and creature of the duke of Guife, come over for 
the deftruction of the reformed religion. The mi- 
nifters of the kirk were tutored to thunder thefe af- 
fertions from their pulpits, as well as to impeach 
the morals of Stuart, who was certainly a youth of 
a moil: diffolute life and converfation ; but Morton 
was fo univerially hated, that thefe fermons produ- 
ced very little effect, and he now faw his ruin ap- u&vL 

Nothing elfe remarkable happened during this 
year in England, except the execution of Matthew 
Hamont for blafphemy at Norwich ; the eftablifh- 
ment of the Turkey company, by virtue of a treaty ^t^ofth- 
with Amurath fultan of the Turks, managed by Turkey- 
William Harbourn; the death of Sir Nicholas Ba~ 2 a J s . 
con, keeper of the great feal, who was fucceeded Nicholas 
by Thomas Bromly, appointed lord-chancellor of o^Th" 4 
England ; and the deceafe of Sir Thomas Grelham, mas Gre, 
who built the Royal Exchange, and dedicated a ^^ 
large houfe to the purpofes of learning, where he 
founded lectures on divinity, the civil law, medi- 
*"^ine, aftronomy, geometry, rhetorick, and mufic. 

In the Low Countries, the prince of Parma amuf- 
ed the confederates with a negotiation at Cologne ; 
and, in the mean time, fomented their difTentions 
and mutual animofity. The prince of Orange, far 
from being difpirited by the defection of Hainault, 
Artois, and fome other provinces, which fubmitted 
to the dominion of Philip, exerted all his influence 
and induftry in ftrengthening the confederacy of 
thofe provinces, which ftill perfided in the resolu- 
tion to throw off the Spaniih yoke. At length he 
effected the famous union of Utrecht, between Hoi- 

Y % land 3 


A -c. 1579. land, Zealand, Fridland, and Utrecht, to which 

The prince Ghent and Ypres afterwards acceded; and the 

eff.aTthe prince was elected governor of Flanders. Mean 

union of while the prince of Parma reduced Maeftricht, and 

then difmiffed the greateft part of his Spanifh and 

Italian troops, according to his engagement with 

the ftates who had fubmkted : an act of honour and 

good faith, which was attended with the fubmiflion 

of Mechlin, Lifle, and Valenciennes. 

a. c. i'So. ^ ne Roman catholics in Ireland, being excluded 

from offices under the government, inftigated by 

popimpriefts, and encouraged by foreign potentates, 

irehrndty" were now u p on tne eve °f a general revolt. James 
james Fkz- Fitzmorris repairing to Rome undertook to reduce 
the kingdom of Ireland to the obedience of the ho- 
ly fee, and was furnifhed by the pope with a fmall 
lum of money, a confecrated banner, and letters of 
recommendation to the king of Spain, who fup- 
plied him with a party of foldiers, and three fhips 5 
in which they arrived at Kerry. They were accom - 
panied by the two priefts, one of whom was digni- 
fied with the title of nuncio. They built a fort at 
Smerwick : but the velTels were deftroyed by Tho- 
mas Courtney, captain of an Englifh fhip of war ; 
and Fitzmorris was (lain by his own kinfmen, the 
fons of W. Burgh of Caftle-Conell. The rebels 
were joined by John and James, the brothers of 
Gerald Fitzgerald, earl of Defmond, who likewife 
engaged to raife his valTals for the fame fervice. 
Sir W. Drury, the lord deputy, being taken ill 
at Waterford, the command of his troops devolv- 
ed to Nicholas Mai by, prefident of Conaught, who 
routed John Fitzgerald ; but his commifiion expir- 
ing at the death of the deputy, Sir W. Pelham 
was appointed lord juftice of Ireland, and Thomas 
earl of Ormond governor of Munfter. The earl of 
Defmond declaring for the rebels, was proclaimed 
a traitor. His country was laid wafte by Ormond, 



while Pelham marched into Munfter. The princi- A * c 'i 8 ^ 
pal inhabitants were obliged to give hoflages for 
their fidelity ; and the Spaniards being taken in 
Carig-foyle, were hanged with Julio their comman- 
der, contrary to the law of nations, and the dictates 
cf common humanity. James Fitzgerald being 
defeated and mortally wounded by Donel, brother 
to Cormac Maccarty, was delivered to Worham St. 
Leger, and Walter Raleigh an officer lately fent 
over, then tried and executed as a traitor ; while his 
brother the earl of Defmond fled from one lurking- 
place to another, fuing in vain for pardon. The 
Ipirits of the rebels, dejected by this bad fuccefs, 
were raifed by a reinforcement of feven Hundred 
Spanifh and Italian foldiers, with arms for five thou- - 
fand men, who arrived atSmerwick, under the com- 
mand of an officer called San Jofeph. There they were 
befieged by the earl of Ormond, the lord lieutenant, 
Raleigh, Mackworth, Denny, and other officers, 
while a fquadron of fhips commanded by Winter 
blocked them up by fea. After a iiege of five days, 
San Jofeph, though his garrifon, reinforced by the 
natives, amounted to fifteen hundred men, furren- 
dered at difcretion. All the Spanifh foldiers were 
mafiacred, and the Irilh hanged as rebels, by or- 
der of a council of war, to the eternal difgrace of 
the victors. At the fame time an infurrection was 
raifed in Leinfter by Fitz-Euftace, and Pheogh 
Mac Hugh, chief cf the O Byrnes. The lord lieu- 
tenant marching thither, had the mortification to 
ice the befl part of his troops cut off by an ambuf- 
cade in the vale of Glandelough : but the lord Grey 
fupprerTed the O Connors, the O Carrols, and Mac- 
geoghans, who had engaged in a confpiracy to maf- 
facre the lord lieutenant and all the protectants in 
Ireland. The O Byrnes, the O Moores, and the 
Kavenaghs, were obliged to fubmit and give hof- 
tages j and Tirlogh Leinigh, who had begun to ex- 

Y 2 cite 


a. c i 5 3o. c i te difturbances in Ulfter, following their example, 
wTrel* 1 ' tne tranquility of Ireland was reftored. 

Elizabeth was not free from the apprehenfion of 
Praftkes of f ee inff England involved in the like calamities. 

the lefuits *~' < - J 

againft When Pacheco expelled the Engl ifh fugitives from 
oucenEH- t ^ t l ow Countries, the members of the colleges at 
Douay retired to Rheims and Rome, where they 
eflablifhed feminaries, under the protection of the 
pope and the cardinal of Lorraine ; and from thefe 
a number of prieits were fent over to England, 
where they preached up fedition. Four of thefe 
emiffaries were executed, for having publickly main- 
tained that the queen had been lawfully depofed by 
his holinefs. Thefe examples were followed by a 
proclamation, enjoining all perfons who had chil- 
dren, wards, or relations, in foreign feminaries, to 
deliver their, names to the ordinary in ten days ^ to 
bring them home in four months ; to certify the or- 
dinary of their return •, or mould they refufe to come 
heme, to with-hold from them all fupplies of mo- 
ney ; to forbear maintaining, relieving, or lodging, 
any prieft or jefuit, on pain of being reputed and. 
punifhed as favourers of rebels and fedition. Among 
thofe who came over, were Edmund Campian and 
Athenae Robert Parfons, the firft jefuits that ever fet foot in 
Oxon. England. Campian, who pubiifhed a treadle called 
the Ten Reafons, in favour of the church of Rome, 
was taken and executed ; but Parfons making his 
eicape to the continent, joined the Englifh refugees 
in folliciting the king of Spain to invade England. 
A new feci, founded by Nicholai, a. Dutchman, 
and termed the family of Love, began at this time 
to gain ground in Norfolk and Suffolk : they reject- 
ed the Lord's prayer, the facraments, and the out- 
ward admiffion of minifters. They confined falva- 
tion to themfelves, holding all the reft of the world 
as reprobates : they we're guilty of the moft fcan- 
cklous impurities and Iibertinifm, and publifhed 



$ r .FRAJsrcis Drake 


apologies filled with all the abfurdities of fanaticifm •, A - c - 1s 80 ' 
till at length a proclamation being publifhed againft 
them, they were profecuted and fupprefTed. Ano- 
ther proclamation was iflued to reform extrava- 
gance in apparel ; and a third to prevent the increafe 
of London with new buildings, the enormous bulk 
of that city being already attended with many incon- 
veniencies to itfelf, as well as with confequences Ca mden. 
to the prejudice of the kingdom in general. 

In the courfe of this year, Francis Drake return- Francis 
ed to England from a voyage in which he had encir- ^ f r *£ 
cled the terreftrial globe. He had entered the South ^s voyage 
fea or Pacific ocean -through the ftraits of Magellan, *J]J* t tie 
taken a prize at Lima of immenfe value, difcover- 
ed New Albion, failed over to the Moluccos, and 
returned by the cape of Good Hope to his own 
country. Mendoza the Spaniih ambafTador com- 
plaining of his depredations, and demanding refti- 
tution of the money which he had plundered from 
the fubjecis of Spain in a piratical manner \ the 
queen jiiftihed what he had done, by recriminating 
upon Philip, who had fomented rebellions among 
her fubjects in Ireland. She faid Drake was ready 
to anfwer at law for any thing that mould be laid to 
his charge ■, fhe dined on board of the fhip at Dept- 
ford, and honoured him with the order of knight- 
hood. But, notwithstanding thefe allegations, this 
countenance, and all his merit and fuccefs as a fea- 
officer, it mult be owned that Drake had been a 
downright pyrate. The treafure was fequeftered -, 
and great fums were payed to Pedro Sebura, a Spa- 
niard, impowered by letters of attorney to fue for 
the prizes which Drake had taken without a com- 
million. Bat this money, inftead of being reftored 
to the proprietors, was employed by Philip in main- 
taining the war of the Netherlands. 

The pieafure which the queen enjoyed on this oc- 
cafion was interrupted by the diitrefs of the earl of 

Y 4 Mor- 



a, c. r^Sr Norton in Scotland, who had always been her abject 
dependant. He had formed a fcheme for deliver- 
ing his mafter into the hands of Elizabeth ; but this 
taking air, was prevented. The queen of England 
perceiving that Morton's ruin was planned by the 
duke of Lennox, and his colleague Stuart, by this 
time created earl of Arran, fent Bowes into Scot- 
land to open the eyes of the young king with refpect 
to thefe favourites •, and toaccufe Lennox of hold- 
ing correfpondence with the court of France, and 
with the duke of Guife in particular, to the preju- 
dice of England and Scotland. This envoy being 
refufed audience, was immediately recalled ; and 
Alexander Hume, fent to England by James to ex- 
cufe his conduct, was treated with the fame indig- 
nity. The Scottifh council being affembled in 
Holyrood houfe, James Stuart, a younger fon of 
lord Ochiltree, falling on his knees before the king, 
accufed the earl of Morton of confpiring the death 
of his majelly's father. In confequcnce of this 
charge, Morton was apprehended, and conveyed to 
the caiile of Dumbarton. Elizabeth no fooner heard 
of his arreft, than fhe difpatched Randolph to inter- 
cede in his behalf. This minifter endeavoured to 
intimidate James, by reprefenting the danger of a 
quarrel with England. Being allowed to harrangue 
the Hates when they met, he told them, in the name 
of his miftrefs, that the duke of Lennox had en- 
deavoured to deftroy the friendly correfpondence 
between the two nations, to alien?te the heart of 
the king from his faithful clergy, and even prac- 
tifed with foreign princes to invade England. In 
fupport of this charge, he produced fome letters, 
the forgery of which was fo palpable, that nothing 
but his character of ambaffador faved him from be- 
ing fent prifoner to the caftle. Thus difappointed, 
fhe engaged the earls of Argyle, Montrofs, Glen- 
Cairn, Angus, and Marr, in a fcheme of rebellion for 



the deiiverance of Morton •, an Englifh army com- A c 1 5 8r - 
manded by the earl of Huntingdon and lord Hunf- 
don lay ready on the frontiers to join the revolters; 
but the confpiracy being difcovered, Argyle, Mon- 
trofs, and Glencairn, returned to their duty, on pro- 
mife of being pardoned : the king's guards were 
doubled, his troops and garrifons augmented, and 
his fubjects ordered by proclamation to hold them- 
felves in readinefs to attend the royal ftandard. The 
Englifh generals being apprifed of thefe particulars, 
difmififed their forces in Northumberland : Angus 
was confined beyond the river Spey, and afterwards 
denounced a traitor : Marr was obliged to deliver up 
the caftle of Stirling ; other friends and relations of 
Morton were declared rebels. Randolph withdrew 
himfelf to Berwick : Sir John Seaton was fent to com- 
plain of his conduct, and to know if Elizabeth intend- 
ed to engage in a war with Scotland -, but he was de- 
tained at Berwick by an order from the court of 
England. Morton, being brought from Dumbar- Theeariof 
ton, was tried at Edinburgh, and being convicted Morton is 

,. . , ° , c 1 • j t condemned 

as an accomplice in the murder or king Henry, was and behead- 
eondemned to be hanged, drawn, and quartered. edinScot- 
The fentence, however, was changed into decapita- 
tion, which he next day underwent with great com- Crawford. 
pofure, after he had owned that he knew cf the 
king's murder, though he was not an actor in that 
tragedy ; that the queen had no concern in the af- 
fair -, and that he had figned an affociation for de- 
fending Bothwell, who was the perpetrator. But MeM?. 
he would not difcover the place in which his natu- 
ral fon James, and one Macmorran had depofited 
his treafure ; and all the money, amounting to a 
prodigious fum, was loft to the nation. He died 
unlamented ; and fo little regarded, that after he 
was beheaded, his body lay all day upon the fcaf- 
fold, covered with an old blue cloak, without at- 



a. g. 1581. tracking the companion, or even the notice of the 
people. Morton being thus removed, the two fa- 
vourites reigned without controul, not only over 
the people, but al'b over the mind of their fove- 
reign, who, with feme capacity and inclination for 
fchool-learning, was a filly, weak, irrefolute prince, 
of a very defpicable character. Lennox was not 
deftitute of good qualities •, but he was giddy and 
unexperienced, a profeiTed Roman catholic, and a 
fuppofed adherent of the duke of Guife •, fo that he 
fbon became odious to the nation. His colleague 
Arran was a young man void of principle and reli- 
gion, who, under the mafque of friendfhip, encou- 
raged Lennox to follow unpopular ccurfes, that he 
might incur the hatred of the people, and fo con- 
tribute to his own deftruclion. 

During thefe tranfac~tions, the court of France vi • 
goroufly preiTed the execution of the marriage be- 
tween the duke of Anjou and Elizabeth. Simier 
having agreed with her upon the principal articles of 
the contract, Henry III. fent over to England a 
very honourable embafTy \ and the lord Burleigh, 
with the earls of Lincoln, SufTex, Bedford, and Lei- 
cefter, Chriflopher Hatton, and Francis Walfing- 
ham, lately appointed fecretary of ftate, were com- 
midioned to confer with the French plenipotentia- 
ries, fo that the treaty might be brought to perfec- 

Articfesof t ' Gn - They accordingly agreed that the marriage 
emar- fhould be confummated in fix weeks. Among the 

meecon- arc j c j es ro which they gave their affent, the moil re- 

trace bp- / O < ' 

 =» eh- markable were thefe : 1 hat, in cafe the king of 
, £*" d p rance fhould die without male iflbe, and the duke 
Anjon. of Anjou mould have two fens by this marriage, 
the elded mould fucceed to the crown of France, and 
the other afcend the throne of England : in cafe of 
one fon only, he fhould inherit both realms ; and 
of every two years, refide eight months in Eng- 
land : 


land : That the duke fhould not fill up any poft or A,c - '5** 
ofEce in England with a foreigner : That he fhould 
not convey the queen out of the kingdom, without 
the exprefs confent of the nobles : That he mould 
not tranfport the jewels of the crown to any other 
country : And that all the (Irong holds of the king- 
dom fhould be garrifoned by Englifh troops com- 
manded by Englifh governors. By a feparate ar- 
ticle both parties agreed, that the queen fhould not 
be obliged to confummate the marriage, until flie 
and the duke of Anjou mould have explained 
certain circumftances to each other, which they 
fhould in fix weeks communicate to the French mo- 

Thefe articles were no fooner ratified, than Eli- The queen 
zabeth feemed to repent of her bargain. In order finghamto" 
to protract the conclufion of the marriage, fhe fent Fjance to 

o t»  ' r n t t s protract the 

over bommers to Pans, to mint upon Henry s en- conclufion 
gaping with her in a league offenfive as well as de- °. ft hismar~ 
fen five. This envoy was followed by fecretary 
Walfingham, who told the French king, that, 
notwithstanding the treaty, it would- be neceffary to 
poftpone the confummation of the marriage, until 
her fubjects fhould be better reconciled to the 
match : and until fhe herfelf fhould have more ma- 
turely weighed certain circumftances of impor- 
tance which had happened fince the conclufion of 
the treaty. He oblerved that the duke of Anjou 
had accepted the fovereignty of the Low Countries ; 
a dignity which might involve England in an ex- 
penfive war with Spain : that therefore the queen 
judged it convenient to delay the match, until the 
duke fhould have extricated himielf from this diffi- 
culty ; and a league offenfive and defenfive fhould 
be concluded between France and England. To 
this remonftrance Henry anfwered, That he was 
ready to renew the defenfive league, and would 



a. c. 1581. treac about a league offenfive after the confumnu- 
tion of the marriage. 

Walfingham, in his return, pafTed through the 
Netherlands, and vifited the dukeofAnjou, who 
had compelled the prince of Parma to raife the 
blockade of Cambray, reduced Arleux, and other 
places, and driven the Spaniards out of the Cam- 
brefis. His troops, amounting to fixteen thoufand 
men, confifted chiefly of gentlemen and their vaf- 
fals, who engaged in the fervice as volunteers, with- 
out thinking themfelves fubjedt to military difci- 

cSden. phne, and dropped ofFoccafionally, for want of pay 

Rymcr. or neceffaries *, fo that the duke was difabled from 
joining the army of the eftates, which waited for 

T bedu! " of him betwixt Lifle and Quefnoy. He therefore 

Anjou ar- r Z^- J 

rives in polled himielf under La Catelet, with the remains 

l^thti f °^ ^ IS arrnv » an< ^ m tne Jatter end of November, 
ted by Eli- arrived at the court of London. There he was re- 
*abethj ceived by Elizabeth with all the demonstrations of 
the warmed affection. On the anniverfary of her 
coronation, (he with her own hand fixed a ring up- 
on his finger, in token of pledging her troth, ac- 
cording to the contract. She even proceeded fo far as 
v/ho breaks CQ ta k e up tne pen j n order to fubfcribe the articles ; 

Tnatch with when all of a fudden fhe threw it away, with violent 
indignation. m arks f indignation ; and, turning to the lords of 
the council, aiked if they did not know that the 
marriage would put an end to her days ; and that 
after her death they would cut one another's throats 
about the fucceflion? Leicefter, Hatton, and Wal- 
fingham, were averfe to this match. After me had 
delivered the ring to the duke of Anjou, the ladies 
of the bed-chamber confumed the night in weeping 
and wailing. Next morning, when fhe was vifited 
by the duke, fhe told him three fuch nights would 
bring her to the grave -, that the averfion of her 
fobje&s to a French prince was infurmountable ; 




at he would derive little or no advantage from the A - c « ***** 
alliance ; but that in all probability it would pro- 
duce great evils; and numberlefs inconveniencies 
would arife from their differing in point of religion. 
She was feconded by vice-chamberlain Hatton, who 
diffuaded him from proceeding further in the affair, 
as the queen, being now in the forty-ninth year of 
her age, was not likely to have children ; and, as 
the king of France had not yet ratified the arti- 
cles of the marriage. The duke retired to his 
lodgings, in the utmoft mortification of difappoint- 
ment ; he darned the ring upon the ground, ex- 
claimed againft the ficklenefs of the female fex, and 
curfed the inconftancy of the Englifh people. 

Elizabeth was no lefs afflicted with various con- 
siderations. The duke's perfonal accomplifhments 
had actually made an impreffion upon her heart. 
She had conceived a paffion which fhe was reftrain- 
ed from gratifying by fome bodily infirmity, by the 
fear of dilbbliging her fubjects, and the apprehenfion 
of parting with fome fhare of her authority: fhe 
dreaded the refentment of Anjou, who might efpoufe 
a daughter of Spain, and multiply the dangers to 
which her kingdom was expofed. Such an alliance 
was even faid to be upon the anvil •, and therefore 
fhe would not allow the duke to return to the 
Netherlands, though the eftates preffed him to ga 
thither and oppole the progrefs of the prince of 
Parma. He was flattered with new hopes of the 
marriage -, entertained for three months with an un- 
interrupted feries of diverfions ; and at length dif- 
miffed with a confiderable prefent in money, after 
he had promifed to return in a month, and confum- 
mate the marriage. It was during the duke's reft- stubbspc- 
dence at court that Stubbs, the author of the book ?5 P :-nJ7 
written againft the marriage, and Page the printer, scathe 
were condemned to lofe their right hands ; and mamag * 
the fencence was executed on a fcaffold in Weft- 


7 mmiter. 


a. c. i 5 8i. minfter. When the right hand of Stubbs was cut 
off with a cleaver, he lifted off his hat with the 
other, exclaiming with a loud voice, " God fave 
" the queen." And the populace, in profound 
filence, teltified their horror of this barbarity, prac- 
tifed upon a man of fome note and unblemimed 
reputation. This was a facrifice offered to the re- 
fentment of the duke, who had been fcandaloufly 
reviled and infulted by the Englifh nation. But 
the queen, in order to convince him of the little in- 
fluence he had to expect from the marriage, cauied 
Campian, and the other priefts whom we have al- 
Camden. ready mentioned, to be put to death for fupporting 

the papal authority in England. 
a. c. 15S2. ^he parliament meeting in the beginning of 
January, enacted a fevere law againft fuch delin- 
Aniou°re- quents, declaring all thofe guilty of high-treafon 
tums to the wno fhould endeavour to alienate the fubjects from 
lands/attd their fidelity to the queen, or perfuade them to 
difconcerts aDanc j on tne tftablifhed religion. Elizabeth ac- 
of the cor- companied the duke of Anjou to Canterbury. She 
federates, ordered the earl of Leicefter, with feveral other no- 
blemen, to attend him to the Low Countries, and 
recommend him, in her name, to the eftates of the 
Netherlands. He made a pompous entry into 
Antwerp, where he was inaugurated duke of Bra- 
bant, and afterwards invefted at Ghent as count of 
Flanders. He was reinforced by a body of Ger- 
man horfe, under Charles de Mansfield, four thou- 
fand Swjfs, and a ftrong detachment of horfe and 
foot from France -, but the queen- mother gave him 
to underftand, that this was the laft fupply he fhould 
receive, unkfs the eftates would acknowledge the 
king of France as their fovereign, in cafe the duke 
mould die without iifue : a propofal which was no 
fooner made than rejected. The eftates were even 
io jealous of their new fovereign, that they allowed 
him little or no fhare in the government. They 



managed the finances without fupplying him with *.*5.-is*fci 
money : they difpofed of all magiftracies and offices : 
they would not admit the French troops into their 
towns, without the utmoft precaution : and, in a 
word, he found himfelf a perfon of very little im- 
portance ; while the prince of Orange, and a few de- 
puties of the eftates, engrofled the whole admini- 
ftration. In order therefore to acquire more autho- 
rity, and intereft France in his behalf, he formed a 
fcheme for making himfelf matter of the principal 
towns. Some of them he furprifed accordingly ; 
but he mifcarried in his attempts on Bruges and 
Antwerp, loft about fourthoufand of his belt troops, 
which were either (lain or taken prifoners, exafpe- 
rated the eftates againft him, and difconcerted all Mete « n * 
their affairs. 

Elizabeth, who forefaw the bad confequences of 
their diffenfion, endeavoured to ftrengrhen htr{c\f 
againft the defigns of Phihp, by forming a league of 
the proteftant princes of the empire ; and, in the 
mean time, fhe fenc the order of the garter to Fre- 
deric II. king of Denmark, a prince of great merit 
and reputation. She was the mere follicitciis about 
taking thefe precautions, as her intereft had declin- 
ed in Scotland fince the death of Morton. She con- 
fidered the duke of Lennox as an agent for the 
duke of Guife, and cenfequently an enemy to her 
perfon : Pat faw, with regret, the young king in- 
tirely guided by his counfels : but ihe was foon de- 
livered from all apprehenfion of that favourite. By 
the in {ligation of Arran, he abufed his power to fuch 
a degree, that he loft the hearts of the nation, and 
rendered himfelf very odious, in particular to the 
friends of the late regent. He recalled the laird of 
Ferniherft, ana feveral other perions of diftinclion, 
who had been banifhed for their adherence to the 
king's mother. Heeftablifhed a friendly correfpon- 
dence between that princefs and her fon ? whom fhe 



a. c. 1582, now confented to afTociate in the government, that 
all difputes about the fupreme authority might be 
removed. So far be acted wifely for the benefit and 
quiet of the kingdom : but at the fame time he dif- 
obliged and perfecuted the lords who had fupported 
the king in his minority. At length they formed 
a confpiracy for expelling him from the realm. The 
king returning meanly attended from Athol, was 
feized by the earl of Marr, the lords Lindfay and 
Ibyd, the matter of Oliphant, with feveral other 
perfons of diilinction, and conveyed to Ruthven - 
caftle, the refidence of the earl of Gowry, who had 
been drawn into the plot on falfe information. Len- 
nox, being at that time in Glafgow, took refuge in 
the caftle of Dumbarton : Arran was taken and 
confined in Ruthven. The king being conducted 
to Stirling-caftle, was obliged to ngn a declaration, 
importing, that what the lords had done at the Raid 
The d-Ae of of Ruthven was for his fervice. The duke of Len- 
Lennoxis nox was orc ] erec l t0 q U j t t h e re alm ; and Tames 

obliged to * . 

qmt Scot- wrote a letter to the queen of England, afTuring her 
iand * that he was not under the Jeaft reftraint. Elizabeth 

advifed him, for the peace of the kingdom, to recal 
the earl of Angus, and fend the duke of Lennox 
into France. This nobleman immediately com- 
plied with his mailer's defire •, and pafiing through 
Meivii. England, returned to France, where, in a few 
jebb. months, he died a proteilant, not without fufpi- 

Spottiiwood. • r • r 

- cion or poilon. 

The Engliih perceiving that the authority of 
James began to be eftablifhed in Scotland, endea- 
voured to keep him in awe, by renewing the treaty 
for his mother's releafe and reftoration. Beale had 
been fent to queen Mary at Sheffield with certain pro- 
portions, to which (he partly agreed : but perceiv- 
ing Elizabeth's drift, and being debarred all in- 
tercourfe with her fon, fhe alarmed Elizabeth in 
her turn, by declaring her refolution to refign all 



her rights and preienfions in Scotland, and elfe- A » c - "s**- 
where, to her fon, that he might act as he mould 
judge proper for his own intereft, without being 
prejudiced by her captivity. In that cafe, fhe faid 
fhe could be no longer charged with practices againft 
the Englifh government ; and her enemies would 
have nothing upon which they could exercife their 
cruelty, but her poor, infirm, languifhing body, . 

worn out with hardfhips and affliction. It was not fiJatioVof 
without reafon this unhappy princefs complained of M * r y q ueen 
hardfhips. She had been confined thirteen years Scots * . - 
under different keepers, and often treated in the moft 
rigorous manner. She faw herfelf deprived of her 
crown and liberty : her youth had pined away in 
dreary imprifonment : her reputation had beeri 
blafted by the venomous tooth of malice and defa- 
mation : all her fchemes were defeated ; all her 
profpects of relief entirely vanifhed : her life was 
in the power of a jealous rival, who could brook no 
competition : her health was in a great meafure 
impaired by confinement and vexation •, yet (he was 
denied the conveniency of having female fefvants 
to attend her in fuch diftrefs f . 

This was the forlorn fituation of Mary, when fhe a. c. , 5 g^ 
was informed of her fon's captivity. Her parental 
tendernefs awoke : fhe fummoned all the mocher, all 
theprincefs to her aid, and wrote a pathetic letter to 
Elizabeth, in which fhe upbraided her with all the 
miferies me had undergone *, and conjured her to 
interpofe in behalf of a prince, a neighbour, an 
ally, a kinfman, in diftrefs. Elizabeth was piqued 
at this warm expoftulation, and defired her council 
to deliberate upon the conditions on which fhe mould 
be releafed. They accordingly drew up the fol- 

•f In the courfe of this year, pope form to this ordinance of the pope; f« 

Gregory XIII. publifhtd a bull for re- that there arofe a difference of ten 

forming the calendar, cutting off" ten days, in the computation between the 

days of the current year- England and Roman catholic countries and thofe 

Other proteftant eftates, would not cen- of the reformed' religion. 

Numb. LVIIl. Z lowing 


a. c. i 5 8 3 . lowing articles, which were prefented to Mary on 
conditions the fuppofition that fhe would; alTociate her fon in 
EHTabethto tn€ adminiftration. The queen of Scotland, and 
that prin- the king, fhall attempt nothing to the prejudice of 
cef$ * England : She fhall difapprove of every thing that 

was done by her hufband Francis II. and ratify the 
treaty of Edinburgh : She (hall difcover and con- 
demn all the confpiracies which to her knowledge 
have been formed againfl queen Elizabeth : She 
fhall project no fcheme againfl: the government of 
England, either temporal or fpiritual : She fhall 
not pretend any right to the crown of England 
during the life of Elizabeth ; and, after the death 
of this princefs, fhall fubmit her pretenfions to the 
determination of parliament : She and her fons 
fhall confirm thefe articles by oath and fubfcription j 
and, for the ratification of this laft article, hoftages 
fhall be delivered to the queen of England. No- 
thing was farther from the intention of Elizabeth 
than the releafe of Mary, whom fhe thus amufed 
with articles which were rejected by the Scottifh 
lords of her intereft, who had fecured the perfon of 
their fovereign. 

She had, when he was firft feized, fent her kinf- 
man Henry Cary to offer him her afliftance ; and, 
though he was furrounded by his captors, he found 
means to make this envoy acquainted with his real 
fituation. Cary had been accompanied by the 
French ambafTador de la Mothe Fenelon, whom 
his matter had ordered to go thither and fupport the 
faction of the favourites, whofe difafter, however, 
he could not prevent. The lords of Ruftiven hav- 
ing banifhed one minifter, and imprifoned the other, 
advifed the king to aflemble the eftates, to whom 
he declared, in perfon, that he was very well fatis- 
fied with thofe noblemen by whom he had been 
conveyed to Ruthven. He wrote the fame decla- 
ration to the general affembly of the kirk, which 



by authentic acts approved of the tranfaction called A,c ' , 5 8 3, 
the Raid of RuthvSn. Then the greater part of 
the lords retired to their own houfes ± fo that the 
king found himfelf at liberty to follow his own in- 
clination. He convoked an aflembly of his nobles 
at St. Andrews, where he owned that he had been 
apprehended for his own good, and that he would 
publifh a general amnefty in favour of thofe who 
had conducted him to Ruthven -, he even vifited 
the earl of Gowry, who falling upon his knees be- 
fore him, and imploring pardon for his fhare of the 
confpiracy, into which he had been feduced by falfe 
information of a plot hatched by Lennox againft 
his life, the king raifed him up, and afTured him 
of his forgivenefs and friendfhip. James afterwards The earl of 
nominated twelve counfellors toaflifthim inmanag- g^nThlTri- 
ing the reigns of government; but the earl of tereft . atth « 
Arran, whofe life Gowry had faved from the enmity co c ° rt ; 
of the other confpirators, being permitted to return 
to court, regained all his former afcendency over 
the fpirit of the king, who, by his advice, inftead 
of an amnefty, publifhed a proclamation, offering 
pardon to all the confpirators of Ruthven, who 
fhould come and afk pardon for the crime of which 
they were guilty. The lords, alarmed at this de- 
claration, by which they were held as criminal, 
and fubjected to the mercy of a prince governed 
by the very minifler againft whom they had tranf- 
grefTed, retired, fome to their own houies, and 
others into England, for protection. 

Elizabeth reproached the king of Scotland, in a 
letter, for having broken his promife ; and he re- Ei^e* 
plied, that the promife was extorted by rebels, therWfc- 
while he was in captivity. Then fhe fent Walling- cretaryWai- 
ham, her fecretary, into Scotland, on pretence of mgii ™' 
eftablifhing a more intimate union between the two 
powers ; but his real defign was to ruin the earl of 
Arran, ftrengthen the Englifh faction, and examine 

Z i the 


a, c. 1583. tne y 0Un g king's capacity. Fenelon had carried 
thither his mother's refignation in his favour : and 
the king of France, with the neighbouring fove- 
reigns, had, in confequence of that refignation, 
acknowledged him as king of Scotland : fo that 
Elizabeth's jeaioufy prompted her to fend her own 
fecretary, notwithstanding his infirm ftate of health, 
to make his obfervations on the difpofition and real 
ftate of the Scottifh monarch. This Englifh am- 
baflador would not confer with the earl of Arran ; 
nor could he procure any indulgence for the lords 
of the Raid of Ruthven ; but he had feveral confe- 
rences with the king, whofe pregnant parts he af- 
fected to admire : he obtained a promife from 
James, that he would make no alteration in the 
eftablilhed religion ; diftributed fums of money 
among the Scottifh courtiers, and returning to Eng- 
land, gave his miftrefs fuch an account of her cou- 
Spottifwood. fi n > as for the prefent quieted her fears and fuf- 

Mediates a At this period, the king of Sweden finding him- 
twecn b Ruf- ^ unable to oppofe John Bafilowitz emperor of 
fiaandSwc- Ruffia, with whom he was at war, follicited the 
mediation of queen Elizabeth, who prevailed upon 
John to grant him peace on equal conditions. The 
Ruijian had a very particular veneration for the 
queen of England, and defired fhe would fend him 
3r*wife from her kingdom : but, as he arrogated 
to himfelf the power of repudiating his conforts, 
according to his own pleafure, no Englishwoman 
would accept of the dignity. In the courfe of this 
year, Thomas RatclifFe earl of SufTex died without 
irTue, and Mary queen of Scots loft a zealous friend 
by the death of Henry Wriothefly earl of South- 
ampton. Gerald earl of Defmond was flain in a 
cave in Ireland ; and doctor Sanders, agent for the 
pope in that kingdom, perifhed by famine. Some 
part of the lands of Defmond was given by the 



queen to his kinfman the earl of Ormond, and the Ai c * , 5 8 3. 
reft granted to adventurers, who undertook to cul- 
tivate and improve the country. In a v/ord, Ire- 
land was kept tolerably quiet, by the vigilant and 
prudent conduct of Sir John Perrot the lord-de- 
puty, Who adminiftered juftice with the utmofl im- 

In England the popilh emhTaries continued their 
practices againft Elizabeth, whom they privately 
reviled as an excommunicated perfon, a perfecutor 
and ufurper. John Somerville, a gentleman of ^wvuie" 
Warwickshire, was difordered in his brain by thefe executed for 
infinuations •, he repaired to London, breathing de- ^ftthV 
flruction to the protectants, and actually afiaulted queen's life. 
feveral perfons with his fword. Being apprehended 
for thefe outrages, he confefTed his defign was to 
murder her majefty. Though the man was ap- 
parently frantic, his father-in-law, Edward Ar- 
den, a gentleman of an unblemifhed character, with 
his wife, his daughter, and one Hall a pried, were 
tried, convicted, and condemned, on the evidence 
of this lunatic, who ftrangled himfelf in prifon : 
Arden was executed ; but the two women and the 
prieft enjoyed the queen's pardon. Archbifhop Dugdaie. 
Grindal, a great favourer of the puritans, dying 
in July, was fucceeded in the fee of Canterbury by 
Whitgift bifhop of Worcefter, a prelate of uncom- 
mon learning, judgment, and refolution, who had 
already employed his talents in refuting the notions 
of the prefbyterians, a feet: of fanatics headed by one 
Cartwright, which was become very troublefome 
to the hierarchy. In the Netherlands, the affairs of 
the confederates declined apace. The duke of An- state ©f 
jou had been obliged to retire to his own country ; ^ r e a ^ ce anl 
and the prince of Parma made fuch progrefs, that countries 
the provinces were on the eve of being reduced to Grotim. 
the dominion of the Spanifh monarch. In this 
emergency, they exprefied an inclination to acknow- 

Z 3 ledge 

342 H I S T O R Y or ENGLAND. 

a. c. ,583. ledge the fovereignty of Henry III. king of France. 
Philip dreading this ftep, endeavoured to embroil 
Henry in his own dominions. He exhorted the 
king of Navarre to take arms againft that mo- 
narch, promifing afiiftance and protection to the 
Huguenots : but his propofal being rejected, he 
had_.recourfe to the duke of Guife, who accepted 

Mezerai h ,s affiftancei in revenging the mortifications which 
he daily fuftained from Henry's favourites. 

a. c. 1584. James king of Scotland convoked his nobility at 
Edinburgh, where the earl of Arran, tampering 
with the individuals in private, gave them to un- 
derstand, that the king was fincerely difpofed to 
pardon the lords of the Raid of Ruthven, after his 
own conduct fhould be vindicated in their being 
found guilty. The noblemen believing that the 
fugitives would receive no prejudice from an ex- 
pedient contrived to fave his majefty's honour, de- 
clared, in their affembly, that the king acted with 
. uncommon clemency in granting them an opportu- 
nity to fue for pardon. When the minifter had 
obtained this declaration of their guilt, he dhTuad- 
ed his matter from publishing the amnefty. He 
perfecuted the earl of Gowry in fuch a manner, that 
he begged the king's permiffion to quit the king- 
dom : and had repaired to Dundee, in order to take 
fhipping, when he underftood that the fugitive earls 
of Angus, Marr, and Glamis, had concerted ano- 
ther fcheme againft the favourite. This informa- 
tion detained him at Dundee ; and at length he en- 
gaged in the confpiracy. The other lords coming 
privately from Ireland, furprifed the town of Stir- 
ling •, but Gowry being apprehended by an order 
from court, they imagined, as he was the king's re- 
lation, he had Suffered himfelf to be taken in order 
to impeach them ; and, on this fuppofition, they 
abandoned their enterprize by leaving the king- 
dom. The earl of Gowry was brought to Edin- 


burgh, where he was tried, condemned, and be- a.c. i 5 8 4 . 
headed : and Arran ftill maintained his influence. The earl of 
Elizabeth underftanding that James kept up a fe- ^™ r J d ¥' 
cret correfpondence with his mother ; that through Scotland. 
Arran's means the French intereft predominated at 
the court of Scotland •, and dreading the thoughts 
of the king's marrying a foreign wife, of the Ro- 
man catholic religion, fent Davifon, afterwards fe- Elizabeth 
cretary, to engage the favourite in her intereft : and f " a s s a^. 1 " 
he fucceeded to her wifh, by means that are eafily baflwkw to 
conceived. Before this agent returned to England, James * 
the two courts agreed that the lord Hunfdon for 
Elizabeth, and the earl of Arran for James, fhould 
meet upon the border to eftablifh proper regulations 
for maintaining a good underftanding between the 
two kingdoms. There thefe two noblemen con- 
cluded a fecret treaty, by which the earl of Arran 
engaged to hinder king James from marrying with- 
in the term of three years - 9 Elizabeth pretending 
fhe would furnifh him with a wife of the blood royal 
of England, who was not yet marriageable. 

During thefe tranfactions, lord Grey, a young 
Scottifh nobleman of infinuating addrefs, acquired 
fuch a fhareof the king's favour, that Arran be- 
came jealous of him ; and, in order to remove him 
from court, perfuaded James to fend him as his 
ambaflador to England. He was foon gained over MelviIt 
to the intereft of Elizabeth by prefents and carets •, 
and affecting uncommon zeal for queen Mary, be- 
came mafter of all her fecrets, which he communi- 
cated to the queen of England. The earl of Arran, 
being informed of his practices, accufed him to the 
king •, but he acquitted himfelf fo artfully, at his 
return to Scotland, that no regard was paid to the 
infinuations of his rival. Elizabeth's miniftry was 
fo indefatigably vigilant, that fhe received inteili- 
gence of every hint that was dropped in favour of 
the captive queen, who lived in clofe confinement, 

Z 4 under 


a. c. 1584. under the eye of the earl of Shrewfbury. Francis 
Francis Throgmorton, a gentleman of Chefhire, was taken 

tonh 8 aree£- * mt0 cu ft°dy f° r correfponding with this unhappy 
ed for cbr- princefs -, and Thomas lord Paget, with Charles 
wfth n q d uee S n Arundel, hearing he had made a confeffion, fled 
Mary. into France with the utmoft precipitation. There 
they loudly complained that the catholics of Eng- 
land were harfhly treated and ignominioufly ufed : 
that tricks were invented, and fnares laid for their 
deftruction. Certain it is, very fcandalous and un- 
fair devices were pradtifed by the queen's emiffaries. 
Counterfeit letters were fent to the houfes of papifts, 
in the name of Mary, or the catholic fugitives 
abroad : fpies were employed through the whole 
kingdom, to obferve and report the words and 
actions of thofe who were fufpected ; all fqrts of in- 
formers were credited and encouraged : many per- 
fons of diftinction were imprifoned, examined, and 
fome individuals put to the torture. 

Elizabeth, underflanding (he was taxed with thefe 
cruelties in foreign countries, refolved to transfer 
the blame upon her miniftry. She reprimanded her 
judges very fharply for having proceeded with fuch 
rigour againft the catholics ; and they publilhed a 
j unification of their conduct, affirming that no per- 
fon had fuffered for religion, though fome had been 
put to the torture for machinations againft the flate 
They owned indeed that Campian the jefuit had 
been racked, though not with fuch violence but 
that he had been able to walk immediately after 
. the torture : and that Bryan, one of his accomplices, 
refilling to declare the name of him who wrote the 
letters found upon him, they had ordered him to h$ 
debarred of nourifhment, until he had demanded it 
in writing. Nevertheless, the queen forbad them 
to put any perfon whatfoever to the torture ; and 
releafed feventy popifh priefts who were in prifon. 
Throgmorton, before he was arretted, had con- 


yeyed a cabinet of private papers to the hands of A « c «'s*4« 
the Spanifh ambaffador Mendoza ; but in his other 
coffers were two lifts, one of the principal catho- 
lics in England, and the other of the lea-ports at 
which a defcent might be conveniently made up- 
on the kingdom. Thefe he infilled upon being 
falfe and counterfeit papers, put into his coffer in 
order to effect his ruin : but being threatened with 
the rack, at his fecond examination, he confeffed, 
that, when he was at Spaa, he had confulted with 
Jeney and Englefield, in what manner England 
might be the moft eafily invaded, and the govern- 
ment altered ; and on that occafion the two lifts 
were drawn up. He owned that Morgan, the Eng- 
lifh refugee in France, had affured him, in a letter, 
the catholic princes were refolved to invade Eng- 
land under the duke of Guife, in order to fet the 
queen of Scots at liberty : that, in hope of railing 
money, and promoting this expedition, Charles Pa- 
get had, under the name of Mape, arrived in Suffex, 
where it was propofed the foreign troops mould 
land : that he (Throgmorton) had imparted the 
fcheme to the Spanifh ambaffador, with whom he 
had concerted a method by which the Roman catho- 
lics might levy men in the queen's name to join the 
foreign forces. This confeifion he retracted on his He u con . 
trial; yet neverthelefs he was found guilty, though <iemned a«a 
two months elapfed between his conviction and ex _ executed - 
ecution. In this interval, he endeavoured to obtain 
the queen's mercy, by fubfcribing his former con- 
feffion ; but being difappointed in his hope, he at 
the gallows denied every circumftance he had be- 
fore confefled. Mendoza being brought before the 
council, and examined touching this tranfaction, in- 
ftead of anfwering the queftions that were put to 
him by the members, upbraided the queen with all 
her iil offices towards his mafter, and was ordered 
to quit the kingdom immediately. Elizabeth pub-r 



a. c. 1584. lifted a declaration to juftify her. conduct with re- 
The Spani/h gard to this ambaffador, and difpatched Wade with 
cSige?to r an excufe to the king of Spain, who refufed him 
quit the an audience. Lord Clifford, the Englifh ambafTa- 
kiogdom. dor at p ariSj demanded that Morgan mould be de- 
livered into the hands of his miftrefs : Henry cauf- 
ed him to be arretted for this purpofe •, but fuch a 
clamour enfued among the zealots of his own king- 
dom, that he would not venture to fend him over, 
j ebb# though he tranfmitted his papers, from which Eli- 
strype. zabeth hoped to make important difcoveries. 

The queen living in continual difquiet, from the 
apprehenfion of confpiracies formed in behalf of 
Mary, refolved to amufe that princefs and her 
friends with a new negotiation. Wade, on his re- 
turn from Spain, was fent to tell her that Elizabeth 
would renew the treaty which had been interrupted, 
on condition that Mary would prevail upon her fon to 
pardon the lords of the Raid of Ruthven ; and that 
fhe would put a flop to the intrigues of the bifhop of 
Glafgow, her ambaflador at Paris. Beale was fent 
upon the fame errand, with particular inftructions 
to difcover, if poflible, the nature of the corres- 
pondence which the duke of Guife maintained with 
Mary. She undertook to intercede for the Scot- 
tifh fugitives, provided they would own themfelves 
guilty : fhe confefTed fhe had intreated the duke of 
Guife to ufe his endeavours for her deliverance ; 
but faid fhe was utterly ignorant of his defigns, 
which, had fhe known them, fhe would not difco- 
ver, except upon afTurance of being fet at liberty : 
in the mean time, fhe begged fhe might be treated 
with a little more humanity than fhe had hithert6 
experienced at the hands of her coufin. Elizabeth 
perceiving herfelf difappointed in the hope of mak- 
ing fome ufeful difcovery, dropped the negotiation : 
and Mary defpaired of relief. All her friends, how- 
ever, did not defift from their endeavours in her 



behalf. One Creighton, a jefuit, in his pafiage to A - c « x 5*4. 
Scotland, beingchaced by pyrates, torefome papers, creighton^ 
the pieces of which were gathered up and delivered to ^" € f K cy 
Wade, who pafted them together upon another 
ground, and found they contained the particulars 
of a delign formed by the pope, the king of Spain, 
and the duke of Guife, for invading England. 

This fcheme being communicated to the mini- General *r- 
ftry, the earl of Leicefter fet on foot a general af- the defence 
fociation, obliging all the fubfcribers, under tfye ? f ^ liza " 
moll folemn vows, to profecute to death all that 
fhould attempt any thing againft her majefty. 
Mary confidering this engagement as a previous 
ftep to her deftruction, fent her fecretary Nau to 
Elizabeth with fuch propofals as muft have fa- 
tisfied any perfon actuated by the dictates of jus- 
tice and humanity : but the queen of England had 
been long refolded againft releafing her upon any 
terms whatfoever ; and upon this occafion (he fhel- 
tered her cruelty under the intereft of the Scot- 
tifh prefbyterians, who remonftrated ftrongly a- 
aginft all accommodation with Mary ; while their 
preachers inveighed againft their unfortunate fove- • 
reign, as an implacable enemy to the true reform- 
ed religion. Elizabeth alfo pretended to have re? 
ceived information of a new plot to deliver the queen 
of Scots •, and, withdrawing her from the cuftody 
of the earl of Shrewfbury, committed her to the 
charge of Sir Drue Drury, and Sir James Pawlet, 
two rigid puritans, whole feverity, it was hoped, 
would drive her to defpair, or perhaps provoke her 
to take fome rafh meafures, which would furnifh 
tier enemies with a fufficient handle for her deftruc- 
tion. The earl of Leicefter being baffled in his ex- 
pectation, by her temper and refignation, is faid to 
have hired ruffians to murder this forlorn princefs ; 
but Drury was a man of too much honour to admit 
them into her prefence, ISeverthelefs, fhe under- 


State of 
France and 
the Low 


a. c. 1584. went (kg mo ft barbarous treatment. She was now 
Sfi'cn deprived of the conveniences fhe had hitherto en- 
Mary, joyed. She was prohibited from giving alms to the 
poor, according to cuftom : (he was confined to 
two wretched chambers, in fuch decay that they 
could not fcreen her from the inclemencies of the 
weather •, fo that me was feized with rheumatic dif- 
orders, by which her life was endangered ; and 
though (he appealed to queen Elizabeth for redrefs, 
the winter was far advanced before fhe was remov- 
ed to Chartley-caftle. 

The prince of Parma continued to gain ground 
upon the confederated provinces of the Low-Coun- 
tries, which fuftained an irreparable lofs by the 
death of the prince of Orange, who was treacherouf- 
Jy fhot by one Balthazar Gerard, a Burgundian. 
His eldeft fon Philip being in the hands of the king 
of Spain, and bred in the Roman catholic religion, 
the Hates conferred the government of Holland and 
Zealand upon his fecond fon Maurice, tho' he was 
but eighteen years of age; and the prince of Parma 
taking the advantage of their confternation, invelted 
Antwerp. In this diftrefled condition, they offered 
to acknowledge the fovereignty of the French ; but 
Henry being too much embarrafled in his own af- 
fairs, to accept an offer that would engage him in 
further trouble and expence, they had recourfe to 
th^ queen of England, who likewife declined their 
offer, though fhe promifed to afiift them in main- 
taining rhe war againft their opprefTors. Henry III. 
of France having no iffue, and being fuppofed im- 
potent, the duke of Guife afpired to the crown of 
that realm, upon the death of the duke~of Anjou, 
which happened in the courfe of this year : but as 
Henry of Bourbon, king of Navarre, was now be- 
come the next prince of the blood, Guife endeavour- 
ed to exclude him from the throne, on account of 
his profeffing the proteftant religion. Henry, who 




perceived his drift, employed all his influence in A « c « l sH* 
perfuading the king of Navarre to embrace the ca- 
tholic doctrines, while the duke renewed the league, 
firft in Paris, and afterwards in the provinces. 
Hearing, however, that the king intended to arreft 
him, he retired to his government of Champagne, 
where he engaged in a private league with the king 
of Spain. He durit not yet openly avow his de- 
ft&n upon the crown ; therefore this treaty import- 
ed, that the cardinal of Bourbon fhould afcend the 
throne after the death of the reigning king ; and 
that Philip of Spain mould fupply him with fifty 
thoufand crowns a-month, for the accompliihment R a p,- n , 
of that purpofe. 

In the beginning of the following year, a new a.c. 15S5, 
confpiracy was difcovered in England. William 
Parry, a Welmman, and member of the houfe of 
commons, had manifefted his zeal for the Roman 
catholic religion, by fingly oppofing with great vio- 
lence a bill that was brought into the houfe againft 
the jefuits. He had fpoke with fuch indecent 
warmth on this occafion, that the houfe confined 
him to his lodgings ; from whence, however, he 
was in a few days releafed, and refumed his place 
in parliament. Then it was that Henry Nevil, the 
pretended heir of the earl of WeftmoreJand, lately 
dead in Flanders, accufed him of having confpired 
the death of the queen : and he was committed to 
the Tower on this impeachment. He confeffed he 
had been perfuaded to afTaflinate the queen by 
Morgan the Englifh refugee in France : that he had 
procured admittance into her majefty's prefence by 
difcovering a feigned confpiracy -, but that being 
{truck with remorfe, he had laid afide his dagger 
and his treafonable defign : but chancing to read a 
book written by cardinal Allen, who maintained ic 
was not only allowable but honourable to kill ex- 
communicated princes, he had refolved to execure 



a. c. 1585. his former purpofe : that his accufer Nevil having 
propofed to him fome enterprife for the releafe of 
queen Mary, he anfwered, that he had a fcheme of 
much greater confequence in his head, which he 
accordingly imparted : that they had agreed to mur- 
der her majefty, when flie mould ride forth to take 
the air ; and fworn upon the evangelifts to keep 
their purpofe fecret ; but the earl of Weftmoreland 
dying in the interim, Nevil had accufed Parry, in 
hope of obtaining for this difcovery the inheritance 
of the earl, to which he had fome pretenfions. In 

Parry is ex- confequence of this confefllon, Parry was condemn- 

ecuted for a ec j an( J execu t e d as a traitor; and the parliament re- 

defign to af- ' r 

foffinate the folved to take extraordinary precautions for the fare- 

^een. t y of the queen and the realm. 

They forthwith enacted a (latute, receiving, ap- 
proving, and confirming the general affociation ; 
ordaining that four and twenty commiffioners, to 
be appointed by the queen, mould fet on foot an 
inquiry concerning thofe who might endeavour to 
excite a rebellion, attempt any thing againft the 
life of the queen, or arrogate any right to the crown 
of England ; and that any perfon convicted of fuch 
attempts, mould not only forfeit for ever that right, 
whatfoever it might be, but alfo be profecuted to 

Severe fta- death, by fentence of the commiffioners. Another 

tutfts ens l— 

ed againft" bill palled, ordaining that all Komifh priefts mould 

cathhiicTof * n ^ our ^ a y s Q ult tne kingdom, on P aui °f being 
England, declared guilty of high treafon ; while thofe that 

received or concealed them, mould be profecuted as 
felons : that all the fubjects of England maintained 
in foreign feminaries mould return to their native 
country in fix months -, and make their fubmiffion 
before a bifhop, or two juftices of the peace, on 
pain of being denounced traitors ; and that even 
this fubmiffion mould be deemed null and of no ef- 
fect, in cafe the perfon who made it fhould in ten 
years come within ten miles of the court: That all 



convicted of having directly or indirectly remitted a«c, ijg*, 
fums of money to foreign feminaries, mould be pu- 
niftied with perpetual banifhment, and confiscation 
of effects : That all perfons knowing of any popifh 
prieft or jefuit concealed in the kingdom, without 
difcovering the faid prieft or jefuit, within four 
days after the publication of this ftatute, mould be 
imprifoned and fined at her majefty's difcretion : 
That perfons fufpected of being priefts or jefuits, 
refufing to fubmit to proper examination, mould be 
imprifoned till compliance : That perfons fending 
their children to popifh colleges and feminaries, 
mould be condemned in a fine of one hundred 
pounds, for every offence \ and that the children fo 
fent, if not returned within the year, mould be in- 
capable of fucceeding to any inheritance : That no Camden, 
governor of any fea port town mould allow any per- 
ibn but merchants to leave the kingdom without the 
queen's exprefs commiffion, figned by fix members 
of the council, on pain of being deprived of his 
employment ; and the fhipmaflers receiving fuch 
paffengers without this permifiion, mould be punifh- 
ed with confifcation of goods, one year's imprifon- 
ment, and declared incapable of navigating any 
Englifh mips for the future. This was the moll 
rigorous ftatute which had been enacted againft the 
papifts fince the queen's acceffion to the throne, 
and was in a great meafure owing to their own reft- 
lefs conduct, in forming machinations againft the 
government. As for the other law, it was evident- 
ly levelled at Mary queen of Scotland, and the ef- 
fect; of a refolution taken againft the life of that un- 
fortunate lady, which Elizabeth now deemed in- 
compatible with her own fafety. 

In this feffion the puritanical members were ex- 
tremely troublefome in bringing in bills and peti- 
tions for a further reformation of religion : at 
length they demanded a conference, which was 



a c.1585. held at Lambeth, between archbifhop Whitgift arid 
their ableft minifters, in prefence of the earl of Lei- 
cefter, and others of the privy-council, who were 
aftonifhed at the weaknefs of the arguments ufed 
by the puritans, and endeavoured to perfuade them 
The com- t conformity. The commons were not more offi- 
dc" S of na " cious in point of religion, than jealous of their owri 
their privJ- p r i v i] e g es# Richard Cook, member for Lirhingtonj 
being ferved with a fubpoena out of chancery* the 
houfe fent three other members, attended by the fer- 
jeants at arms, to fignify to the chancellor, and the 
mafter of the rolls, that by the ancient privileges of 
the houfe, the members are exempted from fubpoe- 
nas : the houfe therefore required that Cook's ap- 
pearance mould be difcharged •, and that the chan- 
cellor, and the mafter of the rolls, would for 
the future admit the fame privileges for other 
members, to be fignified to them in writing, under 
the hand of the fpeaker. Sir Thomas Bromley dif- 
puted this privilege, and a committee was appoint- 
ed to fearch for precedents ; but it does not appear 
D'Ewe^s that any report was made. Neverthelefs, Allan 
joum . s te p n ith, member for Haverfordweft, being after- 
wards ferved with a fubpoena, followed by an at- 
tachment from the Star-chamber, the houfe refolv- 
ed that Anthony Kirke, who ferved the fubpoena, 
was guilty of a contempt of the houfe, and the pri- 
vileges thereof. He was committed prifoner to the 
fcrjeantj but releafed upon making his fubmifiion. 
The convocation granted a fubfidy to the queen, 
who received another from the parliament, which 
fhe now prorogued, and afterwards difiblved. 

Philip earl of Arundel, eldeft fon of the late duke 
of Norfolk, had embraced the catholic religion, to 
which he was zealouQy attached : he had been twice 
examined before the council, and confined to' his 
own houfe, on fufpicion of practifing againft the 
government. On the firft day of this feffion, he 



withdrew in the time of divine worfhip; and at a. 0.1585* 
length refolved to retire to another country, where 
he could enjoy his religion in quiet. He wrote a 
letter to the queen, to be delivered after his depar- 
ture, in which he told her, that, in order to avoid 
the misfortunes which had befallen his father and 
grandfather, he had taken the refolution to quit the 
kingdom, though he fhould never quit his allegi- 
ance. Before he could embark, he was betrayed EarI of 
by fome of his own dorneftics, and fent prifoner to Arundel 
the Tower, which was at this time the fcene of a JoThT^ 
remarkable tranfaclion. Henry Piercy earl of Nor- Tower, 
thumberland, brother of him who had been be- 
headed, being accufed of having had fome fhare in 
Throgmorton's confpiracy, and of having corre- 
fponded with lord Paget and the duke of Guife, 
was committed to the Tower, where, either confci- 
ous of his guilt, or forefeeing that evidence would 
be fuborned for his deftru&ion, he, in order to -dis- 
appoint Elizabeth of his forfeiture, and retain his 
fortune in the family, fhot hirnfelf in the bread with 
apiftol. Camden < 

At this period, a gathering cloud of mifchief 
feemed to hover over the head of Elizabeth. The 
power of her inveterate enemy the duke of Guife 
daily increafed. Philip of Spain, after having made 
hirnfelf matter of Portugal, was now en the brink 
of fubduing the revolted provinces of the Nether- 
lands -, and means were ufed to render James of 
Scotland iubfervient to a deiign of invading Eng- 
land. The captive Mary was the center upon which 
all thbfe defigns had ever turned; and therefore fhe 
was devoted to deftruction. The miniftry of Eng- 
land, in order to avert the impending danger, re 7 
folved to engage in alliances with the two northern 
crowns, and the proteftant princes in Germany ; to 
fupport the confederates in the Low Countries 5 
fuccour the Huguenots in France, fo as that they 

NS 58. A a fhould 


a. & ^ s 5- iliould not be oppreiTed ; and either make fure of 
the perfoa of James, or excite fuch troubles in his 
kingdom as would render him incapable of form- 
ing fchemes to the prejudice of England. Thomas 
Bodley was fent ambaffador into Germany and Den- 
mark, to propofe a defenfive alliance with Eliza- 
beth, who, being informed that James intended to 
demand the daughter of his Danifh majefty in mar- 
riage, refolded to ufe all her efforts to divert him 
from his purpofe ; for me apprehended fuch a mar- 
riage would diminifh her influence in the councils 

Elizabeth f Scotland. She therefore fent Edward Wotton, 

fends Wot- r i (\ ' r • jir r i 

ton into a man or the molt lnlinuating addrels, to reiide 
Scotland, w j t jj t } ie Scottifli king, as the companion of his lei- 
fure hours and amufements, that he might gain the 
afcendency over the fpirit of that weak prince ; and 
he fucceeded to admiration. The king of Den- 
mark, being apprifed of the Sccttifh monarch's in- 
tentions, fent an embaffy to Scotland on pretence of 
demanding the reftitution of the Orkney iflands, 
which had been long ago mortgaged to the Scottifli 
crown •, but Chriftian's real motive for fending thefe 
ambafTadors was to give James an opportunity to 
propofe the marriage. 

By this time Wotton had taken full poiTeflion of 
the Scottifli prince. He had captivated his fancy 
by giving a romantic account of his travels ; enter- 
taining him with ridiculous ftories of goblins and 
witches ; flattering his vanity with exaggerated en- 
comiums on his wifdom and learning; and attend- 
ing him afliduoufly in all his parties of pleafure. 
Having thus acquired an oracular authority, he 
perfuaded James that the king of Denmark was not- 
of royal extraction, but defcended of a race of mer- 
chants y and, for this reafon, the ambafTadors were 
treated with the moil provoking contempt, until 
the king was undeceived by Sir James Melvil. 
^Then they were honourably difmiiled 5 and in a lit- 


tie time followed by Patrick Young, chaplain A - c * *5 8 5« 
to James, who fent him to thank the king of Den- 
mark for his embaffy, and to fee the two princeffes, 
that he might be able to defcribe their perfons at 
his return. In the interim, the earl of Arran was 
fuperfeded in his influence by the mailer of Gray, 
feconded by the intereft of Wotton : and an acci- 
dent which happened on the frontiers, had a very 
bad effect upon that minister's fortune. The laird 
of Ferniherft, who had married Arran's niece, hold^ 
ing a conference, according to cuftom, with the 
warden of the English Marches, an Englishman 
was detected in the act of dealing ; and this circum- 
fiance excited a fray between the followers of the s - r rrancIs 
two wardens, in which Sir Francis RufTel, eldeft R«flH «« 
fon to the earl of Bedford, loft his life. Elizabeth, ^^ 
who hated Ferniherft for his inviolable attachment 
to queen Mary, and wanted a pretext for the de- 
ilruction of Arran, affected to believe that the tu- 
mult was raifed at the inftigation of the Scottifh mi- 
nifter ; and demanded that he and his ally, the laird 
of Ferniherft, mould be delivered into her hands, 
Though James refufed to comply with this requeft, 
he ordered the earl of Arran to be confined in his 
own houfe, and Ferniherft was fent prifoner to Aber- 
deen. This was all the fatisfaction Elizabeth could 
expect, confidering that the affair could not eafily 
be determined in a court of juftice; becaufe, by 
the mutual confent of both nations, the evidence of 
a Scot did not convict an Englifhman ; nor was an 
Englishman's depofition ever taken againft a native 
of Scotland. 

Wotton having removed Arran from the Scot- wotton 
tifti court, and corrupted great part of thofe who cSToffthe 
were in daily attendance upon the king, refolved to king of 
feize the perfon of that prince, when he mould ride 
forth a -hunting, and convey him directly to Eng- 
land. Being difappointed in this fcheme, he form- 

A a 2 ed 


a c. * 5 S5. ed a plan for forcing the caftle of Stirling ; but 
James being informed of thedefign, retired to Kin- 
cardin before the fcheme was ripe for execution. 
Wotton, finding himfeif detected, fled into Eng- 
land •, Gray withdrew himfeif to Athole, and the 
earl of Arran refumed his miniftry. The fugitive 
lords being fupplied with money in England, en- 
tered Scotland, where they were joined by a ftrong 
reinforcement under lord Maxwell, and advanced to 
Stirling, which they entered without oppofition. 
Arran made his efcape ; but they were admitted in- 
to the caftle by the king, towards whom they be- 
Meivii. haved with the utmoft reverence and circumfpeclion. 
Such was their moderation, that they did not even 
take vengeance on their enemies. At a parliament 
held in Linlithgow, their pardons were confirmed. 
The Hamiltons were reftored to their eftates and 
honours, and Arran, who had decked himfeif with 
their fpoils, was reduced to his primitive title of 
captain James Stewart *. 
Elizabeth By this time the eftates of the Netherlands 
Sfwith" were fo hard preffed by the forces of Philip, that 
thefhtes. queen Elizabeth perceived the neceffity of furnifh- 
ing them with effectual affiftance. She there- 
fore engaged, by treaty, to fuccour them with 
five thoufand foot foldiers, and one thoufand ca- 
valry, under the command of an Englifh general j 
and to pay thefe troops during the war, on condi- 
tion of being reimburfed after peace fhould be re- 

* In the ccurfe of this year, John 
Davis finifhed his third voyage in 
queft of a north-weft paftage to the 
Eaft Indies. Hedifcovered the ftreight 
which bears his name, and failed beyond 
the 83d degree of northern latitude ; 
but was obliged to return without fuc- 
cefs. Camden. 

In the fame year, the burghs of 
Ireland raifed two fucceffive infurrec- 
Hem j but were reduced by Sir John 

Perrot the lord deputy, reinforced by 
the earl of Clanriciccard, who not only 
compel hd them to give frefh hoftagee, 
but deftroyed their allies the Hebredian 
Scots j three thoufand of whom were 
cut in pieces at Ardavar ; fo that their 
countrymen ware deterred from profe- 
cuting fuch adventures, and Ireland 
for fome time remained in traaquil- 
lity. Carte. 

* efta- 


•eftablifhed. In the mean time it was ftipulated that A - c « '^s* 
fhe mould be put in pofTefiion of Fleflingham, Ram- 
mikens, and the Brille, as fecurity for the repay- 
ment : that the Englifh governors of thefe places 
fhould have no jurifdiction over the inhabitants : 
that the towns mould be reftored to the dates on the 
payment of the money : that the Englilh general, 
and two other perfons nominated by the queen of 
England, fhould have places in the affembly of the 
flues ; and that neither peace nor truce fhould be 
made without the mutual content of Elizabeth and 
tnt confederates : that, in cafe of her fending a fleet 
to lea, they fnould join it with a like number of 
fhips, to be commanded by the Englifh admiral : 
and, Jaftly, that the harbours of both countries 
mould be open to the fubjecls of each nation. In 
purfuance of this treaty, the Brille was delivered to 
Sir Thomas Cecil •, Sir Philip Sidney was appointed 
governor of Flulhing ; the earl of Leicefter was 
appointed general of the auxiliaries i and the queen 
j.'iiblifhed a manifefto to vindicate her conduct, al- 
led^ing that the alliance between England and the 
Netnerlands related to the mutual welfare of both 
countries, rather than to any perfonal connection be- 
tween the fovereigns : fhe therefore deemed herfelf at 
liberty to fuccour the people of the Low-Countries, 
who were opprefled by the Spaniards. As fhe knew 
thefe arguments would not be fatisfactory to Philip, 
me refolved to anticipate his vengeance ; and equip- c , _ , 
ping a fleet or twenty ihips, lent them under the to the 
command of Sir Francis Drake, to infeft the Spa- w * ftMo » 
nifh fettlements in the Weft Indies. In his pafTage 
he took St. Jago, one of the cape de Verd iflands ; 
made himfelf mafter of St. Domingo and Cartha- Meterea, 
gena. In his return through the gulph of Florida, 
he burned St. Augultine and St. Helena, and touch- 
ing at Virginia, took on board captain Lane and 
his companions, who having been fent by Sir Walter 
Raleigh to plant that colony, were greatly reduced 

A a 3 ia 


a. c. 15S5. in point of number, and in a ftarving condition? 
They therefore took this opportunity to relinquifh 
their infant fettlement, and brought home fome to- 
bacco ; a plant which had never been feen before in 

Elizabeth not only fupported the eftates of the Ne- 
therlands againft the oppreflion of Spain, but alfo 
extended her afliftance to the Huguenots in 
France, headed by the king of Navarre and the 
•prince of Conde. The duke of Guife, covering his 
ambition with the pretext of religion, interefted the 
court of Rome and the clergy in the defign which 
he had formed for the extirpation of the prcteftants. 
He publifhed a manifeflo in the name of the cardinal 
de Bourbon, pretending to prove that he was next 
heir to the crown ; while pope Sixtus V. who fuc- 
ceeded Gregory XIII. fulminated the thunder of the 
church againft the king of Navarre, and the prince 
of Conde, as heretics, apoftates, and the offspring 
of a baftard generation. Thefe princes finding 
themfelves thus afaulted by the duke of Guife, and 
abandoned by Henry III. who was obliged to join 
Guife for their deftruclion, re-affembled their troops ; 
Mezera*. which, however, were fo inconfiderable that they 
The pr.nce could not withftand the power of their enemies. 
^rrhesln T ne V rinCQ °f Conde attempting to fuccour the 
inland, caftle of Angers, which Guife had befieged, was 
fuddenly furrounded by the enemy, and efcaping 
Camden. ^-^ g feat difficulty, repaired to the court of Eng- 
land, where he was hofpitably received by Eliza- 
beth. She knew her own intereft was connected 
with the fafety of the Huguenots ; and fupplied the 
prince with fifty thoufand crowns and ten ihips, by 
means of which he raifed the blokcade of Rochelle. 
When the earl of Leicefter arrived in Holland, the 
eftates conftituted him governor-general of all the 
United Provinces, with an almoft dictatorial power, 
which was by no means agreeable to Elizabeth, who 
perceived their aim was to engage her farther than 





fhe chofe to embark in their interefts. The confe- A-c^s**' 
derates had conceived great hopes from the abili- 
ties of Leicefter •, but they found themfelves griev- 
oufly difappointed in his adminiftration, which was 
weak, cruel, and oppreflive. Notwithflanding all 
his endeavours, the prince of Parma continued his 
conquefts, reducing Grave, Nuys, and Venloo, 
while the Engiifh forces atchieved nothing of im- 
portance. Sir Philip Sidney indeed helped to fur- 
prife Axele; but failed in his attempt upon Grave- 
lines, and was afterwards mortally wounded in a 
fkirmifh, to the inexprefiible regret of the Engiifh 
nation, by whom he was univerfally beloved and 
admired, as a pattern of generality j gallantry, tafte, 
learning, and every perfonal accomplimment. Af- Metcren « 
ter an inglorious campaign, the earl of Leicefter 
left the adminiftration to the council of fcate, and 
returned to England in the beginning of No- 
vember -f\ 

During thefe tranfactions, Elizabeth fent Ran- J lt l tyoF " 
dolph to the court of Scotland, with prcpofals for defenfivl" 
an offenfive and defenfive league between the two.™*! 1 Scot " 
nations, as a mutual fecurity againft the machina- * *' 
tions of the catholic princes. Notwithstanding the 
efforts of Defneval the French envoy in Scotland, 
the plenipotentiaries of both kingdoms opened a 

-b On the twenty- firft, day cf July, feconc of the fame nature-: but he was 

Thomas Cavendifh of Suffolk, fet fail hindered by contrary winds from paf- 

from Plymouth with two fhips and a fmg through the (freights, and driven 

bark, paffed through the (freights of ba ck to the coaft of Brazil, where he 

Magellan into the South-fea, where died » About the fame time James 

he plundered fome fmall towns upon Lancafter and George Ryman fet fail 

the coafts of Chili and Peru, took the for the Eaft Indies. Ryman with his 

tichAcapulcofhip, with nineteen other ftnps was loft. Lancaffrr's crew was 

prizes, and returned by the cape of reduced to the number of thirty-three: 

Good Hope, having made the circuit neverthelefs he returned richly laden 5 

of the earth in two years and two and his failors were afterwards fervice- 

months. The fuccefs of this expe- able in teaching their countrymen the 

dition encouraged him to undertake a method of trading in the Eaft Indies. 

A a 4 con^ 


&,c r fi%§> congrefs at Berwick, where the treaty was con- 
cluded, on condition that both powers mould de- 
fend the proteftant religion againft all its enemies 
in either kingdom : That, if either of the powers 
fhould be attacked, the other fhould give no af- 
firmance directly or indirectly to the aggrefTor, on 
pretence of any former treaty or alliance whatfo- 
ever : That, in cafe England fhould be invaded at 
a diflance from Scotland, James mould furnilli the 
queen with two thoufand cavalry, and five thoufand 
foot foldiers, to be fubfifted by Elizabeth from the 
day en which they mould enter the kingdom of 
England \ and that, in cafe Scotland mould be at- 
tacked in the fame manner, the queen fhould aflift 
James with three thoufand horfe, and double the 
number of infantry ; but in cafe of England's be- 
ing invaded in any place within fixty miles of the 
border, the king of Scotland fhould join Elizabeth's 
army with all his forces : That, mould England be 
invaded, James fhould prohibit the inhabitants of 
Argyleihirefrom making defcents on Ireland : That 
the two powers mould mutually deliver up, or at 
leaft expel from their dominions, the rebellious 
fubjedls of each other : That in fix months they 

Cuuden. fhould fend commifTioners to the borders, to regu- 
late and determine all differences between the two 
nations : That neither party fhould conclude any 
treaty to the prejudice of thefe articles, without the 
other's confent : That this treaty fhould be ratified 
on both fides by letters-patent : That it fhould not 
derogate from former treaties made between the two 
crowns -, or from thofe made by either crown with 
other potentates, except in what concerned religion ; 
with regard to which this league ofTenfive and de- 
fenfive fhould remain firm and inviolable : That 
this treaty fnould be confirmed by the ftates of Scot- 
land 3 when the king fhould have attained the age of 

' five 


five and twenty •, and in like manner it fhould re- A - G « J 5 86 » 
ceive the fanction of the Engliih and Irifh parlia- 

Immediately after the ratification of the league B^ng*™'* 
with Scotland, the Engliih miniftry difcovered a conpiracy ' 
confpiracy againfl the life of Elizabeth. Doclor 
Gifford, Gilbert Gifford, and Hodgefon, Romifh 
priefts of the feminary at Rheims, perfuaded one 
John Savage that there could not be a more meri- 
torious action than that of killing an excommuni- 
cated prince ; and this mad enthufiaft made a fo- 
lemn vow to murder the queen. John Ballard 
another prieft, who had been privately in England, 
returned to Paris, accompanied by one Maude, a 
fecret fpy of Walfingham, and exhorted Mendoza, 
the Spanifh minifter at the court of France, to pro- 
mote an invafion of England, while the belt, of 
the queen's troops were employed in the Nether- 
lands. He confulted Charles Paget on the fame 
fubjecl ; and coming back to England, imparted 
the fcheme to Anthony Babington, a young gen- 
tleman of Dethick in Derbyshire, who propofed that 
he, and five other flout men, mould aflaflinate 
Elizabeth. For this purpofe he engaged Edward, 
brother to the lord Windfor ; Thomas Salifbury of 
Denbighshire ; Charles Tilney, one of the band of 
penfioners ; Chidrock Tichburne, of Southamp- 
ton ; Edward Abingdon, whofe father had been 
cofferer of the houlhpld ; Robert Gage, of Surry; 
John Travers, and John Charnock of Lancafhire ; 
John Jones 5 Patrick Barnwell, an Irifhman ; and 
Henry Dun, a clerk in the firft fruits office. Thefe 
were all bigotted Roman catholics * and admitted 
into their afTociation one Dolly, who communi- 
cated all their delibeiations to Walfingham, toge- 
ther with Savage, who had already devoted the 
queen to deltruction. They bound themfel^es by 



^.c. 15S6. an oath of fecrecy, and were even vain enough to 
employ a painter to draw them in one piece, with 
myfterious mottos, alluding to Tome deiperate un- 
dertaking. This performance was fhewn to Eli- 
zabeth, and the picture made inch a ftrong impref- 
fion upon her memory, that fhe recognized Barn- 
well in her garden, when turning to the captain of 
the guard, " Am not I well guarded, (faid fhe) 
" without one armed man in my company ?" Ba- 
bington feeing the neceflity of an invafion, to faci- 
litate the fuccefs of their meafures, introduced him- 
felf to Walfingham, whom he folicited for a pafiport, 
by virtue of which he and Ballard might fet out on 
their travels. That minifter, being well apprifed of 
his intention, promifed to grant his requeft, the 
more readily as he undertook to difcover the fecret 
defigns of the Scottifh fugitives in France : but in 
a few days Ballard was apprehended. Babington, 
alarmed at this circumftance, directed Charnock and 
Savage to execute the murder with the firft oppor- 
tunity ; yet afterwards underftanding that Ballard 
had been feized as a popifh prieft, he changed his 
refolution, and by letters prefied Walfingham to 
procure the licence and releafe of his friend, who 
would be of fingular fervice to him in executing the 
plan he had projected in the queen's behalf. The 
fecretary ft ill amufed him with hopes of obtaining 
his defire \ and, in the mean time, -ordered Scuda- 
more, his own fervant, to watch him in fuch a man- 
ner that he mould not efcape. Babington difco-« 
vering by accident that Scudamore was employed 
as a fpy upon his actions, found means to efcape 
into the fields, where he was joined by Dun and 
. Barnwell. A proclamation was immediately iiTued, 
in which they were defcribed, and declared traitors. 
They were apprehended at Harrow, in the difguife 
ofpeafants. Their accomplices likewife fell into 



the hands of the queen's officers. They confeiTed A,Ci -$ Z6 * 
the confpiracy, pleaded guilty at their trials, and 
were executed, to the number of fourteen, • in St, 
Giles's fields, their ufual place of meeting. 

Mary queen of Scots was charged with having 
carried on a correfpondence with Babington, by 
means of Gilbert Gifford, who betrayed her letters 
to Walungham, In thefe letters fhe approved of 
his fcheme for affaflinating Elizabeth, and fettlng 
herfelf at liberty. She advifed him to form an af . 
fociation, but to abftain from railing an infurreclion, 
until allured of foreign affiftance ; to engage in the 
fcheme the earl of Arundel and his brothers, the 
earl of Weflmoreland, Paget, and others ; and, in 
order to procure her own deliverance, fhe di reeled 
him to overturn a cart in the gate of the caftle ; to 
fet fire to the (tables, or intercept her as (he rode 
out for exercife, between Chartley, and Stafford. Im- 
mediately afteFthe confpirators were apprehended, 
Sir Thomas Gorges was fent to make Mary ac- 
quainted v/ith the tranfaclion. He accofted her 
purpofely when (he had. taken horfe to ride ouc 
from the caftle of Chartley, to which fhe never 
returned. She was conducled from one gentle- 
man's houfe to another, until (lie reached the caftle 
of Fotheringay, in Northamptonfnire, where (he 
was clofely confined. Her papers were feized, and The pap ers 
fent up fealed to court ; and her money fecured, on andle 5 ret a- 

r r .... ii ries °f Mary 

pretence or preventing its being converted to the queen of 
purpofes of bribery. Nau, a Frenchman, and ^^ G 
Curie, a Scot, her two fecretaries, were arrefted and 
committed to prifon. Upon examination, they 
are faid to have owned a correfpondence v/ith 
Babington ; that their miitrefs diclated the letters 
in French, which Curie tranflated into Englifli, 
and then they were written in cypher. Attefted 
copies of thefe letters were fent by Sir Edward Wot- 



a,c. i 5 S6s ton to Paris, that the courc of France might be 
convinced of Mary's being concerned in the con- 
The council " nphe council of England was divided in point of 
opinion con- opinion, about the meafures to be taken againft 
ccmiag that ^ q Ueen f Scotland. Some members propofed, 
that, as her health was very infirm, her life might 
be fhortened by clofe confinement, fo as to avoid 
any imputation of violence or cruelty ; others in- 
filled upon her being put to death by legal procefs ; 
and the earl of Leicefter propofed that me mould 
be difpatched by poifon. Sir Amias Paulet was 
directed to kill her without hefitation, fhould any 
difturbance happen in or near her lodgings ; and, 
when the chimney of her chamber took fire by ac- 
cident, he actually appointed four fervants to be her 
affafiins, mould fhe attempt to make her efcape. 
Eiackwood. /p n j s iii_fi- arrec j princefs was fo confcious of the dan- 
ger that hung over her head, that fhe wrote a let- 
ter to her kinfman the duke of Guife, in which fhe 
informed him of her being accufed of practifing 
againft the life of Elizabeth ; protefted her inno- 
cence, and affirmed that her fecretaries muft have 
been put to the torture, otherwife they could not 
have given evidence to downright falfhoods. Be- 
ing in continual expectation of death, either by pri- 
vate means or public execution, fne intreated her 
, coufin to reward her poor fervants for their fidelity, 
as fhe herfelf had been deprived of all her effects, 
to convey her body to France, that it might be 
buried near her mother at Rheims, and caufe her 
heart to be depofited befide that of Francis II. her 
firit huhband. The miniftry of England at length 
refolved to proceed againft her by public trial ; and 
a eommiffion was iflued to forty peers, with five 
judges, or the major part of them, to try and pafs 
featenee upon Mary, daughter and heir of James 




V. king of Scots, commonly called queen of Scots, A - c> 's**- 
and dowager of France *. 

Thirty-fix of thefe commiflloners arriving at P etr . iaI at 
Fotheringay on the eleventh of November, pre- gay , 
fented her with a letter from Elizabeth, command- 
ing her to fubmit to a trial. She perufed the letter 
with great compofure*, and complained that every 
threatened danger, either from fubjecls or fo- 
reigners, was imputed to her by certain courtiers, 
who were her mortal enemies. She wondered the 
queen of England mould command her as a fub- 
je£t, whereas fhe was an abfolute fovereign, and in- 
dependent princefs. She faid me would never ftocp 
to any condefcenfion which might derogate from 
her royal majefty, or prejudice the rank and dig- 
nity of her own fon •, that the laws of England 
were unknown to her ; that fhe was deftitute of 
counfel ; nor could fhe conceive who were to be her 
peers •, that me was even robbed of her own papers, 
and no perfon durft undertake to be her advocate. 
This declaration being committed to writing, and 
read to her, fhe added, that initead of enioving 
the protection of the laws of England, as Eliza- 
beth alledged in her letter, (he had been confined 
in prifon fince her firft arrival in the kingdom ; fo 
that fhe neither derived the leaft benefit from the 
Englifh laws, nor could fhe ever learn what fort of 
laws they were. When the commiffioners prefied 
her to fubmit to the queen's pleafure, otherwife 
they would proceed againfl her as contumacious, 
fhe declared fhe would rather fuffer a thoufand 

* Thefe wtre the lord chancellor Mordaunt, St. John of Bletfo, Comp- 

Bromley, lord tfreafurer Burleigh, the tor, and Cheney j Sir James Crofts, Sir 

earls of Oxford, Kent, Derby, Wor- Chr.Hutton, Sir Francis Walfingham, 

cefter, Rutland, Cumberland, War- Sir Ralph Sadler, Sir W. Mildmay, 

wick, Pembroke, and Lincoln j the Sir AmiasPauletj the lords chief juf- 

vifcount Montacute, the lords Aberga- tices Wray and Anderfon ; thelord chief 

venny, Zouch, Morley, Stafford, Grey, baron Manwood, and the j\i ft ices Gaa- 

Lumley, Stourton, Sand£s,Wentworth, dy and Periam, Cart~ 4 



a. c. 1586. deaths than own herfelf a fubject to any prince on 
earth ; yet fhe was ready to vindicate herfelf in a 
full and free parliament ; that for ought fhe knew, 
this meeting or affembly was devifed againft her 
life, on purpofe to take it away under colour of le- 
gal proceedings. She exhorted them to confuk their 
own confidences, and remember that the theatre of 
the world was much more extenfive than the king- 
dom of England. At length the vice- chamberlain 
Hutton vanquished her objections, by reprefenting 
that me injured her reputation by avoiding a trial, 
in which her innocence might be proved to the fa- 
tisfacYion of all mankind. This obfervation made 
fuch impreffion upon her, that fhe agreed to ap- 
pear, if they wculd admit and allow her protefl 
difowning all fubjeclion : even when they refufed 
to allow it, fhe was contented with its being re- 
ceived and entered in writing. Then they pro- 
ceeded to the trial, and ferjeant Gaudy charged her 
with knowing, approving, and contenting to Ba- 
bington's confpiracy. She denied that fhe had 
ever known or correfponded with Ballard or Ba- 
bington, or had the leafl intimation of fuch a con- 
fpiracy. Babington's confeffion being read, in 
which mention was made of the earls of Arundel 
and Northumberland, fhe fried a flood of tears, 
exclaiming, " Alas ! what hath the noble houfe 
c < of Howards endured for my fake!" But, foon 
recollecting herfelf, fhe faid Babington's confeffion 
might be extorted by the rack, which was really 
the cafe •, that her adverfaries might procure the 
cyphers which fhe ufed, and forge whatever they 
pleafed to invent to her prejudice ; that it was im- 
probable fhe fhould advife him to folicit the afTif- 
tance of Arundel who was fhut up in prifon, or 
that of Northumberland, a very young nobleman, 
with whom fhe never had the leafl connexion. She 
owned that fhe had ufed her beft endeavours to re- 

2 cover 


cover her liberty, as nature herfelf dictates, and had AC * l &*» 
folicited her friends for that purpofe •, but pofitively 
denied that ever me harboured a thought again It 
the life of Elizabeth. She obferved that many 
dangerous enterprizes might be attempted in her 
behalf, even without her knowledge ; and exprelTed 
her fufpicion that her cyphers and characters had 
been counterfeited for the purpofe of taking away 
her life, by Walfingham and his emifTaries, who 
fhe heard had already practifed againft her perfo- 
nal fafety, and even contrived the dea&di of her fon." 
Walfingham, thus accufed, rofe up, and protefted 
that his heart was free from malice; that he had 
never done any thing unbecoming an honed man 
in his private capacity, not aught unworthy of the 
place he occupied in the'ftate; though his zeal for 
the queen's prefervation had prompted him to fife 
and examine carefully all the confpiracies that were 
formed againft her life and dignity. The queen of 
Scots declared herfelf fatisfied of his innocence, and 
defired he would give as little credit to the mali- 
cious accufatioas of her enemies, as fhe now gave 
to the reports which (he had heard to his prejudice. 
The written evidence of her two fecretaries being 
produced, fhe affirmed they had been either intimi- 
dated, tortured, or bribed, into a confeffion of what 
was abfolutely falfe : me faid me was not to be con- 
victed but by her own words or hand- writing: fhe 
defired (he might be confronted with her fecretaries; 
and obferved, that were me in pofieflion of htr notes, 
(he could anfwer more particularly. Sh-2 demand- 
ed a copy of her protefl, an advocate to plead her . 
caufe, and an impartial hearing in full parliament. 
Her requefts were rejected ; and the court, after 
having fat feveral days, adjourned to the twenty- 
fifth day of October, at the Star-chamber in Weft- 
minfter, when all the commifTioners appeared, ex- 
cept Shrewfbury and Warwick, 



a. c. 1586. ]vj au anc i Curie having fworn to the letters and 
copies which had been produced, fentence was pro- 

demned™" nounced againft the queen of Scots, for having been 
privy to Babington's plot \ and imagined, fince the 
firfl day of June, divers matters tending to the 
hurt, death, and deftruclion of Elizabeth's perfon, 
contrary to the form of the ftatute in the commif- 

Camden. fion fpecified. On the fame day, the commifTioners 
publifhed a declaration, that the fentence did not 
at all derogate from James king of Scots in his 
title and honour ; but that he was in the fame 
place, degree, and right, as if the faid fentence had 
never been pronounced. To condemn a fovereign 
princefs lb circumftanced, againft whom neither 
word, writing, or fubfcription, could be produced-, 
on the teftimony of her own fervants, who were re- 
warded for their evidence ; and without bringing 
thofe witnefTes to confront her at her trial, was of 
a piece with that iniquity and inhuman oppre/Tion 
to which fhe had been expofed fince the day of her 
arrival in England. The parliament meeting on 
the twenty- ninth day of October, approved the 
fentence ; and, in an addrefs to the queen, defired 
it might be put in execution. She expreifed the 
utmolt averfion to fuch violent meafures ; and in- 
treated the two houfes to find fome expedient to 
fave her from the neceflity of taking a ftep fo re- 
pugnant to her inclinations : but, at the fame time, 
fhe informed them of a confpiracy to aiTaflinate her 
within a month ; fo that they renewed their inftances 
for the execution of Mary, and fhe affected to 
and her fen- amufe them with myftenous anfwers. On the fixth 
lifted/" day of December, the fentence againft Mary queen 
of Scots was publicly proclaimed through the whole 
kingdom; and the lord Buckhurft, with Beale, 
was fent to notify it to that princefs, and exhort her 
to prepare for death. When their mefTage was de- 
lived, ihe betrayed not the lead; emotion ; but, with 

a chearful 

ELIZABETH. ( 3 6 9 

a chearfu'l countenance, thanked God that her A - c - '5 s6 * 
troublefome pilgrimage would foon be at an end. 
Then Sir Amias Paulet ordered her canopy of 
ftate to be taken down, and diverted her of all the 
other badges of royalty : an indignity of which fhe 
complained in a letter to queen Elizabeth, as well 
as of the unfair ufe which had been made of her let- 
ters and papers. She de fired her body might befent 
to France-, that lhe might not be put to death ia 
private; that her fervants might enjoy the fmall 
legacies fhe mould bequeath, and befuifered to de- 
part in peacvi to their own country. 

Henry III. of France being apprifed of their pro- The French 

v -i-itv/t r on- • king inter- 

ceedings againtt Mary, lent over Bel hevre to inter- cedes in hey 

cede for her life with qiu-en Elizabeth. That mi- behalf - 
nifter arriving in London, was admitted to an 
audience, and made a very ttrong remonrtrance in 
favour of the captive queen. After having waited 
feveral days for an aniwer, he fent M. de St. Cyr 
to court, renewing his requert for Mary's life, and 
defiring time to make his matter acquainted with 
the fituation of that unfortunate princefs. In an- 
fwer to this requeft, he received a verbal mefiage^ 
importing that the qjueejl would wait twelve days 
for Henry's remonttrance. In the mean time, 
Bellievre being admitted to her prefence at Green- 
wich, repeated his former arguments, to diffuade 
her from imbruing her hands in the blood of her 
kinfwoman ; an unhappy princefs, doubly intitled 
to the rights of hofpitality, as a guert and fuppliant. 
He demonftrated that the execution of Mary would 
be an outrage aeainft the law of nature and nations- 
the dictates of humanity, and the fuggertions of 
Elizabeth's own intcrert -,' and concluded his ha- 
rangue by telling her, that ihould lhe proceed to 
extremities of rigour, his matter would refsnt her 
conducl, as an injury to the common intereft of all 
kings, and an iniulc to every fovereign in particu- 
N°, 58, Bb lar. 


a, c. 1586. ] ar< Elizabeth afking if he was charged to uk* 
fuch language, he anfwered in the affirmative. 
" Have you fuch orders under your matter's hand ?" 
(faid he). He told her they were in letters written 
with the king's own hand : fhe required him to 
avow this attention in writing *, and he wrote with- 
Carte ' out hefitation. She faid fhe would fend an ambaf- 
fador to Paris to inform Henry of her refolution : 
when Bellievre v/as ready to depart, (lie de fired he 
would tarry two or three days longer j at length 
he received his pattports, and returned to the con- 
tinent. Notwithstanding the earned manner in 
which Bellievre folicited for the life of the Scottifh 
queen, he is faid to have exhorted Elizabeth in 
private to haften the execution of that princefs ; 
and fuch collufion is not at all improbable, when 
we confider Henry's implacable animofity to the 
DuMauner duke °f Guife, the kinfman of Mary queen of Scot- 
a. c. 1587. The miniftry of England, in order to pave the 
way for the execution of the Scottifh queen, tqok 
care to alarm the nation with falie furmifes of new 
ft- d' pl° ts > ana " projected invafions. One Stafford, be- 
piot. ing arretted on fufpicion of treafon, confefled that 

he had conferred with De Trappes, fecretary to 
Chateauneuf, the French ambattador in ordinary, 
about hiring adefperado to murder the queen. De 
Trappes had fet out for Dover, in hope of over- 
taking Bellievre with fome difpatches, when he was 
feized upon the road, and conveyed prifoner to the 
Tower of London. Nothing material appearing 
in his papers, the council fent for Chateauneuf, and 
taxed him with having been concerned in a confpi- 
racy againft the queen's life. Stafford being brought 
before the board, in fitted upon the ambaflador's 
being privy to the deiign •, and his evidence was 
confirmed by Moody, the pretended aflafiin. Cha- 
teauneuf owned that Stafford had mentioned fome 



Such project to him -, but that he had turned him A - c - vs 5 ?* 
out of his houfe, and threatened to deliver him into 
the hands of her majefty. The council reprimand- 
ed him Hiarply for having concealed Rich a trea- 
fonable defign -, and the queen complained ©f his 
conducl to Henry, by the mouth of the ambafia- 
dor whom fhe fent to Paris immediately after the 
departure of Bellievre. By thefe complaints, and 
other pretences of defigns formed againft her life^ 
fhe eluded the folicitaticns of Henry in favour of 
the Scottim queen. Stafford's plot was devifed 
for the purpofe. Rumours were railed and induf- 
trioufly propagated to frighten and provoke the 
people. A Spanifh fleet was faid to have arrived 
in Milford-Haven. It was reported that the Scots 
had made an irruption into England ; that thel 
duke of Guife had landed with an army in Suflex 5 
that the queen of Scots had efcaped from prifon ; 
that a rebellion was raifed in the North ; and a new 
confpiracy hatched to murder the queen, and burn 
the city of London ; nay, in fome counties queen 
Elizabeth was believed to he already murdered. 
Such were the arts praclifed by the miniftry, to 
excite a ferment in the nation, and exafperate the 
fubjecls againft the queen of Scots,- as thecaufe of c  ... 

111(1** 'wftiiivtwiaj 

all theie calamities. 

James of Scotland was rio fooner informed of 
his mother's diftrefs, than he difpatched W. Keith, 
gentleman of his bedchamber, with a letter to 
Elizabeth, conjuring her to fpare the life of his 
parent, otherwife he mould think himfelf bound 
by the laws of God and man to revenge her death % 
and befeeching her at any rate to refpite the execu- 
tion of the fentence, until he could ferid an ambai- 
fador with further proportions, which fhe might 
find fatisfadlory, She was feized with a tranfport 
of indignation when fhe perufed this letter *, in 
which James prefumed to threaten her with ven- 

B b 2 geance % 


a. c. 1587. geance •, but her pafnon fubfiding, fhe granted the 
James of defired refpite. At length the mailer of Gray, and 
Scotland Sir Robert Melvi], arriving in London, propofed 
ambaffXs that their king mould give the chief of his nobility 
extraordina- as hoitages, .to fecure Elizabeth from any future 
land. ng ~ practices of his mother, who fhould refign her right 
of fucceffion to her fon : and this refignation fhould 
be guaranteed by foreign princes. Thefe propo- 
fals the queen rejected with difdain \ and, when Sir 
Robert Melvil begged earneftly that the execution 
might be deferred for a vveek, fhe anfwered with 
great emotion, " No* not for an hour." We have 
already obferved, that Elizabeth's diffimuiation 
failed her whenever Mary was the fubjectcf con- 
verfation. James recalled his ambafifadors in a 
paftion, which however was foon cooled by the 
mailer of Gray, who was a penfioner of the queen 
of England. 

Elizabeth now proceeded to act the lafl part of 
the tragedy relating to the unhappy queen of Scot- 
land. In order to poflefs her people with an opi- 
nion of her clemency, and averfion to violent mea- 
fures, we have feen that feveral noblemen had 
thrown themfelves at her ittt^ befeeching her to 
take pity upon them and their pofterity ; and, by 
the death of -Mary, provide for the fafety of reli- 
gion and the realm. This farce they performed 
before the cemmiffion was expedited. After the 
fentence v/as pronounced, me iuffered herfelf to be 
twice addrefTed by the parliament, which even re- 
proached her with having refufed her people juf- 
tice, becaufe fhe delayed the execution of the fen- 
tence : fhe thought it necefTary to circulate faife 
reports, and alarm the nation with imaginary dan- 
gers, before fhe would fign the death-warrant •, and, 
iaftly, fhe contrived means for infpiring the peo- 
ple with a belief that this warrant was executed 
without her knowledge, and contrary to her inten- 


tion. She made ufe of Davifon as her tool on this A - c -'5 8 7- 

occafion. Ke had been lately appointed fecretary 

of ftate for the purpofe. The queen, in ieeming Elizabeth 

. r * r . o jigns the 

terror at thole reports, which her own creatures had warrant for 
diffufed through the kingdom, delivered to Davi- t f e n e ^ CH " 
fon an order figned with her own hand, and lealed Mary. 
with her own leal, to make out a warrant for the 
execution of Mary, under the fandlion of the great 
leal, and to keep it fecret in his own custody, until 
he fhould receive further directions. Next morn- 
ing me fent two gentlemen fucceffively, to defire 
that Davifon would not so to the chancellor until 
fhe fhculd fee him : when he told her that the chan- 
cellor had already put the great feal to the warrant, 
fhe pretended to be diflatisfied, and afked what 
need there was for fuch hurry? The order for the 
execution was directed to the earls of Shrewsbury, 
Derby, Kent, and Cumberland, who were ordered 
to fee the queen of Scots beheaded in their pre- 
fence. Davifon, who was well acquainted with the 
real fentiments of Elizabeth touching queen Mary," 
communicated what had pafTed to the members of 
the privy council, who unanimoufly refolved that 
the order fhould be put in execution. It was im- 
mediately delivered to Beale, who fummoned the 
noblemen to whom it was directed, and let out for 
Fotheringay with two executioners. 

Mary heard the death-warrant read without ex- That pi-in- 
hibiting the lead marks of difcompofure - 9 though cefs P re - 
fhe exprefTed her furprize that the queen of Eng- death. ° r 
land mould content to her being executed ; and lay- 
ing her hand on a New Teftament which hap- 
pened to be upon the table, fhe folemnly protefted, 
that fhe had never deviled, purfued, or confented 
to any defign againft the perfon of Elizabeth. ShQ 
denied her having had the lead concern in Babing- 
ton 5 s confpiracy ; and inquiring about the fate of 
Nau and Curie, afked whether it had ever been 

B b j x heard 



a.c. 1587. heard c f before, that fervants were fuborned and 
admitted as evidence againfl their mailer ? She de- 
fired that her ccnfelTor might attend her : a favour 
which is granted to the worft of malefactors, tho ? 
now cruelly denied to the queen of Scotland. After 
the earls had retired, fhe eat fparingly at fupper \ 
and her attendants weeping and lamenting her fate, 
fhe comforted them with a chearful countenance, 
telling them they ought not to mourn, but rejoice 
at the profpect of her fpeedy deliverance from a 
world of mifery. The earl of Kent, who feems to 
have hated her with an uncommon degree of ran- 
cour, had told her that her life was the death, and 
her death would be the life, of the proteftant reli- 
gion. Mu'ry feemed to triumph in this declara- 
tion, obferving to Burgoign her phyfician, that it 
was a plain acknowledgment of her being put to 
death on account of religion, and not for any of- 
fence fhe had committed againfl the perfon of Eli- 
zabeth. After fupper fhe reviewed her will* and 
perufcd the inventory of her effects. Thefe fhe be- 
queathed to different individuals -, and divided 
her riioney, which bv this time ihe had recovered, 
into a number of little purfes, and diftributed them 
among her fervants, whom fhe warmly recommend- 
ed in letters to the king of France and the duke of 
Guife. Going to bed at her ufual hour, fhe pafled 
part of the nrght in uninterrupted repofe; then 
rifing, foent the remainder in prayer and a£ts of 
, - . On the day of her death, which was the eighth 

traded in of February, fhe dreffed herfelf with equal elegance 
v^k CafHeu and decorum; and caufing her will to be read in 
ngi the hearing of her fervants, defired they would 

take their legacies in good parr, as her ability did 
not covrefpond with her wifhrs in their favour. 
When Thomas Andrews, high iheriff of the county, 
came to call her to execution, fhe was employed in 



prayer. Sht came forth with a compofed counte- A - C » J 5 8 7. 
nance, and majeftic demeanor, with a long veil of 
linen on her head, and in her hand a crucifix of 
ivory. At the bottom of the frairs, Sir Andrew 
Mel vil, mailer of her houfhold, fell upon his 
knees, and fhedding a flood of tears, lamented his 
misfortune in being doomed to carry the news of 
her unhappy face to Scotland. " Lament not 
(Taid fhe) but rather rejoice, that Mary Stuart 
will foon be freed from all her cares. Tell my 
friends that I die conftant in my religion, and 
firm in my fidelity and affecYiori towards Scot- . 
land and France. God forgive them who hav6* 
thirfted after my blood, as the harts do after 
the water brooks. Thou, O God, who art truth 
itfelf, and perfectly underftandeft the inward 
thoughts of my heart, knoweft how greatly I 
have defired that the realms of England and 
Scotland might be united. Commend me to 
my fon, and aflure him I have done nothing 
prejudicial to the ftate or crown of Scotland. 
Admonifh him to preferve amity and friend- 
fhip with the queen of England •, and fee that 
thou do him faithful fervice." In this place fhe 
was received by the four noblemen, who with great 
difficulty were 'prevailed upon to allow Melvil, with 
her phyfician, apothecary, furgeon, and two female 
attendants, to be prefent at the execution. Then 
the noblemen and the fheriff going before, and 
Melvil bearing up her train, fhe walked to the 
Jcaffbld, which was raifed about two feet from the 
floor of the hall, and furnifhed with a chair, a 
cufhion, and a block, covered with black cloth. 
As foon as me had feated herfelf, Beale began to 
read the warrant for her execution •, then Fletcher, 
dean of, Peterborough, ftandino; without the rails, 
repeated a long exhortation, which fhe interrupted 
twice, defiring him to forbear, as fhe was firmly 

B b 4 refolved 


A.e. 1587. fefoived to die in the Roman catholic religion. 
The lords induflrioufly tormented this poor lady 
in her laft moments. They ordered the dean to 
pray i and he proceeded, although (he told them 
that flie could not join with them, and had very 
little time to fpare for her own devotions. ' She 
therefore, with her fervants, fell on her knees, and 
prayed aloud in Latin, from the office of the Virgin 
Mary. When the dean left off {peaking, me prayed 
again in the Englifh tongue, fervently recommend- 
ing the church, her fon, and queen Elizabeth, to 
the protection of Almighty God. When her a& 
of devotion were finifhed, me ordered her women to 
undrefs her for the block ; and the executioners 
rudely interfering, bade them (land off, faying, fhe 
was not ufed to undrefs herfclf before fo much com- 
pany, nor accuftomed to fuch valets de chambre. 
Her two women burfting into tears, and loud ex- 
clamations of forrow, (he reminded them, in' the 
French language, of h-rr having undertaken for 
their difcreet behaviour ; (he embraced them ten- 
derly, bidding them forbear their womaniiTi lamen- 
tations, for now me mould reft from all her for- 
rows -, then turning to her men fervants, who were 
overwhelmed with unfpeakable affliction, fhe, with 
a gracious fmile, bade them fare wel. The two 
executioners kneeling, and afking her pardon, fhe 
laid (he forgave them, and all the authors of her 
death, as freely as (lie wifhed God would forgive 
her own tranfgreffions. She once more made a 
folemn proteftation of her innocence. Her eyes 
we re covered yj\th a linen handkerchief: fhe laid 
her head upon the block without the ieaft mark of 
perturbation, recited a pfalm, an.d having repeated 
a pious ejaculation, received the fatal ftroke. She 
was cruelly mangled by the executioner, who hav- 
ing at length fevered her head from her body, and 
holding it up in his hand, the dean of Peterborough 



exclaimed, " So let all queen Elizabeth^ enemies A » c> *s%7* 
" perifh." The earl of Kent anfwered, Amen ; 
while the red of the fpectators wept and fighed at 
this affecting fpectacle. Her women begged they 
might be allowed to perform the laft offices to their 
deacj miftrefs, offering to pay thrice the value of 
what remained about her breathlefs coarie ; but their 
requeft was denied : they were roughly commanded 
to be gone, and the body was left to the difcretion 
of the executioners, by whom it was indecently 
ftripped, and carried into an adjoining room, where 
they covered it with a coarfe ruffet cloth belonging 
to an old bdliard-table. It was afcerwards imbalm- 
ed, inciofed in a leaden cotnn, and interred with 
great pomp and folemnity in the cathedral of Peter- 
borough ; from whence her fon James removed it, 
in thefequel, to the chapel of Henry VII. in Weft- j^f™* 

Such was the untimely fate of Mary Stuart, a Hercha- 
princefs unmatched in beauty, and unequalled in ™" "': 
misfortune. Perhaps the charms of her perfon, 
and the accomplifhments of her fex, in which fhe 
far cutfhone ail her cotemporaries, contributed as 
much to her ruin, as did her title, to the crown of 
England, which is generally fuppofed to have been 
the cauie of her death. Elizabeth was a woman as 
well as a politician. She not only dreaded Mary 
as the rival of her dignity, but alio envied her fu- 
perior qualifications. Though other motives in- Camde*. 
fluenced her miniftry againft that princefs, the 
queen of England feems to have been in a great * 
meafure actuated byperfonal malice, founded upon 
the refult of a companion betwen her own charac- 
ter and that of the all-accomplifhed Mary queen of 
Scots. This was the original grudge upon which 
ail her future rancour was grafted •, for after Mary 
had been detained nineteen years in captivity ; after 
thofe confpiracies which had been formed in her be- 



A.c,*5$7. J^alf by the firft noblemen in England, were utterly 

crufhed and extinguifhed, and Elizabeth's throne 

eftablifhed upon univerfal popularity •; while fhe 

lived in harmony with the king of France, found 

employment for Philip in the Netherlands, and her 

kingdom was altogether free from difturbance or 

commotion, we cannot fuppofe that fhe really 

thought herfelf in danger from the machinations of 

her prifoner. Had (he been guided by political 

views only, perhaps fhe would nave releafed the 

queen of Scots in the beginning of her captivity. 

In that cafe fhe would have been exempted from 

the danger of thofe commotions which were excited 

by her imprifonment ; and the factions would have 

been continued in Scotland, where fhe might have 

eaffy managed both fides for her own advantage. 

Mary queen of Scots, bating fome ads of iftdifcre- 

tion, excufable from her youth and inexperience, 

was a lady poffeffed of the mcfl amiable virtues : 

over and above her amazing; beaurv, and the ex- 
es / * 

qui Cut fymmetry of her perfon, fhe was learned, 
penetrating, invincibly fecret, liberal, charitable, 
unaffectedly pious, meek, affable, magnanimous, 
and endowed with fuch fortitude as no adverfity 
could difcompofe. 

When the tidings of Mary's death were brought 
to queen Elizabeth, fhe affected to exprefs the ut- 
moft aftonifhmenr, with all the marks of extrava- 
gant forrow. She commanded the members of the 
council to quit her preience i and Davifon to be pro- 
fecuted in the Star-chamber. She wept, wailed, 
and lamented the hard fate of her dear kinfv/oman. 
Sht di! patched her relation Robert Cary with a let- 
ter to' James king of Scotland, exprefling her in- 
comparable grief of mind at the lamentable acci- 
dent which had happened, contrary to her inten- 
tion i and profefling the warmer!: regard and affec- 
tion for him and his coactnis. The Scottifh king 



breathed nothing but revenge againft thofe who A>c,, s s 7' 
had brought his mother to the block. He would 
not admit Cary into his kingdom -, but fent Sir 
George Hume, and the matter of Melvil, to re- 
ceive his letter on the border. He was not fatis- 
fied with Elizabeth's apology, nor the confinement 
of Davifon, whom fhe had ordered to be profecuted 
in the Star-chamber. The eilates of Scotland 
meeting at Edinburgh, promifed to aflift their fo- 
vereign in revenging his mother's death, with 
their lives and fortunes. But the queen of Eng- Her fim' 
land had emirTaries in the court of James, who / a " n es a ^_ 
found no difficulty in appeafing his indignation, peafed." 
They appealed to his prevailing paflions of fear and 
vanity. They repreiented the danger of engaging 
in a war with England, a rich, powerful nation, 
able to crufh him in one campaign ; and the folly 
of incenfing a people over whom he had the faireft 
profpedt of reigning, provided he mould not pro- 
voke them to take fome ftep to the prejudice of 
his fucceffion. By fuch remonftranccs, he was dif- 
fuaded from commencing hoftilities, until the arri- 
val of lord Hunfdon as ambafTador from England, 
a nobleman for whom he k^ad a particular regard, 
and by whom he was eafily prevailed upon to lay cimdw 
aiide all refolutions of revenge. 

Davifon was a facrifice offered up to the refent- 
ment'of the Scottifh monarch. That fecretary was 
accufed before the flar chamber, of having con- 
temned the queen's orders, violated his oath of fi- 
delity, and neglected the duties of his office. He 
faid he would rather be found guilty than prefume 
to conteft with her majefty ; protefted, that if he 
had erred, he had erred through ignorance only, 
and a full perfuafion that what he did was agreea- 
ble to the queen's intentions. He therefore fubmh- 
ted to the judgment of the council, was fentenced 
?:o pay a fine of ten thoyfand pounds* and remain 


A,c. 1537. i n prifon during her majefty's pleafure. He begged 
they would intercede- in his behalf, that he might 
be reftored to the queen's favour j which, however, 
he did not retrieve, but languished a long time in 
confinement, during which fhe fometimesr relieved 
his necefiities. While he remained in cuftody he 
wrote an apology, addrefled to Walfingham, to the 

gdo" 1 * 6 following eneel: That before the departure of the 
French and Scottifh ambaffadors, he delivered into 
the queen's own hand, the order for the execution 
of Mary, which fhe immediately figned, defiring it 
might receive the fanclion of the great leal. Then 
fhe bade him mew it to Walfingham, who was al- 
ready fick, faying, in derifion, he would certainly 
die at the fight of the warrant. She obferved fhe 
had delayed it hitherto, that fhe might not be 
thought to act with violence-, but there was a ne- 
ceiTity for its being executed. She broke forth in- 
to pafiionate exprefnons againft Sir Armas Paulet, 
and Sir Drue Drury, becaufe they had not fpared 
her this trouble, and defired that Walfingham 
would feel their pulfes touching the affair. Next 
day, when fhe underftood that the great feal was 
affixed, fhe blamed Davifon for his precipitation, fay- 
ing, a better courfe might be taken. To which hint 
the fecretary replied, that the jufteft courfe was al- 
ways the beft. Fearing, however, that fhe wonld 
lay the whole blame upon him, as fhe had formerly 
imputed the death of the duke of Norfolk to lord 
Burleigh, he communicated the whole tranfaction 
to Sir Chriflopher Hatton, by whom it was impart- 
ed to Burleigh. This nobleman laid it before the 
reft of the council, who unanimoufly refolved to 
haften the execution, and bear an equal mare of 
the blame : then Beale was difpatched with the war- 
rant and letters. On the third day after this refo- 
lution, Elizabeth relating a dream about Mary's 
death, Davifon allied if Ihe had changed her mind : 



ihe anfwered, No*, but another courfe might have a. c. 1587* 
been devifed \ and defired to know if he had receiv- 
ed any anfwer from Paulec. He produced the let- 
ter, in which that gentleman rlateiy refufed to un- 
dertake any thing which mould be inconfiftent with 
juftice and honour. Then fhe exclaimed, in a vio- 
lent paffion, againfl the nicenefs of thole precife 
fellows who promifed mighty matters, but indeed 
would perform nothing for her fafety. She accufed 
them of perjury, in breach of their aiTociation-vow ; 
and obferved, that there were ibme perfons who 
would ftill do it for her fake. Davifon reprefented 
the injuftice and diihonour of fuch proceedings, 
expatiated upon the danger that would accrue to 
her reputation, and told her that the council had 
already taken order in the affair, tie likewife de- 
clared, that on the very day of Mary's death, 
flie had chid him, becaufe the queen of Scots was 
not yet executed. Camden ' 

The parliament meeting on the fifteenth day of proceedings 
February, a motion was made in the houfe of corn- In P arlia " 
mons, to prefent an addrefs of thanks to her maje- 
fly, for having put the queen of Scots to death : 
but this did not pafs, becaufe it would have fixed 
upon Elizabeth an imputation which fhe fought fo 
eagerly to avoid. A petition, with a directory, or 
book of difcipline, from the puritans, being pre- 
fented to the houfe, and feconded by four gentle- 
men, the queen fent for the book, and committed 
the four members to the Tower, for having pre- 
fumed to meddle in church-matters, in contempt 
of her repeated inhibition. A motion was made 
to addrefs her for the releafe of the imprifoned 
members ; but over-ruled, and they continued 
in confinement, until the parliament was difToived. 
This feverity did not hinder the commons from 
granting a fubfidy •, and afterwards a benevolence 
for the fuppoitof the war in the Netherlands : 

5 *ke 


a g. 1 5S7 fhe met with the like indulgence from the lords and 

Rymer. the clergy afifembled in convocation. 

Such a iupply was abfolutely neceftary, to pre- 
vent the ruin of the confederates in the Low Coun- 
tries, Leicefter, during his administration, had not 
only exercifed the moft arbitrary and defpotic pow- 
er, but alfo encouraged factions, which had well 
nigh deftroyed the union of the provinces. Stanley 
and York, whom he had appointed governors of 
Zutphen and Deventer, betrayed their truft, and fur- 
rendered their fores to the prince of Parma ; and 
the ftates fearing that all the other Englifh gover- 
nors of his nomination would follow their treache- 
rous example, elected prince Maurice provifionally 
ftadtholder and governor-general in his abfence. 

The ftates- Then they wrote a letter to Elizabeth, complaining 

complain of that Leicefter had iftued placarts againft trade, and 

wn'duc^' 8 corrim i ttec,t tnc i r *owns to the charge of fufpected 
perfons, protected traitors, and reftrained the pow- 
er of the ftates. Lord Buckhurft was fent over to 
compromife the quarrei : and then theyextended the 
lift of their grievances againft the earl of Leicefter. 
They taxed him with having refufed inftructions % 
nominated counfellors of ftate •, quartered his own 
arms on the feal of the ftates ; coined rofe nobles, 
to pafs for double their intrinfic value •, inftituted a 
new court of exchequer •, filled the colleges of the 
admiralty with unqualified perfons \ hindered the 
levy of fix thoufand Germans •, and excited the com- 
mon people againft the magiftrates. Elizabeth was 
not pleafed with thefe complaints, which produced 
an animofity between Leicefter and Buckhurft. Sir 
John Norreys was recalled : the Englifh troops were 
greatly diminifhed and ftarving for want of pay 5 
Gueldres was betrayed to the enemy, and the prince 
of Parma had inverted Sluys. The queen difpatch- 
ed Leicefter with five thoufand men to the relief 
©f this place, which, however, he could not luc- 

cour ; 


cour; and therefore marched into Zealand, where a.c. 1^7, 
he renewed his old practices, while Sluys was ob- 
liged to capitulate. The earl having rendered him- 
felf extremely odious to the people and the dates of 
the Netherlands, refolved to employ force in the 
execution of his projects. His defign was to ap- 
prehend and put to death John Olden BarneveJt, and 
thirteen other flrenuous oppofers of his arbitrary 
meafures, aad to feize Dort, Enckhuifen, Leyden, 
and other places : but his defign being difcovered, 
the queen recalled him to England, obliged him to Camden,; 
refign his government, and fent over the lord Wil- cStS" 
loughby to command the Englifh forces. 

Elizabeth having been apprifed in the begin- p 10g ref s ©f 
ning of the year that Philip of Spain had begun to ^ r T raTKis 
make preparations for invading England, fent Sir ^\nk the 
Francis Drake with a fleet of mips to deftroy his b P aniards « 
veiTels, and intercept his provifions. This com- 
mander funk two gallies in the bay of Cadiz, took, 
burned, and deftroyed, an hundred velTels loaded 
with provifions, and munition of war, together with 
a galleon of fourteen hundred tons belonging to the 
marquis of Santa Cruz ; and another of Regufa, 
Joaden with merchandize. He then reduced three 
forts at cape St. Vincent, and deftroyed ail the boats 
and fmall craft along the coaft as far as Cafcaes, 
at the mouth of the Tagus, where the marquis of 
Santa Cruz lay with his fquadron : but he could 
not be provoked to hazard an engagement. After 
thefe exploits, Drake failed to the Azores, and in 
his way took the St. Philip, a carrack of enormous 
bulk, returning from the Eaft Indies, richly laden. 
He not only gained an immenfe booty, but alfo 
found papers on board which ferved to indraft the 
Englifh in the nature of the Eaft Indian commerce. 

Thefe depredations ferved only to ftimulate Phi- a c. 1525. 
lip in his preparations for v/ar, againfr. Elizabeth, 
who had not only interrupted the trade of his fub- 



A»c, 1588. je&s to the Eaft and Weft Indies ; but, by fuccour- 
ing the ftates, prevented him from putting an end 
to the troubles in the Netherlands. He refolved 
therefore to make a conqueft of England, which 
being an open country, without fortified towns, 
muft at once fall to him who mould conquer in the 
field. He procured from the pope a confecrated 
banner, with frefh bulls for excommunicating Eli- 
zabeth as an heretic, publifhing a crufade againft 
her, and abfolving her fubjecls from their oath of 
allegiance. He pretended to be the next catholic 
heir to the crown of England, as a defcendant from 
the two daughters of John of Gaunt, duke of Lan- 
cafter : and he determined to difembark his forces 
at the mouth of the river Thames, in the nieghbour- 
rhiiippte- hood of London. For the purpofes of this expe- 
Ebi/ar- dition, he equipped one hundred and thirty fhips, 
mamenta- manned with nineteen thoufand two hundred and 
fand. ftE " S " ninety foldiers, eight thoufand three hundred and 
fifty feamen, two thoufand and eighty galley- flaves, 
and mounted with two thoufand three hundred and 
fixty pieces of cannon. The duke of Parma was 
ordered to provide tranfports, and an army of five 
and twenty thoufand men, to be conveyed to Eng- 
land as foon as the Spanifh fleet mould appear on 
the coaft of Flanders. The duke, in purfuance of 
his orders, caufed a great number of large flat-bot- 
tomed vefTels to be built for the tranfportation of 
the cavalry •, provided other mips for the foot fol- 
diers, and quartered his troops in the neighbour- 
hood of Gravelines, Dunkirk, and Newport ; fe- 
ven hundred Ensfiifh fugitives having inlifted un- 
der his banner, to afliit in the conqueft of their 
own countrv. 
precautions Elizabeth having learned the particulars of this 
Elizabeth, formidable armament, which was ftiled the Invin- 
forthede- c ;ble Armada, took the neceftary precautions for 

j p ncc of th Q 

kingdom, "giving the Spaniards a warm reception. Having 


E L I Z A B E T H. gtij 

equipped a con liderable fleet, me created Charles A - c - »s s -\ 
lord Howard of Effingham lord admiral of Eng- 
land; and he was fent with a ftrong fquadron to 
the Weft, where He was joined by Sir Francis Drake, 
now appointed vice-admiral. She ordered lord 
Henry Seymour, fecond fon to the duke of Somer- 
set, to cruize along the coaft of Flanders, with for- 
ty Englifh and Flemilh fhips, to prevent the prince 
of Parma from putting to fea with his forces. 
Twenty thoufand men were cantoned along the 
fonthern coaft of England -, another body of well 
diiciplined troops encamped at Tilbury, near the 
mouth rathe Thames, under the condu'cl; of the 
earl of Leicefter, whom the queen created general 
in chief of all her forces; and the lord Hunfdon- 
commanded a third army,' amounting to fix and 
thirty thoufand horfe and foot, for the defence of 
fier majefty's peribn. Arthur lord Gray, Sir Fran- 
cis Knolles, Sir John Norreys, Sir Richard Bing- 
ham, arfd Sir Roger Williams, men renowned for 
their valour and experience, were confulted about 
the management of the war by land. In purfuance 
of their advice, all tlie landing-places on the coaft 
were fortified and garrifoned, from Hull to the Land's 
end, and Milford Haven : the militia of the coun- 
try was armed, and regulated under proper officers^ 
who received inftruccions for interrupting: the dif- 
embarkation of the enemy, wafting the country 
before them, and amuilng them with flight 'fkir- 
miihes and continual alarms,- until the army could 
be aiTemb'kd at the place, in order to give them 
battle. The queen impriibned fome fufpected 
papifts ; fent new mftruclions to Sir William Fitz- 
williams lord deputy of Ireland ; and, by her friends 
in Scotland, .mitigated James againft the Roman 
catholics and the Spanifh faction. That prince was 

more afraid than fhe, of the luccefs of fuefi an in- 

• ... i 

vafion, which would have deprived him of his fair 
^\j:ts. L.DC Ge * f**-> 



a. c 1588. fucceflion, and expofe his native kingdom to the 
arms of a foreign conqueror. The lord Maxwell 
returning from Spain, landed at Kircudbright, 
where he began to aflemble troops, as if he had 
expected the Spaniards would make a defcent in 
Galloway. James being informed of thefe practices-, 
marched againft him wkh fuch expedition, that with 
difficulty he efcaped in a bark ; but wa&purfued, ta- 
ken, and imprifoned. 
Fruiticrs Philip and Elizabeth, notwithftanding thefe pre- 

nrcotintinns parations for offence and defence, endeavoured to 
amufe each other with a negotiation, to gain time, 
until the one mould be able to ilrike, and the other 
to ward off the intended blow. The duke of Par- 
ma having received a commiffion for treating, the 
Englifh envoys repaired to Oftend, although the 
eflates of the Netherlands had refufed to concur in 
the treaty, and the conferences were opened at 
Bourbourg. The Englifh commiftioners propofed 
a truce, which was rejected. Then they defired 
that the ancient alliance fhould be renewed between 
England and the houfe of Burgundy ; that all the 
foreign troops fhould be withdrawn from the Low 
Countries-, that the people fhould be fecured in 
their liberties, and indulged with a toleration in 
matters of religion ; and that the money which 
quten Elizabeth had lent them fhould be repayed 
by the king of Spain. The debates upon thefe ar- 
ticles were fpun out, until the Spanifh Armada ap^ 
peared in the channel •, and then the Englifh com- 
miiTioners were diirniiied with a fafe-conduct to 

Alonzo Perez de Guzman, duke of Medina-Si- 
donia, commander of the Spanifh fleet, had failed 
from Lifbon on the twenty-ninth day of May;, 
but being overtaken by a florin, the mips were dif- 
perled; though in a few days, they re-affembled at 
Corurma,. and in the neighbouring harbours. Ef- 


Hngham, the Englifh admiral, having received an A.c, , 5 88. 
exaggerated account of the damage received by the 
Spanifh navy, fet fail towards Spain, with a view 
to attack and deftroy them in their harbours : but 
the wind fnifting, he returned to Plymouth, on 
the fuppofition that they might chufe this favoura- 
ble gale to enter the Englifh channel while he was 
abfent. This was really the cafe: they had pro- 
bably palled him in a fog ; for on the very day af- 
ter his return to port, being the nineteenth of July, 
the Spanifh fleet was feen off the Lizard, on the 
coaft of Cornwall. The admiral forthwith ordered TheSpanUfo 
his (hips to be towed out to fea, againft a ftrong rn ™^ 
breeze that blew in fliore •, and then he defcrierf the chanudj 
Armada failing up the channel in line of battle, like 
fo many lofty callks floating on the bofom of the 
fea. He allowed them to pals, that he might have 
the advantage of the wind, and difpatched his bro- 
ther-in-law, Sir Edward Hobv, to court for a fur- 
ther fupply of men and (hipping. Upon this occa- 
iion many noblemen, and perfons of faih ion, diftin- 
guifhed themfelves by fitting out fhips at their own 
expence, and engaging as volunteers in the fervice 
of their country. Among thefe were the earls of 
Oxford, Northumberland, and Cumberland* Sir 
Thomas and Sir Robert Cecil, and the celebrated 
Sir Walter Raleigh; On the twenty-firft day of 
July, the admiral, feconded by Drake, Hawkins, 
and Forbifher, attacked the rear of the Armada, 
commanded by John Martinez de Recalde, and 
maintained the engagement about two hours, pour- 
ing in their broad-fides, and tacking about with ad- 
mirable dexterity. They did not chufe to engage 
the enemy more clofely, becaufe they were greatly 
inferior to the Spaniards in the number of (Hips* 
guns, men, and in weight of metal ; nor could tliey 
pretend to board fuch lofty ihips, without a mani- 
feft difadvantage. Nevertheless, two Spanifh gal- 

C e 2 kons 


a. c. i S S3. leons were difabled and taken. On the twenty- 
third day of July, the duke of Medina-Sidonia bore 
down upon the Engliffr fleet,: and- both fides ilrove 
for ibme time to gain the weather-gage : at length- 
the battle began,, and was fought with- great con~ 
fufion and various fuccefs ; though, the lofs on ei- 
ther fide was not confiderable. This engagement 
was followed, by a cerTatioiii becaufe the lord -admi- 
ral could not renew hoftilities, until he received a 
fupply of powder and' ammunition. On the twen- 
ty -fifth, a Portuguefe galleon- was taken, not with- 
{banding the vigorous efforts of Don Diego Telles 
Enriqnez, who brought three galeafTes to her ai- 
fiilance. On the twenty-feventh, the Arraada an- 
chored before Calais, and were again- attacked by 
the En-glim Jleet, now reinforced, and amounting 
to one hundred and. forty mips, well manned and 
provided for action. The Spanifh admiral preffed 
the duke of Parma for a- reinforcement of forty fly- 
boats, that he might be the better enabled to deal 
with the light Englifb frigates ;. and- he did net 
doubt but by this time the Ne the rl and forces were 
embarked for the defcent upon England, The duke 
was not at all prepared to- join the Armada.. His 
veffels were leaky, and deititute of provifions j the 
greater part of his feamen had deferted-: the troops 
v/ere not yet embarked; and the harbours of Dun- 
kirk and Nieuport were blocked up by a fquadron 
of ihips belonging to Holland and Zealand. After 
lord Effingham had cannonaded the Armada for 
feme time, he prepared .eight, fire-fhips; and at 
midnight fent them, under the conduct of Young 
and Prowie, into the midfl of the enemy, where, 
being let on rirc, they produced uniyerial terror 
and confufion. The duke of Medina-Sidonia or- 
dered his captains to ilip their cables, and put to 
fea with all expedition. They, practifed this expe- 
dient but with iueh diibrde«\, that they ran foal of 

E L I Z A B E T H. 3.S9 

e&ch other in the dark ; and their whole navy was A ' e - x 5 8g » 
filled with tumult and uproar. A large galeais, 
commanded by Don Hugo de Moncada, having 
,loft her rudder, next day .{truck upon the fands of 
Calais; and was, after a very defperate engage- 
ment, taken by three Englifh captains, who found 
on board a great quantity of gold, and delivered the 
vefTel and guns as a perquifite to the governor of 
Calais. The Englifh -fleet taking die advantage of 
the enemy's confufion, engaged them with great 
fury, as they endeavoured to re-affe r mble off Gra- 
velines. The engagement began at four o'clock 
in the morning, and lafted till fix in the evening. 
The Englifh having the advantage of wind and Meterm. 
tide, handled them fo roughly, that thirteen of Ca > te . 
their belt, mips were either funk or driven ailiore ; where u u 
cne of their galleons was taken, and another fell d . efeat(,H a,ld 
into the hands of jtbe Zealanders. The duke of * 
Medina-Sidonia being driven towards the coaft of 
Zealand, held a council of war, in which it was re - 
-161 ved, that, as their ammunition began to fail, 
their (hips had received great damage, and they 
defpaired of being joined by the 4uke of Parma, 
they mould return to Spain, by failing round the 
Orkneys, .the Hebrides, and the ifland of Ireland. 
Accordingly they proceeded to the northward, and 
were followed by the Englifh fleet as far as Flam- 
borough-head, where they came up with the fugi- 
tives -, and the Spanifh admiral, intimidated by the 
profpecl of a long and dangerous voyage, would 
have furrendered, had he been attacked by the 
Englifh navy. But a council being called by lord 
Effingham to regulate the particulars of the en- 
gagement, it appeared upon enquiry, that their 
ammunition *ma alroof}: exhaufted -, lb that they 
were obliged to let the Spanifh fleet proceed on 
their voyage, while they returned to the Downes. 
7 hat very night the Armada was terribly mattered 

Cc j in 


4. c. 1588. in a dorm. Seventeen of the mips, having five 
thoufand men on board, were afterwards caft away 
upon the weilern ifles, and the coafl of Ireland, 
Some were wrecked on the rocks of Norway, and 
many perimed by fire, and other accidents. Seven 
hundred Spaniards landing in Scotland, were treat- 
ed with humanity by James ; and, with the con- 
tent of Elizabeth, fent over to the duke of Parma 
in the Netherlands ♦, but thofe who got. afhore in 
Ireland, were butchered by the natives, or the lord 
cleputy. Of the whole Armada, three and fifty 
fhips only returned to Spain, in a miferable condi- 
tion •, and the commanders imputed their ill fuc- 
cefs to their not being joined by the duke of Parma, 
and their being too feverely reftrided to the letter 
of their infirudtions. 

The Englifh ftruck two medals to perpetuate the 
memory of the Armada's mifcarriage ; and the 
king of Spain bore his dii appointment with great 
fortitude. He ordered a general thankfgiving to 
God and the faints, that the misfortune was not 
greater ♦, and treated the foldiers and feamen with 
uncommon humanity. Nor was Elizabeth back- 
ward in acknowledging the divine protection, in 
public prayer and thankfgiving. She had animated 
the army at Tilbury with her prefence; and now 
made a iblemn proceflion in triumph through the 
city of London. She rewarded the lord admiral 
with a penfion : me fcnt Sir Robert Sidney as her 
ambafiador to James of Scotland, to thank that 
monarch for the alacrity with which he had offered 
his afliflance again!! the Spaniards, and to amufe 
him with promifes which were never performed : 
but her joy was interrupted by the death of her 
favourite Leicefter, who was feized with a fever, 

rVifn of the j ' ' • j /~> t 11 • >*. r « 1 /1 • 

6ari of and expired at Cornbury-lodge in Oxrordlhire, 

Ufccfler. when the patent was actually drawn for creating 

him queen's lieutenant, in the government of 



England and Ireland. Notwithstanding her forrow A - c - 15S8- 
for this event, fhe ordered his effects to be fold at Camden, 
public auction, to pay his debts to the crown. Af- 
ter all the encomiums which have been bellowed 
on Elizabeth for her conduct, in the precautions 
taken againfl the Spanifh armament, fhe certainly 
hazarded the fafety of her kingdom, by her parfi- 
monious diipofition, 2nd blind attachment to tftis 
favourite : for her. mips were very poorly fupplied 
with ammunition and prOvifion ; and her captaia- 
general by land was utterly devoid of courage, con - 
duct, experience, and difcretion. Inftead of pro- 
tecting and fecuring the union of the efrates of the 
Low-Countries, by a lage and upright adminiftra- 
tion, he had kindled diiTentions among them, which 
were not extinguished at his death •, and thefe pre • 
vented them from profiting by the inactivity of the 
duke of Parma, whild his forces were drawn down „„ . 

1 - T-11 G tonus. 

to the iea-ports or Flanders. 

After the difperfion of the Armada, that noble- 
man inverted Bergen-op-Zoom, which was defend- 
ed by an Englifn garrifon, under the command of 
lord Willoughby, who acted with vigour and 
intrepidity, that he was obliged to abandon the en • 
terprize. Before Leiceiler died, the puritans were 
by his encouragement grown to an intolerable de- 
gree of inibience. They pubiifhed fcurrilous libels 
againit the liturgy and conititution of the church, 
and even fet up the prefoyterian form of difcipline 
in feveral counties. In France the duke of Guife Kin- of 
was become fo powerful and popular, that he infti- ^dbf tif 
gated the Parifians to make barricadoes in their cuke of 
itreets, and prepare for attacking the king in his 
palace of the Louvre •, fo that Henry was obliged 
to quit his capital, and make a diihonourable peace 
with the chiefs of the league : but, in the month of 
December he revenged this outrage upon die duke 
and his brother the cardinal, whom he caufed to 

C c 4 be 



a. c. 15SS. fo e aflfaffinated at Blois ; an ad of barbarity which 
Mezerai, produced an open rebellion of the League, and the 

city of Paris. 
England en- Elizabeth now enjoyed fuch tranquility as (he had no t known fince her acceffion to the throne. Her/ 
!?; lty ' formidable rival was no more. The king of Spain 
was difabled from profecuting his refentment • the 
affairs of the ftates in the Low Countries began to 
aftume a more favourable afpect, under the wile 
conduct of count Maurice ; and the king of Scots 
was entirely governed by thofe who received pen- 
fions from England. He had fen't arpbafTadors to 
Denmark, to treat of a marriage 'with' the' eldeft 
daughter of that monarch ; but his chancellor Mart- 
land, who was influenced by Elizabeth, limited the 
powers of the envoys in fuch a manner, that the Da- 
him king imagining they wanted to trifle with him, 
beftowed the princefs upon the duke of Brunfwick, 
The queen of England had recommended the filler 
of Henry king of Navarre as a wife to James, who 
fenf the lord Tungland into France, on pretence of 
negotiating an affair with her brother, • though in 
reality to fee and make a report of Catherine. The 
defign of Elizabeth was to protract the treaty about 
this match as long as fhe could ftart objections : for 
me imagined that James would not be ib eafily ma- 
naged .Were he once married to a woman of fenfe 
and difcemment, or connected by fuch an alliance 
with a prince of power and capacity. 
a.c. ic?-), j n me beginning of the following year, the Scor- 
tifh ' mihiftry intercepted letters, by which it ap- 
peared that the earls of Huntley, Errol, Crawford, 
and Bothwel, ion to a baftard of James V. main 
tained a correspondence with the duke of Parma, 
who had ftfpplied them with a fym of money to raiie 
difturbanoes in Scotland, ' Thev had diipatched co • 
lonel Serhpil to ibllicit Philip ioT another invafion : 
Bothwel! undertook to feize the kind's perfon •, but 



was difappointed •, the other three advanced with a A - c. 15S9. 
body of forces towards Aberdeen -, but the king a£* 
fembling a greater number of troops, they were ob- 
liged to furrender at difcretion, and remained in 
cuftody, until the new queen arrived in Scotland,, 
The king of Denmark had another daughter un- 
married •, and James laying afide his defign upon 
Catherine de Bourbon, fentthe earl Marefchal as his 
ambaflador to Copenhagen, to demand this prin- 
cefs in marriage. 'Though her father was by this eamdtn, 
time dead, the treaty of marriage was concluded 
with the ftates of the kingdom ; and the princefs 
embarking about Michaelmas for Scotland, was dri- 
ven by a ftorm into Norway. James, impatient 
to fee his bride, failed thither in October, attended 
by his chancellor, feveral noblemen, and a nume- 
rous retinue. The nuptials were fblemnized at Up- 
fld : they patted' the winter in Denmark ; fet fail Jr^otUn! 
for Scotland in the fpring, and landing at Leith in efpoufes ' 
the beginning of May, the new queen was crown- Denmark, 
ed in the church of Holyrood-abbey. m 1 u 

During thefe traniactions, Philip earl of Arundel, 
a prifoner in the Tower, having expreffed his joy 
at the arrival of the Spanifh Armada in the channel, 
and caufed a mafs of the Holy Ghoft to be faid for 
its fuccefs, was now brought to his trial, convicted 
of high treafon, and condemned. The fentence, 
however, was not executed, though he was detain- 
ed a prifoner to his dying day -, and fpent his time 
in the mqft auftere exerciies of devotion. The par- Tne v „\\^ 
liament meeting in February, petitioned the queen to ment p. ct i- 
denounce war againil the king of Spain, as the root queUt© 
and fountain of all the confpiracies and rebellions dcdare wa r 
which had been hatched and railed againft her ma- spSn. 
jelly/ To defray the expence of this war, they 
granted an extraordinary fubfidy ; and, on the 
twenty-ninth day of March, Sir Chriftopher Hat- 
ton, v/ho had lately been appointed chancellor on 



a. c. 1589. die death of Bromley, told them it was her ma-- 
jefty's pleafure that they mould be dillolved. 

Though Elizabeth was thus enabled to carry the 
war into Spain, me did not think proper to rifque 
her fubfidies upon the precarious iiiue of an expen- 
five expedition. Don Antonio, prior of Crato, had 
arrived in England, and follicited her for fupplies 
to afTert his title to the crown of Portugal. As Phi- 
lip continued to opprefs that nation, this was judg- 
ed a favourable conjuncture for raifing Don Anto- 
nio to the throne. Sir Francis Drake, and Sir John 
Norreys, undertook his refloration, as private ad- 
venturers ; the queen permitting them to raife for- 
ces, and equip a fleet, which was joined by fix 
fhips of her navy. The emperor of Morocco, jeal- 
ous of Philip's power, promifed to lend two hun- 
dred thoufand crowns to Don Antonio, who fent 
his own fon to Fez, as an hoflage for the repay- 
ment of the money : but the Moor did not perform 
his promife, becaufe Philip delivered into his hands 
SwVnmcis the fortrefs of Arzila. Drake and Norreys hating 
Drake and em b ar ked about twelve thoufand foldiers and failors, 

Sir John . • * 

Norreys fail fet fail in April irom Plymouth, with a fleet of one 
^edition to" hundred" and forty-fix veffels, and landing near Fer- 
spain and rol, invefted Corunna. They took the lower town by 
Pc:»ugai. a fir au } t . but the upper part, fituated on a rock, they 
could not reduce for want of artillery. The count 
de Andrada marching to its relief with a body of 
eight thouiand men, they railed the fiege,, and at- 
tacked him at the bridge of Burgos, where he was 
defeated. The troops being greatly diminifhed by 
an epidemical diftemper, they reimbarked, and 
iteering toward the coait of Portugal, were joined 
by the earl of Efl'ex, and Sir Roger Williams 
with a regiment. The Hrfb had Hole from court 
without the queen's knowledge. Landing again 
near Peniche, they reduced that place* and march- 
ing to Liibon, entered the iuburbs of that city;; but 


the town being defended by a flrong garrifon ofA.c. i 5 s g # 
Spaniards, the mortality ftill raging among the Eng- 
liih troops, and not a lbulitirringin behalf of Don 
Antonio, they proceeded to Calcaes, which Drake 
had taken, and having feized threeicore vefTels la- 
den with corn, belonging to the Hanfe towns, re- 
imbarked for England. In their return they plun- 
dered Vigo; and, in the latter end of June, arrived 
at Plymouth, without having indemnified them- 
felves for the expence of the expedition, in which 
fix thoufand men perifhed by ficknefs. 

The Hanfe-towns fent ambafTadors to complain 
of Drake's having feized their mips •, but, initead 
of receiving fatisfaclion, the Englifh miniftry gave 
jthem to imderftand, that in the patent granted to 
them by Edward III. it was expreily flipulated, that 
they fhould not trade to any country openly at war 
with England; that provisions were contraband, 
and fubjecl to conhTcation ; and that they had no 
reafon to complain of the capture of their vefTels, as 
the queen had cautioned them againft importing 
fuch provifion into Spain and Portugal. This year Camden, 
was not lefs remarkable in France than the former 
had been in England. Henry III. feeing himfe If Henry in. 
in danger of being oppreffed by the League, called r).^ c f af . 
jn the king of Navarre and the Huguenots to his feffinated, 
afTiftance. Thefe auxiliaries enabled him to form ceeVeVb^ 
the blockade of Paris, with an army of eight and Peking of' 
thirty thoufand men; and he was on the point f ^ ava,:rc ' 
reducing the place, when he was (tabbed by Jaques 
Clement, a Jacobin friar. In his laft moments he 
declared the king of Navarre his fuccefTor; and that 
prince affumed the name of Henry IV. Though 
his Swifs troops, and fome of the French nobility, 
took the oath of allegiance to the new monarch, he 
was deferted by the duke D'Epernon, and other 
perfons of diftinclion ; difowned by the League as 
an heretic, and in danger of being abandoned by 



a,-c. 15-39. the Huguenots, who perceived hiin wavering in 
his religion. 

In this emergency, he retired to Normandy with 
feven thouiand men ; the duke de Mayenne pursu- 
ing him with a numerous army. At length he was 
reduced to the alternative of making a ftand at 
Argues againft four times the number of his troops, 
or of embarking at Dieppe, and taking refuge in 
England. He had already folli cited fuccours from 
Elizabeth ; and, in hope of their fpeedy arrival, re- 
ibl ved to Hand the brunt of an attack from the duke 
de Mayenne, general of the League, who was re- 
me receives pulfed with conficlerable lofs. In a little time after 
Jpioii rf 6 " rn * s a&io n > Peregrine lord Willoughby arriving 
BngHrti -with a reinforcement of four thoufand men, and a 
film of money ; and Henry being joined by the 
duke cf Longueville, the count de SohTons, and 
the marechal d'Aumont, he advanced to Paris, and 
made himfelf mafter of the fuburbs of that capital : 
but he could not reduce the city, which was de- 
fended by the army of the League, commanded by 
the duke de Mayenne, who had proclaimed the old 
cardinal de Bourbon king of France, and acted as 
his lieutenant. Henry abandoning his enterprize, 
retreated to Normandy, great part of which he 
fubdued, together with Le Maine and Touraine ; 
lizzz:a. then the Engliih troops returned to their own 

Philip king of Spain infifted upon being declared 
protector of France, in consideration of the fuc- 
cours he had granted to the League { and his party 
in that kingdom was fo ilrong, that the duke de 
Mayenne, not daring to oppofe his demand direct- 
ly, found forne difficulty in delaying the nomiria- 
tion, iirrtrl the arrival of the pope's legate, who 
Wduld in ail probability claim it' for his holinefs. 
in the mean time, this general recovered Pontoife 
and ihVcfted Meulafc % the liege of which, however, 

ELI Z A B E T H. 357- 

tke king obliged him to raife. Henry, in his turn A - c - *5¥* 
ikt down before Dreux ; and the duke, reinforced 
with two thouland Spanifh horfe under count Eg- 
mont, pafled the Seine, in order to relieve the . 
place. The king met him near Ivry, and an ob- thdaukof 
itinate battle enliiing, gained a complete victory - 9 ***** 
after which he advanced to Paris, and tried to re- 
duce it by famine. Thirteen thoufand of the in- 
habitants actually died of hunger; but Henry, 
through a princely excefs of generofity and com- 
panion., allowed all the old men, women, and chil- 
dren, to pafs in fafety through his camp; ib that 
die place, difencumbered of ib many uieleis mouths, 
was enabled to hold out till the latter end of Au- 
gult, when the duke of Parma marched with the 
Spanifh army from the Netherlands to its relief. Meztr&u 
His arrival obliged Henry to raife the blockade ; 
but the duke avoided a battle, and retreated im- 
mediately to the Low Countries. Neverthelefs, camdea. 
the king's intereft gained ground ; his caufe was 
efpoufed by the chief of the- nobility, and the 
League was not a little difconcerced by the death of 
their titular king the old cardinal of Bourbon. At 
the fame time Henry was fupplied by the queen of 
England with fums of money for levying German 
auxiliaries under the prince of Anhault : yet fhe 
was too good an ceconomift to lend money without 
furflcient fecurity, if luch iecurity could be obtain- 
ed. Henry's agents found means to fatisfy her in 
this particular. In the Netherlands fhe pofTefTed 
Oflend, befides the other cautionary towns, for the 
fums fhe had advanced to the ftates of Brabant and 
Flanders. She involved herfelf in no unneceifary 
expence : fhe lived in a very penurious manner; 
fo that very few even of her own courtiers tailed 
her bounty ; and me found means to annoy the 
public enemy at the expence of private adven- 
turers. We have feen how Drake harafled the 



a.c. 1590. Spaniards, both in the European feas and in Ame- 
rica •, at this period the earl of Cumberland failing- 
to the Azores, took and demolifhed the caftle of 
Fayal, and brought home a great number of rich 

Murbances j n t h e courfe of this year, fome disturbances hap- 
pened in Ireland, partly owing to the ferocity of 
the natives, and partly occafioned by the oppref- 
five conduct of Fitzwilliams the lord deputy. The 
earl of Tiroen having caufed Hugh Gavilloch, the 
natural lbn of Shan O Neale, to be ftrangled, was 
fnmmoned to England, where he obtained the 
queen's pardon, upon his lblemnly engaging that 
he would live in peace with Tirlogh Leinigh, and 
all his neighbours •, that he would not affume the 
title of O Neale, impoie taxes, exercile any juris- 
diction, intercept ammunition or provisions intend- 
ed for the uie of the Englifh garrifons, nor admit 
into his territories monks, friars, or malcontents. 
This nobleman was very punctual in fulfilling his 
engagements, and pofieffed many excellent qualifi- 
cations, both of mind and body. Hugh Roe Mac 
Mahon, a powerful lord in Monaghan, having 
exacted the tax called Bonaghty from the people, 
according to the cuftom of Ireland, was apprehend- 
ed by order of the lord deputy, tried by a jury of 
common foldiers, .condemned, executed, and his 
eftate divided between fome of his own fept and the 
Englifh fettlers. Brian O Rork, the chieftain of 
another powerful fept in the county of Brenn, ap- 
prehending the fame fate, broke out in open rebel- 
lion -, but being routed by Sir Richard Bingham, 
governor of Connaught, he Med into Scotland * 
and, being claimed by Elizabeth, was delivered in- 

CajDden. to the hands of that princefs, who caufed him to be 
tried and executed at London. • 

In the midft of thefe fortunate events, the queen 
fuftained irreparable lofs in the perfon of ok Fran- 

E L 1 Z A B E T H. $ 99 - 

cis Walfingham fecretary of (late, chancellor of the A - c - x 59®. 
duchy of Lancafter, and knight of the garter : he ^fj °f 
was a confummate ftatefman, inviolably attached ham, 
to the intereft of his iovereign. He died poor, 
leaving one daughter married, firft to Sir Philip 
Sidney, and afterwards to Robert Devereux earl of 
Eifex. He was furvived but a very little time by amJot , he f, 
Ambrofe Dudley earl of Warwick, SirThomasRan- men. 
dolph chamberlain of the exchequer, Sir James 
Crofts comptroller of the houmold, George Talbot 
earl of Shrewsbury, and Thomas lord Wentworth, 
fomerly governor of Calais. Thefe were all faith- A ' c - z 59^ 
ful fervants to the crown •, though none of them 
was more regretted by the nation than Sir Chrifto- 
pher Hatton, chancellor of England, and of the 
univerfity of Oxford. He was a perfon of great 
abilities, unftiaken probity, firmly attached to the 
conftitution of his country, and a munificent patron 
of learning. He is faid to have died of grief and 
vexation at the feverity of the queen, who infulted 
him with abufive language, and exacted with great 
rigour a debt which he had incurred in managing 
the tenths and firft fruits. Immediately before his 
death, HackevCoppinger, and Arthington, three 
puritanical fanatics, uttered many blalphemous 
and treaibnable expreifions againit God and the 
queen; the firft was tried, condemned, and exe- 
cuted; Co'ppinger ftarved himielf to death in pri- 
fon ; but Arthington was pardoned upon his recan- 
tation. That the Iriifi iubjecte might no longer be 
tempted to fend their children to foreign feminaries 
for education, the queen founded Trinity-cgllege 
in Dublin, endowing it with a power of conferring 
degrees, and other privileges of an univerfity. 

The lord Thomas Howard having failed to the Lord Tho- 
Azores, in hope of intercepting the Spanifh plate fleet ^fSTto 
in its paifage from America, was almoft furDiiled by the azoics* 
Alphonfo Bailan, who commanded three and fifty 


4oo , HISTORYof ENG L A N D. 

a.c.i 59 f -fhips deflined for its convoy. ; Howard flood out rq 
fea with five fhips of his fquadron ; but Sir Richard 
Greenville in the vice-admiral called the Revenge, 
was furrounded by the whole enemy's fleet. .He 
endeavoured to' right his pafla'ge through them, 
and maintained a .defperate engagement for fifteen 
hours, during which he was boarded by fifteen 

Gallantry galleons fuccefiivelv. At length his crew being al- 

or captain O J o o 

Greenville, mofl killed or difabled, his mails fhot away, his hull 
pierced by eight hundred cannon-balls, his powder 
ipent, and himfelf covered with wounds; he or- 
dered the gunner to blow up the fliip, that fhe 
might not fall into the hands of the enemy. The 
execution of this order was prevented by the lieu- 
tenant, who capitulated for the life and liberty of 
the crew, giving hoflages for the payment of their 
ranfom •, and Greenville being brought on board 
of the Spanifh admiral, died in three days of his 
wounds. The Spaniards were amazed and con- 
founded at his excels of valour, which eoft them 
two thoufand men, who perifhed in the engage- 
ment : two of their largefl galleons were funk y 
two of them turned adrift as unferviceable ; and 
the Indian fleet being difperfed in a ftorm, fome of 
the fhips fell into the hands of the Ertglifh. 

Elizabeth was not more attentive to the means of 
diflrefling the Spaniards 'at fea, than vigilant in 
checking Philip's progrefs on the contiaent. The 
duke de Mercoeur, of the houfe of Lorraine, re - 
duced the province of Brittany, with the afliflance 
of the Spaniards, who took polfeflion of Henebonde 
and Blavet. Philip either intended to difmember 
the kingdom of France, or procure the crown for 
his daughter Ifabel, as grandchild of Henry If. 
notwithstanding the Salique law. Pope Sixtus V\ 
favoured this project; and nothing prevented its 
being put in execution but the jealoufy of the duke 
de Mayenne, who did not chufe to labour for 

i the 


the advantage of a foreigner. Henry IV. found A - c - , 59'» 
himfelf in the utmoft perplexity. He was under 
the neceffity of conquering all France, and the 
catholic noblemen in his army ferved him with re- 
luctance ; nay, even upon the expreis condition that 
he mould be inftructed in fuch a manner as would 
induce him to change his religion. In this necefiity 
of his affairs, he had recourfe to Elizabeth, and the 
proteftant princes in Germany. The queen pro- 
mi fed to fupply him with fuccours, on condition 
they mould be ufed to drive the Spaniards from 
the maritime provinces of France oppofite to the 
coaft of England. Though it was Henry's interert 
to expel them firfl from the center of his dominions, 
he promifed to comply with her propofal 5 and fhe 
engaged by treaty to fupply him with three thou- 
fand men, ftipulating, that within one year fhe 
mould be reimburfed for the expence of their levy, 
tranfportation, and fubfiftence. In purfuance of this Rym«-. 
convention, fhe fent part of thefe fuccours into Brit- Elizabeth 
tany, under the command of Norreys, and the reft fends fuc - 
into Picardy with Sir Roger Williams. Henry at the Henry of 
fame time negotiated for eleven thoufand men France « 
with the elector of Brandenburg, and Cafimir 
prince Palatine ; but all thefe auxiliaries being in- 
fufficient for his purpofes, he demanded a fecond 
reinforcement from the queen of England, on pre- 
tence of inverting Rouen. She was fo anxious to 
fee -the Spaniards driven from the maritime places, 
that fhe obliged herfelf by another treaty to fupply 
the French king with four thoufand men for this 
fervice. She beftowed the command of thefe forces 
on the earl of EiTex, who had fucceeded Leicefter 
as her majefty's chief favourite. When he arrived 
in France, he found Henry employed in the liege 
of Noyon, and refolved to fend the Englilh auxi- 
liaries into Champagne. He therefore returned to 
England, after having promifed to return, in cafe 
N* 59. D d Rouen 


She is m- 
cenfed a- 
gainft that 


a. c. 1591. Rouen fhould be inverted ; and left the command 
of his forces to Sir Roger Williams. 

Elizabeth was incenfed to find herfelf thus duped 
by Henry, to whom me wrote a letter, upbraiding 
him with breach of promife, and threatening to re- 
call her troops from his dominions. Alarmed at 
thefe menaces, the French king ordered the mare- 
chal de Biron to invert Rouen ; and this flep fur- 
nimed him with a pretext for demanding a fur- 
ther reinforcement from England, alledgi-ng that 
the lafl was confiderably diminifhed by ficknefs 
and defertion. The earl of EfTex, mean while, 
no fooner underflood that the nege of Rouen was 
undertaken, than he embarked for France, contra- 
ry to the exprefs order of the queen, which he 
thought could not abfolve him of his promife. 
From this inftance of difobedience, fhe conceived 
fuch a difguft both at the earl and Henry, that 
when the French ambafTador follicited her for the 
reinforcement, he was difmiiTed from her prefence 
with a very rude anfwer -, and fhe fent Ley ton,, 
uncle to EfTex, with an exprefs order, commanding 
that young nobleman to return immediately, on 
pain of her highefl difpleafure. Henry underftand- 
ing that the duke of Parma had begun his march 
from the Netherlands, repaired to his army before 
Rouen, in order to forward the operations of the 
ficge, and difpatched Du Pleffis Mornay toprefs queen 
Elizabeth for the reinforcement. That princefs tolcT 
the ambafTador, that fhe would no longer be a dupe 
to the French king, nor afiift him in any fhape 
but with her prayers ; that fhe had fent him auxi- 
liaries for the fiege of Rouen ; but that, inflead 
of undertaking that enterprize, he had amufed 
himfelf elfewhere, and given the duke of Parma 
time to come to the relief of that city. She in- 
veighed bitterly againft EfTex, faying, he wanted 



Mem de 


to make the world believe that he governed Eng- a. c. 1591. 
land -, but that nothing was more falfe, and Hie 
would make him the mofl pitiful fellow in the 
whole kingdom. Far from fending another body 
of troops into France, me fwore ihe would recall 
thole that were already fent •, and difmifled de Plef- 
fis, on preterl:e of being indifpofed. He then 
prefented a memorial, which Ihe defired him to 
deliver into the hands of the treafurer. In a word, 
he returned without fuccefs ; and EiTex was obli- 
ged to come home, where he foon appealed the 
queen's indignation. In the mean time the duke 
of Parma marching into France, and being joined 
by the dukes of Mayenne and Guile, advanced to 
Rouen, the fiege of v/hich Henry was obliged to 
abandon at their approach. The duke reduced A c - *59*« 
Caudebec : but the king could not draw him to 
an engagement. At length he retreated through 
Champagne to the Low-Countries, and in Decem- 
ber died at Arras. Henry having cut off all com- 
munication with Rouen by the river Seine, difmif- 
fed the greateft part of his forces, and the Engliih, 
auxiliaries returned to their own country. 

Henry now bent all his endeavours to be recon- 
ciled with the queen of England., who fent him a 
new reinforcement of two thoufand men ; and be- 
ing extremely uneafy at the neighbourhood of the 
Spaniards, who had taken pofTerTion of Brittany, 
engaged in a new treaty, importing, That (he mould j^wfcom, 
fupply him with four thoufand men, ibme pieces Ae engages 
of artillery, and a certain quantity of ammunition, ^j* t IJfcW 
on condition that the Engliih forces mould be join- 
ed by four thoufand French foot foidiers, and one 
thoufand cavalry, to be deftined for the recovery of 
Bretagne : That the French king ihould reimburfe 
her in one year : That he mould not make peace 
with the Leaguers, until they mould engage to join 
him in driving the Spaniards out of ihz king- 

D d 2 dom ; 


A. c. 1592. j om : And that, in eaie of peace with Spain, Eng- 
land fhould be comprehended in the treaty. Eli- 
zabeth performed her part of the contract with great 
punctuality, and fent over her proportion of troops 
under the command of Norreys -, but, inflead of 

Camden, acting in Bretagne, they were obliged to ferve in 
Normandy, as Henry was hard prfwed in that pro- 
vince. The queen complained loudly of the con- 
travention, and even threatened to recal her troops : 
but her own intereft was fo much connected with 
the fafety of the French king, that me would not 
put her threats in execution. She ifTued out pro- 
clamations, prohibiting her fubjects from affifting 
the Leaguers, or the king of Spain, with corn, 
ammunition, or naval (lores. She equipped fifteen 
fhips of v/ar, under the command of Sir Walter 
Raleigh, to diftrcfs the Spaniards in the Weil-Indies ; 
but his fleet being difperfed in a florm, the expedi- 
tion was countermanded. Then fhe difpatched. a' 
imail fquadron to cruize offthe Azores, and Sir Mar- 
tin Forbifher to the coaflof Spain, in order to lie in 
wait for the Spanifh carracks from the Eaft -Indies. 
Burroughs, who commanded the firfl of thefe fqua- 
drons, drove one galleon on more, where it was 
burned, and took another, worth above one hun- 
dred and fifty thoufand pounds. About the fame 
time, Thomas White, a Londoner, made prize of 
two Spanifh veffels loaded with quickiilver and in- 
dulgences, to be fold in the Mexican empire. 

During thefe tranfactions, Sir John Perrot, late 
lord deputy of Ireland, which he had governed 
with equal addrefs and impartiality, fell a facrifice 
to a faction of his enemies, who accufed him of hav- 
ing reviled the queen, correfpohded with her ene- 
mies, and fomented the rebellions in Ireland. He 
was convicted of treafon upon partial evidence, 
and died in the Tower after a long imprilbnment. 
The Irifh chieftains in Ulfter engaged in a private 





league for expelling the Englifh garrilbns. The A - c '593- 
caftle of Montrofe was furprifed by O Donel j Troubles 
Macguire raifed an infurreclion in Fermanagh, and ln Irdand> 
entering Connaught, was defeated by Sir Richard 
Bingham. Hugh earl of Tyrone engaged in this 
confederacy ; and, upon the death of Tirloch Lei- 
nich, affumed the title of O Neale ; but he after- 
wards fubmitted, and was forgiven. The queen 
was more nearly touched by a confpiracy which 
had been lately difcovered in Scotland. The earls 
of Huntley, Errol, Angus, and feveral other per- 
fons of diftinclion, follicited the king of Spain to 
make a defcent upon that kingdom. Their agent 
George Kerr, bi other to the laird of Newbottle, 
being feifed with his difpatches, juft as he was going 
to embark, the miniftry became acquainted with 
the particulars of the fcheme. David Graham of 
Fintry, one of the accomplices, was condemned 
and beheaded : and the reft were fummoned to 
appear before the parliament. Elizabeth, alarmed 
at this confpiracy, and fufpicious of the king's 
own inclinations, fent the lord Burrough to con- 
gratulate him upon the difcovery of the plot : to 
allure him of her aiTiftance, and prefs him to punifh 
the popifh. lords, by the confiication of their eitates. 
She like wife defired a pardon for Bothwell, who 
having made two attempts to feize the king's per- 
fon, had been proclaimed a traitor, and fled into 
England. There he was protected by Elizabeth, 
who refilled to deliver him up when James de- 
manded him, according to the ftipulations of the 
lafl treaty. He now excufed himieif from pardon- 
ing fuch a notorious offender, but promifed to pro- 
ceed judicially againfl the Roman catholic noble- 
men. Kerr efcaped from prifon, and the parliament 
could not confiicate the lords, for want or evidence. 
Sir Robert Melvil was, difpatched to England, to de- 
mand of queen Elizabeth a fum of money which 

D d 3 would 


A.c. 1593. would enable the king to levy forces, and expel the 
rebels from the kingdom. James was fo wretch- 
edly poor, that he could neither keep a table, nor 
maintain a guard for the defence of his perfon. 
He therefore became an importunate beggar with 
the eflates of the Netherlands, as well as with the 
queen of England, who, though me fometimes 
parted with trifling fums, was too penurious to fup- 
ply him with a furficiency for his occafions. Mel- 
vil did riot fucceed in his negotiation : and Both- 
well returning privately to Scotland, tampered fo 
effectually with the duke of Lennox, the earl of 
Athol, the lord Ochiltree, and other enemies of 
chancellor Maitland, that they introduced him into 
the king's bedchamber, where falling on his knees, 
and imploring his majefty'sforgivenefs, he was par- 
doned at the requeft of the Englifh ambaffador. 
This pardon, however, as the effect of compulfion, 
was annulled by the convention of the eflates ; 
though he was promifed to be indulged with an 
abolition of all his pad treafons, if he would fue 
for it within a certain time, and then quit the king- 
dom. Bothwell, dirTatisfied with thefe conditions, 
renewed his former practices againft the king's per- 
fon, but mifcarried in his attempts. A fubiequent 
convention paffed an act for the more firm eftablifh- 
ment of the proteflant religion in Scotland; and 
Caioerwood. the catholic lords were fummoned, either to com- 
spottif- ply with the doctrines of the kirk, within a limited 

wood. *.'? , 

time, or quit the country. 
proceedings The Englifh parliament meeting in the month 
L"<Ttl Ila ~ °f February, took cognizance of a book written by 
one Parfons a jefuit, endeavouring to prove that 
the right of fuccefiion to the throne of England 
was legally vefted in the infanta of Spain. This 
performance was condemned by the parliament, 
which declared, that all perfons keeping it in their 
houfes fliould be deemed guilty of high-treafon. 



The puritans having grown intolerably inlblent and A * c - '593. 
troublefome, were now laid under fevere reflricti- 
ons, by an act for retaining the queen's fubjects in 
tl^ir due obedience. This law decreed that all 
perfons above the age of fixteen, abfenting them- 
ielves from church for a month, fhould be impri- 
foned, until releafed in confequence of their public 
declaration of conformity. They were obliged to 
conform within three months after cqnviction, or 
abjure the realm •, otherwife they were liable to be 
punifhed as felons, without benefit of clergy. The 
itatute, though enacted feemingly againft the Ro- 
man catholics, was principally levelled at the Puri- 
tans •, and indeed equally affected all non-confor- 
miits. The commons granted a large fupply, in 
confideration of the great expence to which the 
queen had been expoied, for the defence of Eng- 
land againrt the Spaniih invafion, as well as for the 
fupport of the French king and the United Pro- 
vinces ; but this fubfidy was granted with a claufe, 
importing, that it mould not be drawn into prece- 
dent: two fubfidies were likewife voted by the 
clergy in convocation. 

This generofity of the parliament and clergy con- 
foled Elizabeth in fome meafure for the mortifica- 
tion me underwent from the conduct of Henry 
king of France. That prince, inflead of ufing the 
Englifh auxiliaries for expelling the Spaniards from " 
Brittany, employed them only as a check upon 
thofe invaders, while he exerted his chief endea- 
vours in other parts of his kingdom : fo that Eli- 
zabeth would have recalled her troops, had not the 
been diverted from her purpofe by the intreaties 
and remonftrances of the marechal d'Aumont, who 
allured her, in his mailer's name, that a powerful 
effort would foon be made for the reduction or Bre- 
tagne. At this period Henry finding it impoflible 
to reduce the kingdom of France to his obedience, 

D d 4. while 


a,c. 1593. w hile he profefied the proteflant religion, and be- 
Henry of ing hard prefTed by his Roman catholic friends, 
feff" s C tbe ro ~ renounced the reformed doctrines, and declared 
Roman ca- himfelf a convert to the church of Rome. Tfee 
g?on!° l " q^een of England was no fooner informed of this 
event, than lhe wrote a fevere letter, upbraiding 
him with his apoftacy •, which he frankly imputed 
to the necefTity of his affairs. But, notwithftand- 
ing Elizabeth's refentment, (he confented to engage 
in a new league offenfive and defenfive with Hen- 
ry, when me underflood that the king of Spain in- 
tended to make a powerful effort to fupport the 
League ; and this alliance was actually concluded 
at Melun, in the month of October, ftipulating, 
that no peace mould be made with Spain, without 
the mutual confent of both parties. Elizabeth then 
recommended the proteflants to the protection of 
Henry, and propofed Breft as a place of retreat for 
the Englifh forces, and cautionary town for the 
repayment of the money with which fhe had fup- 
plied him in his necefTities \ but this fecurity he 
. carefully evaded. The queen, to fecure herfelf ftill 
more effectually from the infults of the Spaniards, 
-ordered the ifies of Scilly to be fortified and garri- 
joned; while Jerfey and Guernfey were fecured in 
the lame manner. The Englifh fugitives ftill con- 
tinued to plot againfk Elizabeth and her government. 
One Hefket, at their infligation, exhorted Ferdi- 
nand earl of Derby to affume the title of king, as 
grandibn of Mary, daughter to Henry VIJ. He 
affured the earl he mould be powerfully fupported 
by Philip of Spain ; and threatened, in cafe of his 
declining the propofal, and revealing the fcheme, 
that he mould not long enjoy his life. The earl 
immediately informed againfl Hefket, who was 
condemned accordingly : but his threats were cer- 
tainly executed upon the earl, who in a few months 
Camden, died of poifon, 
* The 


The death of the duke of Parma did not wholly A « c - 1593* 
put a flop to the intended invafion of France. 
The Spanifh army entering Picardy, reduced Noy- 
ons, and then marched back to the Low Countries. 
The count de Fuentes, and Don Diego d'Ibarra, 
who were now at the head of the Spanifh affairs in 
the Netherlands, not only fomented the troubles 
in Scotland, by feeding the malcontents of that 
kingdom with promiies of fuccour ; but they refolv- 
ed to take off Elizabeth by poifon. For this pur- Scheme to 
pofe they corrupted Roderic Lopez, a Portugueze murder the 
Jew, who was one of her phyficians, with a bribe 
of fifty thoufand crowns. The defign being difco- 
vered by intercepted letters, he and two of his ac- 
complices were apprehended, and conferTed the na- 
ture of their correfpondence with Fuentes and Ibar- 
ra. At the place of execution, Lopez declared that 
he loved the queen as well as he loved Jems Chrifl ; 
.an expreflion, which coming from the mouth of a 
Jew, excited the mirth of the fpectators. At the 
fame time, Patrick Cullen, an Irifh fencing-mailer, 
was convicted of having been fent from the Low 
Countries to afTafiinate the queen ; Edmund York 
and Richard Williams were like wife apprehended, 
as ruffians fuborned by Ibarra for the fame purpofe. 
Elizabeth wrote a letter to Ernefl archduke of Auf- 
tria, by this time appointed governor of the Low 
Countries, defiring he would punifh the authors of 
fuch treachery -, and demanding that the Englifh 
fugitives concerned in fuch defigns fhould be de- 
livered into her hands. But fhe had very little rea- 
fon to expect any . fatisfaction on this head, as fhe 
herfelf protected Antonio Perez, late fecretary to 
Philip, who had excited fome commotions in Ar- 
ragon, and rled to England, where he was enter- 
tained and careffed by the earl of Effex. 

The affairs of the French king began to take a a. c. 1594. 
more favourable turn immediately after his. conver- 



A. C. 1 594- 

The French 
king's af- 
fairs take 
a more fa- 

James of 
Scotland to 
en a& Jaws 
ajjainft the 
Ronlan ca- 


fion. Meaux, Orleans, and Bourges, fubmitted. 
He reduced La Ferte Milon, and was crowned at 
Chartres. Then he publifhed an amnefty, was 
joined by a great number of gentlemen who deferu 
ed the League, admitted into Paris, and proclaim- 
ed at Rouen. He concluded an accommodation 
with the dukes of Lorraine and Guife^ and all the 
principal towns in the heart of France declared for 
their lawful fovereign. The marechal d'Aumont 
having taken the town of Morlaix in Brittany, the 
duke de Mercosur, and John d'Aguilar, who com- 
manded the Spaniih auxiliaries of the League, ad- 
vanced to the relief of the caitle : but the mare- 
chal being joined by the Englifh troops under 
Norreys, they would not hazard a battle - 9 and the 
caftle furrendered. After this conqueft, the mare- 
chal reduced Quimpier, and took Crodon by af- 
fault. Sir Martin Forbifher was mortally wounded 
on this occafion. The Englim troops behaved 
with fuch gallantry in this war, and were fo for- 
ward in expofing themfelves to the moft imminent 
dangers, that Elizabeth, in a letter to Norreys, 
defired he would not be fo lavifh of the blood of 
her fubjects. 

This princefs, underftanding that there was a 
party at the court of Scotland which favoured the 
Spaniards, fent thither the lord Zouch to obferve 
their motions, and keep James fleady to the inte- 
reft of England. This ambarTador reprefented, in 
the queen's name, that the Roman catholics of 
Scotland enjoyed in public the exercife of their 
religion, and openly correfponded with the king 
of Spain. James replied, that he would acl a- 
gainft them according to the laws of the land > 
and, if they would not fubmit to the laws, he 
would purfue them by force of arms, provided the 
queen, who was as much interefted as himfelf, in 



the fuccefs of the war, would contribute to the A - c - *sW* 
expence. Lord Zouch ftill preffing him to enact 
feverer laws againft them, the king, anfwered, 
with fome emotion, that the queen of England 
had no right to command him, or prefcribe the 
rules by which he mould govern his own king- 
dom. Then he demanded that fhe would deli- 
ver up Both well, who had again taken refuge in 
England. Far from giving him that iatisfa&ion, 
fhe in all probability furnifhed Bothwell with means 
to return and raife four hundred men, with whom 
he furprifed Leith. Then he publifhed a mani- 
fefto, declaring, that he was come to join divers 
noblemen and others, in expelling thofe evil coun- 
fellors who favoured the deiigns of the Roman ca- 
tholics, and the Spanilh invafion. The citizens of 
Edinburgh taking arms againft him, he retired to- 
wards Dalkeith, and routed the lord Hume, who 
commanded the advanced guard of a body of for- 
ces headed by the king in perfon : but, not dar- 
ing to ftand the brunt of a general engagement, 
he difmifTed his troops, and took refuge once more 
in England. James immediately difpatched two 
envoys to complain to Elizabeth of BothwelPs be- 
ing ftill harboured in her dominions •, to affure her 
he would profcribe the perfons, and cortftfcate the 
lands of the popifti lords ; and to delate a fupply 
of money in the mean time. She promifed to 
comply with his requeft, and forthwith publifhed 
a proclamation, forbidding her fubjects to give 
fhelter to the earl of Bothwell. The Scottifh par- 
liament meeting in May, pronounced fentence of 
forfeiture againft the three pophn earls, and the 
laird of Auchindown : but the execution of the 
fentence was deferred on the account of the bap- 
tifm of Henry prince of Scotland. Elizabeth fent 
the earl of SulTex as ambafTador-extraordinary to 



a.c. 1594. attend at this folemnity, at which alio were pre- 
lent the envoys of Denmark, Brunfwick, Mecklen- 
burgh, and the United Provinces. 

Mean while Bothwell engaged in aflbciation with 
the popiiri lords ; and having received a lhare of 
dome money remitted from Spain, undertook to 
raife fuch a commotion in the fouthern parts of 
Scotland, as would prevent the king from profe- 
cuting his nothern expedition againfl the outlawed 
noblemen. His defign was to feize and confine 
James in the cattle of Blacknefs ; the governor of 
which was James Cochran, who had joined in the 
confpiracy, w T hich was accidentally difcovered by 
intercepted letters. Cochran was arretted, con- 
demned, and executed. The earls of Argyle, 
Athol, and others, marching with five thouiand 
men againtt the profcribed lords, were met in Ba- 
dinoch by Huntley, who defeated them with great 
(laughter. Then the king himfelf took the field, 
and advanced as far as Aberdeen, where, under- 
ftanding that the earls of Erroi and Huntley had 
retired to Sutherland, he ordered the duke of Len- 
nox to purfue them with a body of forces. This 
iervice he performed with fuch vigour, that the 
enemy was reduced to extremity, and offered to 
lay down their arms, provided they might be al- 
B ^ h t *'* n _ lowed to quit the kingdom. Their requeft was 
pini lords granted ; and they went into perpetual exile. Both- 
.obiiguiro n fi nc ]i n o; himfelf totally abandoned by his old 

quit tnat O J m J 

kingdom, and new accomplices, fled into France, and after- 
Meivii. wards retired to Naples, where he died in great in- 
Spottif- digence, profefTing the Roman catholic religion. 
<wocd " Incenfed as Elizabeth was againtt the Spaniard, 

for his unceafmg endeavours to diftrefs her and her 
allies, fhe would not expend her fubfidies in the 
operations of an ofrennve war, but annoyed the 
enemy by granting commimons to private adven- 
turers, who acted againtt them at their own ex- 



a§? Walter Aalegs. 


pence. Richard Hawkins, thus authorized, failed A c l sn- 
with three fhips towards the ftreights of Magellan. 
One of his veffels was cafually burned, and another 
quitted him on the coaft of Brazil. Nevertheleis, 
he failed into the South -fea, where he took feveral 
prizes ; but was at length attacked by a ftrong 
fquadron, which compelled him to furrender upon 
articles of capitulation. James Lancafler took 
nine and thirty Spanifh mips, on the coaft of Brazil, 
and made himfelf mailer of Fernambuco, where he 
loaded fifteen veffels with fugar, and the cargo of a 
rich carrack which he found in the place : then re- 
turned to England with an immenfe booty. Sir a. c 15^5, 
"Walter Raleigh being forbid the court, for having 
debauched a maid of honour, whom he afterwards 
married, undertook a voyage to Guiana, took the 
city of St. Jofeph, failed up the river Oroonoque in 
qiieft of a gold mine, which, however, he could 
not find ; fo that he was obliged to return without 
fuccefs, after having loft the beft'part of his men 
by the unhealthy climate. He made another voyage 
at his own expence, and mifcarried as before. Eli- 
zabeth, encouraged by the fuccefs of her fub- 
jects, fent a ftrong fleet, under Sir Francis Drake 
and Sir John Hawkins, with a body of land 
forces, commanded by Sir Thomas Bafkerville, 
to feize a vaft treafure which had been brought 
to Porto Rico for the ufe of Philip. They arrived 
in fafety at St. Domingo •, but their defign being 
accidentally difcovered, the Spaniards fortified the 
harbour of Porto Rico in fuch a manner, that when 
they attempted to force it, they met with a fevere 
repulfe. Hawkins dying after this mifcarriage, 
they failed to the continent, where they burned 
Rio de la Hacha, Santa Martha, and Nombre de 
Dios. They made an effort to march acrofs the 
Ifthmus of Darien to Panama ; but met with fo 
many difficulties that they abandoned the enter- 



A - c - r 595- prife, and refolved to attack Porto Bello. Be- 
sTitaL f° re ^ s f cneme could he executed, Sir Francis 
Drake. Drake died of a dyfentery, and the fleet returned 
Camden, t0 England. 

Philip ex- Philip of Spain retorted thofe hoftilities by ex- 
TCbaitonlil citing a fre{h rebellion in Ireland, under the con- 
ireJand. elud of Macguire and Mac-Mahon. Sir W. RufTel 
had been fent over to fucceed Fitzwilliams as lord 
deputy ; and the earl of Tyrone having been ac- 
cused of correlponding with the rebels, pleaded 
his own caufe fo effectually, in a vifit to the new 
governor, that he was difmiffed as a loyal fubjecT. 
Notwithstanding his profeflions, he attacked the 
fort of Black- water, in the abfence of the governor ; 
and being declared a traitor, openly joined the re- 
bels, whofe forces in Ulfter andConnaught amount- 
ed to near ten thoufand horfe and foot, commanded 
by experienced officers, who had ferved in the 
Low- Countries. Elizabeth, alarmed at this formi- 
dable rebellion, recalled Sir John Norreys, with a 
. body of veterans, from Brittany ; and thefe being 
joined with a reinforcement in England, were fent 
over' to Ireland to crufh the rebels before they 
ihould receive the fuccours they expected from 
Spain. When Norreys advanced to Armagh, 
Tyrone abandoned the fort of Black- water, reduced 
the town of Dungannon and the neighbouring vil- 
lages to allies, and was driven almolt to defpair, 
when the want of provifions compelled the Englifh 
general to retire, after he had left garrilbns in Ar- 
magh and Monaghan. Neverthelefs, Feagh Mac- 
Hugh, chief of the Byrnes, fubmitted to the lord 
deputy ; and Norreys agreed with Tyrone and O 
Donel for a truce till the end of December. This 
' introduced a treaty or negotiation with the rebels, 
who demanded a general amnefly, the free exer- 
cife of their religion, the reftitution of their eftates, 
and an exemption from all garrifons and impofi- 



dons. The queen offered to pardon them for their A « c - *sa s * 
rebellion, provided they would difmifs their forces, 
repair the forts they had demolished, re (lore the ef- 
fects they had feized, admit garrifons, iheriffs, and 
other officers, and difcover their traniadlions with 
foreign princes. They rejected thefe propofals, tho* 
the truce was prolonged to April. The queen 
would have repaired their lories, but would by no 
means indulge them with a toleration. Tyrone in 
the mean time treated with Philip as well as with 
Elizabeth, and cunningly tranfmitted to the lord 
deputy the letters which he received from that mo- 
narch. Thefe he prefented as proofs of his loyalty 
to Elizabeth -, though his aim was to deceive the 
vigilance of the deputy, and inhance the opinion of 
his own importance. Before the truce expired he 
capitulated with Norreys, and delivered hoftages, 
in confequence of a pardon for himfelf and his ac- 
complices : yet he refufed to take the oath of alle- 
giance. The rebels in Connaught fubmitted on 
the fame terms : but this peace was of fhort dura- 
tion. O Donel ravaged the country : Feagh Mac- 
Hugh, at the mitigation of Tyrone, renewed the 
rebellion in Leinfter, and furprized the fort at 
Balencore •, but he was foon routed and (lain, to- 
gether with George and Peter Butler, nephews to 
the earl of Ormond, whom Feagh had perfuaded 
to join in the revolt. Tyrone attacked the garrifon 
of Armagh -, but after v/ards made an apology for 
this act of violence, and propofed a new confe- 
rence with the lord deputy, for a full and final 
compofition. His aim being only to amufe him,, 
this conference w T as poftponed from time to time* 
and at lait the defign was wholly laid afide. The 
progrefs of the rebels was in a good rneafure owing 
to a jealoufy that fubfifled between Rudel and 
Norreys ; and Tyrone did not fail to take the ad- 
vantage of their miiunderltanding. Camdea. 

2 lien- 


a. c. 1596. Henry IV. of France was reduced to great per- 
TheFrench pl ex ity by Elizabeth's recalling her troops from 
ftrefred by Brittany. He had declared war againft Spain, and 
the spa- philip fent the conftable of Caftile into Franche- 
Comte with an army of eighteen thoufand men : 
at the fame time the count de Fuentes, who now 
commanded the Spanifh forces in the Low Countries, 
entered Picardy, reduced Catelet, and defeating 
the French army at Dourlens, took the place by 
affault. Henry being apprized of thefe unfavour- 
able events, difpatched Chevalier to the court of 
England, to follicit an immediate reinforcement 
for the prefervation of Picardy. Elizabeth offered 
to fend a body of troops to garrifon Calais,, Bou- 
logne, and Dieppe •, but Henry did not chufe to 
truft her with the keeping of thefe places. After 
the reduction of Dourlens, the Spaniards inverted 
Cambray, and Henry fent over Lommenie his fe- 
cretary of ftate, to prefs the queen of England for 
a fpeedy reinforcement, which fhe refufed to grant ; 
fo that the place was furrendered to the enemy. 
She was loth to part with her money, and greatly 
difgufted at Henry for having neglected to drive 
the Spaniards from Brittany. It was not without 
reafon fhe difliked their fettlement in that province. 
They actually equipped a fleet, and made a defcent 
upon Cornwall, where they plundered and burned 
feveral villages : but they retreated to their mips, 
Mezerai. without having done any confiderable damage. 
The French king was extremely chagrined at the 
repulfe he hadfuftained from Elizabeth ; and many 
members of the council advifed him to make a fe- 
parate peace. He complained flill more loudly of the 
United Provinces, which, though in alliance with 
him, had taken no ftep for the relief of fuch a con- 
Caraden fiderable place. They derived incredible advan- 
tage from the war between France and Spain •, and 
therefore appeafed his warmth with a round fum of 




money, a couple of complete regiments, and a ACl 59 6 - 
large quantity of corn. 

The queen of England was no fooner informed J h n e A qu d f* 
of this tranfaction, than flie lent Sir Thomas Bod- rC jmburfe 
ley to demand of the flares the repayment of the ™ ent of 
money with which fhe had fupplied them in their rai. 
diftrefs. Though they had actually grown rich 
during the war, they pleaded inability, exaggerat- 
ing their loftes at fea, the inundation of their coun- 
try, and the great expence which they had under- 
gone in equipping Meets to join her navy againft 
the Spaniards. She would not admit of their excu- 
ies, alledging, that if they had money to give away 
to the king of France, they finely could not be in- 
capable of paying their juil debts. She upbraided 
them with their ingratitude ; and reminded them 
of the deplorable fituation in which they were when 
fhe generoufly took them into her protection. 
They might have juitly told her* that the aflifiance 
they had received was more owing to a fenfe of her 
own interelt, than the motives of generofity and 
companion ; and they might have pleaded the con- 
dition of the loan, by which fhe was not intitled to 
a reimburfement until the war mould be finifhed : 
but they deprecated her wrath by lubmiflioni and 
obtained a refpite, by furnilhing her with four and 
twenty fhips well manned, and provided for five 
months, to join her navy in an attempt againit the 
Spaniards. During thefe tranfactions, the cardinal 
Albert of Auitria iucceeding his brother Erneft in 
the government of the Low Countries, threw a re- 
inforcement into La Ferre, which Henry IV. be- 
fieged in perfon, and then inverted Calais. The Elizabeth 
French king immediately diipatched Sancy to Eng- [^f^f 8 
land for fuccour : he was followed by the marechal 1^ of Ca- 
de Bouillon, who importuned Elizabeth fo induilri- (" s Jj^jJ 
oufly, that fhe ordered eight thoufand men to bei^.ch- 
levied and fent over, under the command of Effex -, jj^ e Al " 
N° zq. E e but. 


a, c. 1596. but, before they could embark, the place furren> 
dered, and the troops were difmifled, though me 
fupplied Henry with a fum of money on the cre- 
dit of his two ambaffadors. 

The queen being apprifed of Philip's great pre- 
parations againft England or Ireland, equipped a 
fleet of one hundred and fifty mips, including 
thofe that were fent by the ftates-general. Ro- 
bert earl of EfTex, and Charles Howard lord ad- 
, miral of England, who had expended vail fums on 
this occafion, were appointed chiefs of the arma- 
ment, though with different commands ; the ad- 
miral directed the operation at fea, and the earl 
conducted the forces at their landing. The fleet 
was divided into four fquadrons, of which the third 
was commanded by the lord Thomas Howard, and 
the fourth by Sir Walter Raleigh. Having receiv- 
ed their inftructions, they fet fail from Plymouth 
in the beginning of June : and, on the twentieth 
day of that month anchored near St. Sebailian's 
chapel, on the weft fide of the ifland of Cadiz. 
The Spanifh fhips of war retiring into- the Puntal, 
were next day attacked by the Englifh ; and the 
engagement kited from break of day till noon, 
when the enemy feeing their galleons miferably 
mattered, and a great number of their men killed, 
refolved to fet fire to their vefTels, and run them 
afriore. The Spanifh admiral, called the St. Philip 
was burned, together with three others that lay 
near her ; but the St. Matthew and St. Andrew 
were faved and taken. Immediately after this 
action, the earl of EfTex landed at Puntal with 
eight hundred men, and advanced againft a body 
of five hundred Spaniards, who retreated into Ca- 
diz at his approach. Thefe were fo clofely purfued, 
and the inhabitants were in fuch confufion, that no 
ileps could be taken for the defence of the place,* 
until the Englifh had burft open the gate and en- 



tered the city. After a fhort fkirmifh in the flreets, A - c *& 6i 
the affailants made themfelves mailers of the mar- Cadiz taken 
ket place, and the garrifon retired into the caflle; Jeii* 
though they foon capitulated, on condition that the 
inhabitants Ihould have liberty to depart with their 
wearing apparel, and all their other effects be di- 
flributed as booty among the • foldiers ; that they 
fhould pay five hundred and twenty thoufand du- 
cats for the ranfom of their lives, and fend forty of 
their chief citizens to England, as hofbages for the 
payment of the money. The earl of Effex being 
now entirely mailer of the place, turned out all 
the inhabitants, and loaded the fhips with the mo- 
ney and rich effects which the foldiers had not yet 
taken in plunder. Mean while admiral Howard 
detached Sir Walter Raleigh to burn the merchant 
fhips which had retired to Port- Real. Two mil- 
lions of ducats were offered as their ranfom; but he 
rejected the propofal, obferving that he was come 
to burn, not to ranfom their fhips. The duke of 
Medina-Sidonia, however, found means to unload 
fome, and fet fire to others, that they might not 
fall into the hands of the Englifh. Befides the lofs 
which their merchants fuflained in thh expedition, 
the king loll two galleons, thirteen fhips of war,- 
and four and twenty veffels laden with merchandize 
for the Indies, over and above the ammunition 
which he had provided for his defign upon Eng- 
land. The earl of Effex was of opinion, that Ca- 
diz ought to be kept as a thorn in the fide of the 
Spaniards, and offered to remain in perfon for its 
defence : but the majority being impatient to re- 
turn to their own country with the booty they had 
obtained, his motion was over- ruled, arid they kz 
fail for England, after having fet fire to the town 
and adjacent villages. When they arrived at Faro 
in Algarbe, they found the place deferted, and all 
the effects removed. The Meet being afterwards 

E e 2 driven 




a. c. 1596. driven out to fea by a ftrong northern gale, EiTex 
propofed to make an attempt upon the Azores ; 
but no body feconding the propofal, except the lord 
Howard, they returned to England, enriched with 
the fpoils of the enemy. EfTex, however, had 
the mortification to find that Sir Robert Cecil, fon 
to the lord-treafurer, had in his ablence been ap- 
pointed fecretary of fiate -, an office to which the 
earl had ftrongly recommended Sir Thomas Bodley, 
who had been lent as ambaiTador to the Low-Coun- 
tries. His chagrin was Hill augmented by the 
queen's appointing Sir Francis Vere governor of 
the Brille •, a place of truft which Effex follicited 
for himfelf. 

Elizabeth, though Hie had a particular attach- 
ment to the peribn of Effex, payed very little re- 
gard to his recommendations, partly becaufe me 
looked upon him as an impetuous youth, without 
experience and difcernment •, and partly becaufe he 
was privately oppofed by old Cecil, who had long 
ferved her with the utmoft fidelity, was clofe, care- 
ful, penurious •„ and, in a word, a minifler after 
her own heart. It was by his fuggeftions that the 
queen became fo importunate with the flates of the 
Netherlands for the payment of the debt they had 
contracted. They were fufficiently able to dii- 
charge this obligation ; but they confidered the debt 
as a tie which connected Elizabeth more firmly to 
their intereft •, and therefore were extremely averfe 
to part with this bond of union. When me renew- 
ed her demands, they lent deputies to London, to 
make frefh remonftrances •, they offered to pay two 
hundred thouiand florins yearly, either for her life, 
or during the war, and four millions in as many 
years after the peace mould be concluded. She re- 
fufed to clofe with this propoial ; the deputies re- 
turned, and the affair was poftponed to further con- 


The qxieen 
tfenews her 

upon the 
ft »tes e<"ne- 


Notwithftanding the difguft which Elizabeth had A c - -59 6 ' 
conceived againft the French king-, and that prince's 
refentment of her refilling to iuccour Calais, their 
mutual intereft was fo' infeparably connected in the 
war with Spain, ►that they agreed to open confe- 
rences for a treaty, which had been propofed before 
the Spaniards had reduced the towns in Picardy. The 
duke of Bouillon was fent over to afiift Sancy in the 
negotiation •, and Englifn commiflioners being ap- 
pointed to treat with them, the league was foon 
concluded, on condition that Elizabeth mould fur- A ncw 
nifh four thoufand men for the defence of Picardy tZZn ' 
and Normandy : That the king of France mould {^" M * 
fupply her with the like number, in cafe her kino;- 
dom ihould be invaded; and that neither party 
mould make peace without the other's confent. 
The ftates-general acceded to this treaty ; though 
their admiilion was retarded by the jealoufy of Els 
zabeth, who pretended that they had no right to 
accede as a ibvereign power, but merely as affoci- 
ated towns under, her protection. At length the 
French king prevailed upon her to wave this di- 

Philip of Spain, exafperated by the conduct of 
Elizabeth, and the loffes he had fuftained from the 
arms of her people, refolved to make another ef- 
fort for the conqueil of England. He affembled a 
formidable fleet at a time when the queen thought 
him utterly difabled from executing any fcheme of 
revenge*, and this navy having taken land-forces on 
board at Fariola, fleered its courfe for England - y 
but was difperfed by a violent ftorm, which render- 
ed it altogether unferviceable for that feafon. The A c - '597. 
king of Spain had begun to treat privately of a fe- 
parate peace with Henry ; but the negotiation was 
altogether interrupted by the fuccefs of Porto-Car- 4 
rero, governor of Dourlens, who found means to 
furprife Amiens ; though this advantage did not 

E e 3 recom- 

42? H I S T O R Y o f E N G L A N D. 

a. c. i S9 6. recompence Philip for the defeat of his troops at 
Philip con- Turnhaut by prince Maurice. Neverthelefs de- 
in"rSi« in pending upon a feparate peace with France, he de- 
ireiand. termined to make a defcent upon Ireland, where he 
ftill fomented the difcontent of the natives ; but his 
fleet was again difperfed and difabled. Almoft all 
the native Irifh in Ulfter and Connaught being en- 
couraged by his emiflaries with hope of aftiftance, 
had rifen in arms ; and Thomas lord Burrough was 
fent over by Elizabeth with the commiiiion of lord 
deputy. Tyrone endeavoured to amufe him with 
excufes, profeflions, and propolals ; but, inftead of 
iuffering himfelf to be cajoled by that crafty rebel, 
he marched againft him and took the fort of Black- 
water-, then he returned to Dublin, where he diedj 
and Thomas earl of Ormond was conilituted lieu- 
tenant-general of the army. This nobleman ad- 
vanced agaiinff. Tyrone •, but his troops being in a 
miferable condition, he agreed to a truce for a few 
months, during which he expected to receive a^re- 
inforcement from England. 
EiieViafis^ Elizabeth now refolved to make an A attempt up- 
ugon an ex- on Tarcera, the principal ifland of the Azores, and, 
thtAzore?. if pofiible, intercept the Spanifh flota in their paf- 
fage from the Weft-Indies. Five thoufand foldi- 
ers were embarked in a fleet of one hundred and 
twenty fhips-, and to thefe were added five and 
twenty Dutch fhips, under the command of admi- 
ral Warmout, having on board one thoufand Eng- 
Jifh veterans from the Low-Countries, headed by 
Sir Francis Vere, governor of the Brille. The chief 
command of this armament was conferred upon the 
earl of EfTex. The lord Montjoy was his lieute- 
nant for the land-forces -, and his fecond and third 
fquadrons were conducted by lord Thomas Howard 
and Sir Walter Raleigh. He was inftructed to de- 
ftroy the Spanifh fleet at Ferrol, and then proceed 
to the Azores. He failed from Plymouth on the 



tenth day of June, but the fleet was fcattered by a' A «c. 1597. 
violent temped, and the fhips were obliged to put 
in at different ports of England -, though, in a few 
tlays, they rendezvoufed at Plymouth. They fail- 
ed again in August, and were damaged in luch a 
manner, by another llorm, that they laid afide their 
defign upon Ferrol, which was by this time ftrong- 
ly fortified, and proceeded directly to the Azores. 
Raleigh being parted from the other admirals, ar- 
rived at Flores, and failing to Fayal, in queft of the 
earl of EfTex, took that town before he joined the 
general, who relented his acting without orders ; 
but was pacified by Raleigh's submission. The earl 
propofed to wait at the ifland of G raciofa for the 
Indian fleet ; but was perfuaded by a pilot to fail 
for the ifle of St. Michael, where he would find a 
fafer harbour. He had not failed two hours from 
Graciofa, when the plate fleet arrived at that ifland; 
and being informed of the Englifli amament, fleered 
directly for Tercera, where they anchored under the 
town of Angra, and caftle of Brafil. They paffed 
in the night through a fmall fquadron of four fhips, 
commanded by Sir W. Monfon, who difpatched a 
veflel with intelligence to the earl of EfTex: but 
they were posted in fuch a manner, when that no- 
bleman came to obferve them, that it was judged 
impracticable to attack them, without the utmoft 
danger •, and all their treafure was by this time fent 
on fhore. He had, however, taken three vefTels Camdeu « 
which had ftraggled from the flota. He now failed 
back to St. Michael, and made himielf mafler of 
Villa Franca, where he found a considerable booty, 
and flore of refrefhment for his people. Raleigh, 
mean while, drove afhore, and destroyed an Indian 
carrack. Then the earl fet fail for England, and 
arrived at Plymouth in the latter end of October. 
The lord treasurer had resigned the place of master 
of the court of wards, in favour cf his fon Sir Ro- 

E e 4 bertj 


a.c. 1597. fo ert . anc [ Effex complained that old Cecil had ta- 
ken the advantage ^of his abfence. The earl was 
likewiie mortified to fe£ the admiral created earl of 
Nottingham, fo as to precede him in rank •> but he 
received fome fatisfaclion in being promoted to the 
honour of earl marechal of England. 
Difeutefe. ^yy e } iaye already obferved, that the Hanfe towns 
zabeth and had complained that the Englifh fleet had feized 
townl! nfe their mips at Lifbon. As they were not fatisfied 
with Elizabeth's aniwer, they appealed to the diet 
of the empire, and obtained a decree, prohibiting 
the Englifh to trade in the dominions of Germany. 
The Englifh merchants were driven from Ham- 
burgh, and other Hanfe towns-, and Sigifmund 
king of Poland fent over an ambaffador to England, 
to demand the mips belonging to his fubjects, which 
had been taken in Portugal. This envoy, in a La- 
tin oration, fpoke in very high terms, and even 
threatened the queen with his matter's refentment. 
Elizabeth anfwered him extempore, in the fame 
language, telling him his matter was a raw, hot- 
headed, young prince, who did not know the na- 
ture of fuch' negotiations j and that he himfelf was 
a pedant, ignorant of mankind, and unacquainted 
with the rules of decorum. She juftified her con- 
duct, by the law of nations-, faid the king of Poland 
was impertinent to mention and boaft of his alli- 
ance with the houfes of Auitria and Spaing obferv- 
ing that (he was very little obliged to the firft, and 
had let the other at defiance. The difpute between 
England and the Hanfe towns became fo ferious, 
that Elizabeth iifued a proclamation, inhibiting 
them from trading to her dominions, and ordering 
the lord-mayor to difpoiTefs them of the fteelyard.' 
The towns on the other hand refolved to form an 
affociation to prevent the Engliin from trading to 
Germany and Poland •> but this confederacy was pre- 
vented by $ir George Carcw, who being impower- 



ccl to offer an enjoyment of their ancient privileges, A .c« 1597, 
as an indulgence from the crown of England, and 
a free traffic to Spain with corn, and all other com- 
modities, except naval ftores, the magistrates of 
Dantzick refilled to fend deputies to the congrefs 
at Lubec, and all differences were compromifed be- Rrmcr# 
tween the citizens of Elbing and the Englim factory. Camdeo, 

It was the fate of Elizabeth to be continually 
wrangling with her allies, becaufe they were in 
continual want of her affiflance, which fhe feldom 
granted, except upon fuch terms as they could not 
eafily obferve. Henry IV. being greatly incom- 
moded by the Spaniards, fmce they had made 
themfelves mailers of Amiens, refolved to retake 
that city, and fummoned the queen of England to 
fend over the four thoufand men ftipulated in the 
laft treaty. She confented to his requeft, on con- 
dition that he would pay them while they mould 
be in his fervice ♦, but, this being a condition 
which he could not eafily fulfil, he endeavoured 
to extort her compliance by alarming her jealoufy. 
He gave her to underfland, that he had it in his 
option to make a feparate peace with Philip, who 
had offered to reftore all the towns he had taken 
but Calais and Ardres, provided he would detach 
himfelf from the intereft of England. This ex- 
pedient anfwered his purpofe. Elizabeth defired 
her ambafiador to tell him, that fhe could not per- 
fuade herfelf he would violate the treaty, to the 
obfervation of which he had fo folemnly fworn : 
and that he might be encouraged to fulfil his en* 
gagements, fhe lent over her troops, with a round 
fum of money. By virtue of this fupply, he was 
enabled to carry on the fiege of Amiens, which 
furrendered to him in September. Then the pri-? enry<>f 
vate negotiations between him and Spain were re- treats P n- 
newed ; and the principal articles were fettled be- S^ 
fore he dropped the ka(t hint of peace to his allies. D ^.' c 



a.c. 1597. Xhe queen, however, difcovered thefe practice?* 
at which fhe was not a little alarmed. The par- 
liament meeting on the twenty-fourth day of Oc- 
tober, me gave them to underftand, that fhe hacj 
expended in the wars of France, Flanders, Spain, 
and Ireland, above three times the amount of the 
fubfidies fhe had received. The commons and 
convocation indulged her with a confiderable fup- 
ply ; and the parliament was diflblved in February. 

A.c. r 59 8. Sir Robert Cecil was difpatched to France to 
know upon what footing Henry treated with Spain ; 
and that prince owned that Philip had made fuch 
ofters as he could not refufe with any regard to the 
welfare of his people. He promifed, however, 
that he would employ all his influence in obtaining 
honourable and advantageous terms to the queen of 
England and the flates-general. As he expe&ed 
nothing but reproaches from his allies, he refolved 
tro lpare himfelf the mortification of bearing them 
in his own perfon -, and therefore appointed com- 
mifTioners to treat with the Englifh and Dutch am- 
bafladors. At this conference, Barnevelt, one of 
the Netherland envoys, fummoned Henry, though, 
abfent, to anfwer on his confcience, whether or not 
he thought it was beneath the honour of a prince 
to abandon his allies in fuch a manner. Cecil fpoke 
with great freedom on the fame fubjedt -, and de- 
manded that the peace might be deferred until he 
could receive new inflruclions from his miftrefs. 
The two ambaffadors even offered, in the name of 
their conftituents, to furnifh him with ten thou- 
fand infantry, and one thoufand horfe, to be main- 
tained by England and the Netherlands through 
the whole courfe of the war, provided Henry would 
renounce his treaty with Philip, and engage with 
them in a perpetual alliance. The chancellor of 
France expreffect the utmoft gratitude for the fuc- 
cours the king had already received •, and exculed 



his matter's conduct from the necefllty of his affairs. A « c « '598. 
In vain did Elizabeth upbraid him in a fevere let- 
ter with his ingratitude and perfidy : he ftill per- 
fifted in his defign, to give peace to his country. 
The negotiations were carried on at Vervins ; and p eaC e be- 
on the twelfth day of June, the peace was ratified tween th ^ 
by Henry -, after he had delayed it for a few weeks, 
in order to fave appearances. Then he declared he 
would procure an honourable peace for his allies, 
and exhorted them to take this opportunity of 
treating with Philip under his mediation. 

Elizabeth immediately fent Sir Thomas Vere to 
know the refolution of the Hates-general. She was 
already determined to maintain the war, by which 
alone fhe thought Philip would be fo much em- 
ployed in the N etherlands, that he would not find 
it practicable to execute his fchemes againft Eng- 
land. But, fhe affected a ftrong propenfity to 
peace, alledging that fhe could no longer bear fuch 
a heavy burthen. The ftates, whofe fafety in a 
great meafure depended upon her friendfhip and 
alliance, were fo alarmed at her declaration, that 
they agreed to fuch terms of a new league as fhe 
thought proper to propofe. The treaty was ac- Anewnea- 
cordingly concluded, on condition, That the ftates ^^^ 
mould give fecurity for the payment of eight mil- an <* * he 
lions of florins, to which fhe limited her demands : J\"' zn 
That one half of this fum fhould be liquidated dur- 
ing the war, by certain annual payments -, and that 
the reftitution of the places which were in the hands 
of the Englifh, together with the payment of the 
Other half, mould be amicably fettled after the 
eftabliihment of the peace : That the queen mould 
furnifh eleven hundred and fifty men to garrifon dif- 
ferent fortreffes, and be paid by the ftates : That 
for the future, the queen fhould ftand difcharged 
of the engagement to furnifh any other auxiliary 
$rpops j but, that the Englifh who either were at 



a.c. 1598. that time, or might be in the fervice of the ftates, 
fhould take the oath to the faid ftates, be maintain- 

Cretins, cd by them, and obey their generals : That the 
power of the deputy of England, ftipulated in the 
former treaty, mould be abolifhed; though the 
queen relerved to herfelf the liberty of fending one 
perfon to fit in their council : That when fhe fhould 
be engaged in war againft the common enemy, 
whether offenfive or defenfive, the ftates fhould 
furnifh her with forty or fifty mips of war, five 
thoufand foot foldiers, and five hundred cavalry. 
About this time the earl of Cumberland returned 
from the Weil- Indies, where he had taken Porto 
Rico, and fent away the inhabitants, that he might 
convert it into an Englifh fetdement ; but having 
loft a great number of men by the dyfentery, he 
re-embarked his people for England, having reaped 
very little fruit from his expedition, in which he had 
plundered Lancerata, one of the Canary iflands. 

In the laft voyage of Sir Francis Drake, one 
Squire had been taken by the Spaniards, and per- 
, fuaded by Walpole, an Englifh jefuit, to attempt 
the lives of the queen and the earl of EfTex. He 
furnifhed him with a poifonous powder, to be 
fprinkled upon the earl's chair and the queen's fad- 
die -, and Squire, at his return to England, tried 
the experiment, without effect. Walpole fuppo- 
fing that Squire had deceived him, as Elizabeth 
and EfTex ftill continued in good health, fent over 
a perfon in revenge to accufe Squire'; who being ap- 
prehended, confeffed the whole affair, and was exe- 

Deatfe of cuted as a traitor. Elizabeth never thought her- 

dShf" 8 ^ $*& fr° m fa cn attempts during the life of Phi- 
lip II. king of Spain, who now died in the fixty- 
fecond year of his age, after having reigned two 
and forty years, during which he had embroiled all 
Europe by his ambition, and loft the feven United 
Provinces by his cruelty, bigotry, and arbitrary 




adniiniftration. The fire of rebellion which he' A - c « »59«. 
kindled in Ireland continued to burn violently, 
even after his deceafe. The earl of Tyrone had 
again rebelled, defeated and (lain Sir Henry Bag- 
nal, and reduced the fort of Black-water. Though 
his progrefs was checked by the arrival of Sir 
Samuel Bagnal, with a reinforcement from Eng- 
land, all Connaught revolted; and a rebellion was 
raifed in Munfter, by Owny Macroryage and Sir 
Thomas of Defmond. They drove the Englifh 
fettlers from their houfes and plantations, and in- 
veiled Kilmallock ; but, the earl of Ormond ad- 
vancing with a body offerees, compelled them to 
raife the liege, put Cork, Kinfale, and Youghal in 
a pofture of defence, exacted hoftages from the 
chieftains : then marching into Leinfter, he routed 
a body of the rebels, and relieved the caftle of Mary- 
borough. c * mim < 

Elizabeth confulting with the earl of EfTex and 
the admiral about the choice of a proper perfon for 
the adminiftration of Ireland, EfTex recommended 
Mr. George Carew, in oppofition to Sir George 
Knolles, whom, however, the queen preferred to 
his competitor. The earl was fo provoked at her The <***» 
flighting his recommendation, that he turned his * rike6 Eft 
back upon her in contempt ; and fhe, incenied at 
his infolence, gave him a box on the ear, bidding 
him go and be hanged. EfTex laying his hand up- 
on his fword, fwore he would not have taken fuch 
an affront from Henry VIII. and retired from court 
in a transport of paflion. Notwithftanding all the 
remonftrances of his friends, he for fome time 
breathed nothing but revenge and defiance •, but? 
at length his paffion fubfiding, he was pardoned, 
and received again into favour. In the midft of 
thefe broils, the lord treafurer Burleigh died in ex- 
treme old age, having preferved his influence to 
the laft moment of his life, againft all the intrigues 


* 3 o H I STORY of ENGLAND. 

a.c. 1598. f Leicefler, EfTex, and other perfons who fhared 
the queen's favour. He was one of thofe cold,- 
plodding, illiberal ftatefmen, who think honefty 
and plain-dealing are incompatible with the art of 
government. He had ordinary parts, was capable 
of incredible application, and inculcated upon Eli- 
zabeth the maxim which influenced her whole con- 
duel •, namely, that it was her intereft to keep all 
the ftates of Chriftendom embroiled by domeftic 
diffentions. He was an excellent minifter for the 
revenue, which he managed with equal frugality 
and addrefs. In his private behaviour he was 
clofe, covetous, ill-bred, and ungracious. He 
died unregretted by the people, and was fucceed- 
ed in office by the lord Buckhurft. 
a.c. 1599. The rebellion continuing ftill to rage in Ireland, 
the queen and council deliberated upon the choice 
of a proper perfon to fend over as lord-deputy, and 
the majority inclined to Charles Blount, lord Mont- 
joy ; but EfTex objected to him as a nobleman of 
little experience, and, without an open declaration, 
gave them to underftand, that he himfelf was de- 
t -he eari firous of the office. He was accordingly appoint- - 
pointed lord ed lord-deputy of Ireland, with a more extenfive 
deputy of commiffion than ever had been granted to any of 
his predeceflbrs ; and fetting out immediately for 
his government, arrived in Dublin the feventeenth 
day of April. Inftead of advancing directly againft 
Tyrone, according to the inftrudtions he had re- 
ceived, he marched into Munfter, where, having 
reduced the caftle of Cahir, received the fubmiffiorr 
of the inhabitants, and performed fome inconfider- 
able exploits againft a body of the rebels, he re- 
turned to Dublin in the latter end of June, after 
having loft a great number of men by ficknefs and 
fatigue. The queen being informed of his trans- 
actions, wrote a fevere letter, reproaching him with 
his contempt of her orders. He excufed himfelf by 



faying he had followed the advice of the council of A * c - *599* 
Ireknd, and promiled to march into Ulfter againfl 
Tyrone: neverthelefs he turned his arms againfl 
the O Mores and O Conners in Leix and OrTaly ; 
and by that time he returned from this petty expe- 
dition, his forces were fo much diminifhed, that he 
demanded a reinforcement of one thoufand men 
from England. In the mean time he ordered Clif- 
ford, governor of Connaught, to make a diverfion 
on the fide of Belick, where he was routed and 
(lain by O Rourke. EfTex, having received a fup- 
ply of troops from England, marched againfl Ty- 
rone to the borders of Ulfler, and obliged him to 
retire into woods and faftneffes. Then that rebel 
craved a parley, which he obtained at Louth, where 
both parties agreed to a cefTation for fix weeks, to 
be renewed occafionally for the fame term, or va- 
cated on a fortnight's notice from either fide. Hav- 
ing concluded this inglorious truce, he marched 
back to Dublin, where he underflood the queen 
was greatly incenfed againfl him, for having pre- 
fumed to difobey her orders a fecond time. He 
therefore refolved to return to England, even 
without leave, to counter- work the efforts of his 
enemies at court ; and his departure is faid to. have 
been haflened, by falfe reports of the queen's be- 
ing dangeroufly ill and defpaired of by her phyfi- 
cians. Thefe rumours were induflrioufly circulated 
by his adverfaries, who, at the fame time, flopped 
all mips but thofe that carried this intelligence. 
The friends of EfTex advifed him to. land in Wales 
with the Irifh army, which was at his devotion •, 
but he rejected this counfel, and leaving the admi- 
niflration of Ireland in the hands of the lord chan- 
cellor Loftus and Sir George Carew, fet fail for » 
England with a very fmall retinue. 

Elizabeth had received fach bad impreflions of 
him from his enemies, that fhe now began to ixif- 



a. c. 1599. peel him of defigns upon the crown, and made pre^- 
parations for her own fafety. On pretence of hav- 
ing received intelligence that the Spaniards were 
employed in equipping a powerful fleet againft . 
England, fhe granted commifiions for levying fix 
thouiand men, and bellowed the command of 
them upon the lord admiral, who was no friend to 
EfTex. She ordered the train-bands of London to 
be armed and exercifed. Chains were drawn acrofs 
the principal flreets of London, and the gates 
were flrongly guarded, as in times of the moil im- 
minent danger: but, when fhe underflood by 
letters from Ireland, that the earl of EfTex had no 
intention to bring over the forces, fhe difbanded 
to England, the new levies, and the citizens were releafed from 
fuch feverity of watch and difcipline. EfTex mean 
while landing in England, with the earl of Soudi- 
ampton, and lbme other officers, polled immedia- 
tely to court, which was then at Nonfuch, about 
ten miles from London ; and, without fhifting his 
drefs, or cleanfing himfelf from the foil of his jour- 
ney, went directly to the queen's bed-chamber, 
Camden, where he found her majefly juft rifen, with her hair 
hanging over her eyes. He kneeled and kifTed her 
hand ; and after fome private converfation, returned 
to his own apartment, flufhed with joy at the gra- 
cious reception he had met with from his miflrefs. 
After having changed his apparel, he again vifited 
her majeily, with whom he conferred lbme hours 
in private, and afterwards dined in great good hu- 
mour. In the afternoon, when he repeated his 
te'rsT vifit to the queen, he found her very much altered 
in her behaviour. She taxed him with neglec"l of 
and is df- her orders, and defired that he might be examined 
grace ' by the lords in council. Thofe in waiting met im- 
mediately; but, after having fat fome time, the 
affair was referred to the determination of a full 
Council, which was fummoned accordingly, and 



Sidney's let- 


lh the mean time the earl was confined to his cham- ^ c - l M* 
ber. Next day he was interrogated at the council- 
board, touching his contempt of the queen's or- 
ders, his making a truce with Tyrone, and his 
leaving Ireland without her majefly's permifiion. 
His anfwers Were fo little fatisfaciory, that he was 
committed to the cuftody of die lord privy-feal. 

In the mean time Tyrone being appriied of the The rebel- 
carl's departure, refolved to take advantage of his ll0n conti * a 

x c nucs to rsfS 

abfence. He had by this time received a fupply of m Ireland. 
money from the king of Spain, and a crown or 
plume of phenix feathers, with ample indulgences, 
from the pope. Thus animated,' he a/Turned the 
title of O Neile, and advanced with an army of fix 
thouiand men within fifteen miles of the Navan. 
The earl of Qrmond, who commanded as lieute- 
nant-general, marching againil him with the wreck 
of the Englifh forces, was fain to conclude a truce, 
and wrote to the queen for a fpeedy reinforcement : 
but before this arrived, the earl drove Owny and 
Redmond Bourke from Leix and Tipperary. 

During thefe tranfactions, the friends of Eifex in 
England caballed among the people, endeavouring cabaisof 
to raife a powerful faction in his favour. They Jjj£ earl «* 
exaggerated his good qualities, and exclaimed with 
iuch virulence againrr. the miniflry, that the queen's 
indignation was augmented, and all her fufpicion 
of the eaiTs defigns recurred. She determined there- 
fore to convince her people, that flic had not confined 
EfFex without a caufe •, and ordered him to be tried 
ih the lord keeper's houfe before the council, af- 
fifled by the four judges. He wa* there found 
guilty of divers mifdemeancurs, and fentenced to 
be removed from the council-board, fufpended 
from the offices of earl marefchal and mailer of the 
ordnance, and detained in prifon during her ma^ 
jefty's pleafure. The earl behaved oh this occa- A> c j66§ . 
lion with great humility, and the queen declaring 
her intention was not to ruin but chailife him, he 

Numb. LX F f was 


a.c. ffieu was permitted to retire to his own houfe, under the? 
cuftody of Sir Richard Berkley. He had, from his- 
ririt imprifbnment, dedicated all his time to devo- 
tion, and undergone a fevere fit of illnefs, the con- 
fequence of his chagrin •, ib that the queen's heart 
was by this time almoft mollified: He had hoped 
his lubmifiive behaviour would have entitled him ta 
a free pardon -, but finding himfelf ftill under re- 
ilriclions, and having met with a mortifying repulfe 
when he petitioned the queen for a renewal of the 
leafe by which he farmed the fweet wines, his pati- 
ence forfook him, and all his impetuofity of refem> 
ment awoke. He broke out into unguarded ex- 
• clamations againft his enemies at court, and did not 
even abftain from fevere farcafms againlt the per- 
fon of Elizabeth, faying, fhe was now grown an 
old woman, and as crooked in her mind as in her 
body. He was furrounded by fpies, who reported 
thefe expreflions to Elizabeth ; and this preemp- 
tion extinguifhed all her companion and regard. 
Such perfonal reflections fhe never forgave. She 
now lent a willing ear to the fuggeftions of fecreta- 
ry Cecil, Sir Walter Raleigh, and the reft of his 
enemies. She rejected with difdain all the petitions 
and memorials that were prefented in his behalf by 
himielf and his relations •, and ieemed bent upon- 
provoking him to fome ftep that would be produc- 
tive of his own deftruction. To the indignation of 
an incenfed fovereign, was added the rage of a 
flighted woman. EfTex was furrounded by a num- 
ber of adherents, who poiibned his mind with the 
moft fatal, counfels. The chief of thefe were Sir 
Chriftopher Blount, Sir Giles Meyrick, and Hen- 
ry CufFe. They fomented his anger, and inftigat- 
ed him to violent meafures. 

He by letters endeavoured to perfuade the king, 
of Scotland that the Englifh mirafters favoured the 
iucccflion of the Infanta of Spain, whofe pretend- 
ed right had been afTerted in a late performance \. 



and he exhorted the Scottifh king to infill upon A - c - ,fco °' 
Elizabeth's declaring him her fuccefTor. James was Camden, 
afraid of teazing Elizabeth upon fach a difagreea- 
ble fubjedt: for he had already fent ambaffadors 
to the king of Denmark, and feveral other powers 
of Germany, defiring their mediation with the 
queen towards her doing him jultice •, but they ex- 
cufed from giving her any unneceffary 
offence. Befides, he was fo much embroiled at 
home, that he would not run the rifque of incurring 
her difpleafure, at a time when he might have oc- 
cafion for her affiflance. He was at continual vari- 
ance with his clergy, who were generally four, 
gloomy pedants,, equally infpired with pride and fa- 
naticifm. They found him lukewarm to their forms 
of religion, averfe to their perfonal characters; 
and, by their influence among the populace, fub- 
jected him to divers mortifications. They even 
refufed to give public thanks to God for his mira- 
culous prefervation from the fwords of the earl 
Gowry and his brother, who had decoyed him to 
their houfe in Perth, in order to facrifice him to the 
manes of their father, who had been executed for 
treafon. James was already removed from all his 
attendants ; and, on pretence of receiving a hidden 
treafure, conveyed into a folitary apartment, where 
he found a man Handing in armour. Gowry's bro- Gowry '5 
ther Alexander, who was his conductor, having a^iSnu* 
locked the door as he entered, told the king that > meq of ~ 
he now would take vengeance on him for the mur- 
der of his father, and drawing a dagger, would 
have plunged it in his breaft, had not he been re- 
ftrained by the man in armour, who wrenched the 
dagger from his hand, declaring that he fhould 
not, while he lived, commit fo foul a deed. The 
king himfelf argued fo pathetically againft the per- 
petration of fuch an act, that Alexander was con- 
founded 5 and alluring his majefty that his life 
fhould be iafe, deiired he would remain in that 

F f 2 p 



43& H ISTORY of E N G L A N tt 

■\-. 2. j6oo. place, until he could fpeak with his brother. So- 
laying, he retired •, but foon returned, faying, 
the earl was implacable, and iwearing by God he 
mould die. He then endeavoured to tie the king's- 
hands with a garter, and James ftruggled manfully 
in his own defence. The perfon in armour, wha 
was Gowry*s fervant, inftead of afiifting. the aiTaffin, 
opened a window, towards which James pulling his 
antagonilt, cried murder! treafcn! and demanded 
alliftance. His voice being- known by fome of his 
attendants- in the ftreet, Jbhn-Ramiay, one of his 
pages, ran up the' back-ftairs, xn& entering the a- 
partment, found the king flill frruggling with Alex- 
ander Ruthven. James defiring him to ftrike the- 
traitor, he wounded him in two or three places 
with his dagger, while the man in armour retired a- 
nother way. Alexander then quitted his hold, and' 
running down ftairs, was met- by Sir Thomas Erf- 
kine, who killed him* outriglit. This gentleman, 
followed by doctor Hugfr Hereifc a phyiician, and" 
one Wilion a footman, repaired immediately to 'the' 
place where the kingremained'wkh Rarrrfey. As they 
expected an afiault from earl Gowry hhrifelf, they 
locked their fovereign- in a clofet, and prepared to 
defend the entry. Immediately they were attacked 1 - 
by the earl with a fword in 'each hand, attended by 
ieveral armed domeftics; and a fierce conflict en- 1 
iiied. The defenders of James were in danger of 
being worfted, when one of them exclaiming, 
" You have killed the king our mattery will you* 
take our lives alio ?" Gowry was fo confounded'at 
this exclamation that he fet the psints of his two- 
'^°of~ 'words to the ground, in token of a ceffation. He* 
Mo.ies. was that initant run through the body by Ramfayy 
and fell dead at his feet. His (ervanti feeing him' 
tali, betook themfelves to flight -, though not be- 
fore Sir Thomas Erikine and doctor Kereife were 
dangeroufly wounded. By this time the noblemen 
Sftd their followers had broke open the doors of the 

1 or- 


ordinary pafTage, and rufhing into the chamber ex- A '£. *>&>« 
tprefTed their joy at the iafety of the king, who fall- 
ing upon his knees, gave thanks to God for his deli- 
verance. A day of public thankfgiving being ap- 
pointed, the minifters of Edinburgh refufed to blefs 
-God for having protected his majeity, *alledging that 
•it was a fnam confpirac.y The king and council 
therefore, went in proeelfion to the market-place^ 
to countenance Lindfay biihopof <Rofs,in preaching 
a fermon fuked to the occasion. After this cere- 
mony, the king repaired to Dumfermling to vifit 
the queen, who had been juft delivered of a prince, 
chriftened by the name of Charles,, afterwards king 
of Great-Britain and Ireland. 

In the cowrie of this year, Elizabeth treated with 
the kings of France and Denmark, about the regu- 
lations of traffic, and fome difputes fubfifting be- 
tween the Englifn and Danes, touching the fifhery 
on the coaft of Norway. Commiffioners being ap- 
pointed on both fides, met at Bremen ; but they 
could not agree, and the matters were left .undeter- 
mined. At the prefling foEicitation of Henry king 
of France, the queen appointed Sir Henry Mewl, Congref* 
Sir John Herbert lecretary of ftate, Sir Thomas .J^i^* 
Edmonds, and Sir Robert Beale, her commhTioners 
to treat of a peace with thofe of Spain and the arch- 
duke Albert; and the conferences were opened in 
May at Boulogne ; but, after feveral previous ob- 
jections had been .removed, the plenipotentia- 
ries difagreed about precedence, and this difpute 
could not be decided : ib that tfae congrefs proved 
ineffectual. During thefe debates, the archduke TV srch- 
Albert advanced to the relief , of Nieuport, which ddclt^b'/ 
prince Maurice had inverted, and was defeated in prince 
a pitched battle ; the victory having been in a great Maunce * 
rneafure owing to the valour of fifteen hundred 
Englim auxiliaries commanded by Sir Francis Vere, 
who fufbained the whole fhock of the Spanifh in- 
fcntry, until the prince's horfe had routed the ca- 

F f j valrv 


a.c. i6co. va | r y 'f t ] ie enemy, and then attacked their foot in 

flank. This difafter did not at all diminifh the pride 

and inflexibility of the Spaniiri plenipotentiaries, 

wiHwood. w ^° d upended upon the fuccefs of the rebellion 

which their mafter fomented in Ireland. 
M h nt? d, s Elizabeth refolving to quell at once thofe infur- 
rrogrefs a- rections by which me had been alarmed through the 
gainft the wno Ie courle of her reign, fent over the lord Mont- 

hxih rebels. . -ijj i-L ' jic ^ r> 

joy as lord deputy, and appointed Sir Cjeorge Ca- 
rew prefident of Munfter. Sir Henry Docwra, and 
Sir Matthew Morgan landing with a considerable 
body of forces near the mouth of Lochfoyle, erec- 
ted two forts, and fortified Derry. The earl of 
Ormond being treacheroufiy furprifed at a confe- 
rence, by Owny.'O More, was detained by Tyrone, 
until he gave hodages for the payment of three 
thoufancl pounds , and engaged that he would ne- 
ver carry arms againft that chief, or any of his con- 
federates. The lord deputy marching into Uliler, 
compelled Tyrone to retire into the woods and 
faftnefies, fupplied the Engliih garrifons in thofe 
parts, and afterwards falling into Leinder, defeated 
and flew Owny O More. In the mean time, 
Ormond being releafed, reduced all the rebels of 
Leinfter. The lord deputy having received a re- 
inforcement from England, marched towards Ar- 
magh, and erected a fort which he called Mount 
Korris, the command of which he bedowed upon 
Edward Blaney, an officer of approved courage, 
experience, and fidelity. The rebels were worded  
in feveral fkirmiiries, and at length defeated near 
Carlinford : Sir Henry Docwra reduced the whole 
country in the neighbourhood of Lochfoyle, while 
Sir George Carew lowed diflentions among the re- 
bels of Munder : he drove Sugan earl of Del- 
roond out of the country, Florence Maccarty, O 
Sullivan Be are, the white knight, John and Theo- 
bald Bourke 3 with other chieftains, were intimida- 


Dmybubtjx. Earl of Essex 1601, 


ted into fubmiffion; and the peace of the whole pro- Ac - * 6o °' 
vince was eftablifhed before the end of December. r . „ 


The earl of Effex ftill continued to miniifer food ( 

for the queen's jealouiy and indignation. Finding 
James of Scotland averfe to his propofals, he took 
under his protection fome prefbyterian minifters, 
who preached at his houfe ♦, and multitudes of peo- 
ple went thither on pretence of hearing their fer- 
mons. He formed a kind of council, cornpoied 
of the -earl of Southampton, Sir Charles Danvers, 
Sir Ferdinando Gorges governor of the fort of 
Plymouth, Sir John Daveys furveyor of the ord- 
nance, and Sir John Littleton of Franckel. 
Thefe being aflembled at Drury-houfe, he pro- 
duced a lift of individuals, whom he fuppofed at- 
tached to his fortunes. It contained the names of 
a great number of noblemen, knights, and gen- 
tlemen. There they deliberated upon the mea- 
fures to be taken ♦, and refolved', that the palace 
and perfon of the queen being fecured, the ear] 
ihould throw himfelf at her feet, demanding that 
certain perfons mould be removed from her pre- 
fence, and deprived of the offices they enjoyed. 
The queen and council, alarmed at the great refort 
of people to EiTex, and fufpecling the earl's inten- 
tion, fent lecretary Herbert to require his appear- 
ance before the council, convened in the lord 
keeper's houfe. EfTex, dreading a fecond impri- 
fonment, exasfed himfelf on account of indiipofi- 
tion, and confulted his friends touching the emer- 
gency of his fituation. He was deftkuije of men, 
arms, and ammunition ♦, the guards were doubled,- 
and he was averfe to any attempt againft the palace, 
which would look like open treafon. While he 
and his confidents were in confutation, a perfon, 
probably employed by his enemies, came in as a 
merTenger from the citizens, with tenders of friend- 
ship and affiftance againft all his adverfaries. This 
intelligence was confirmed by others, who afTured 

F f 4 him 


A.c. i6ci. hi m that Sir Thomas Smith, one of the meriffs, 
would raife one thoufand men of the trained- bands 
The Ear! of for his feryice. The earl's vanity being flattered 
temptsVo by thefe infidious propofals, he refolved to enter 
raifeanin- the city next day, and, in the mean time, fent 
uidpn!" *" notice to his friends, that the lord Cobham and 
Sir Walter Raleigh lay in wait for his life. Early 
in the morning he was yifited by the earls of Rut- 
land and Southampton, the lord Sandes, Parker, 
and Monteagle, with three hundred perfons of dis- 
tinction, The doors of EfTex- houfe were immedia- 
tely locked, that none might go forth without per- 
miflion : Sir Walter Raleigh fending a meffage to 
Sir Ferdinando Gorges, this officer vifited him in 
a boat upon the river, and dilcOvered all their trans- 
actions. The lord keeper, accompanied by the 
earl of Worcefter, the lord chief juftice Popham, 
and Sir William Knolles, uncle to the earl of EfTex, 
were fent by the queen to learn the meaning of fuch 
a concourfe of people. Being admitted through 
the wicket, they found the court-yard filled with 
the populace. When the lord keeper mentioned 
the caufe of their coming, EfTex replied aloud, 
that there was a confpiracy againft his life *, and 
that his friends were afTembled for the fecurity of 
his perfon, fince nothing but his blood could fatisfy 
his enemies. The lords endeavouring to expoftu- 
late with him, were interrupted by the multitude, 
which raifed a terrible clamour, threatening them 
with inftant death. The lord keeper charged them, 
upon their allegiance, to lay down their arms, and 
following EfTex into the houfe, was, with his at- 
tendants, committed to the guard of Sir John 
Daveys, Francis Trefham, Owen Salifbury, and 
ibme mufketeers. The counfellors being thus fe- 
cured, EfTex leaving two hundred men with Mey- 
ric to defend his houfe, repaired to the city, where 
he exclaimed in the ftreets, " For the queen ! For 
M \hc queen ! My life is in danger!" hoping to en- 


gage the citizens to rife in his behalf: but they had A.dfoi. 
received orders from the mayor to keep within their 
houfes -, ib that he was not joined by one fingle per- 
ibn. Then he proceeded to the houfe of fherifr 
Smith, whom he difpatched to the lord mayor, de- 
firing he himfelf, or four aldermen, would come and 
confer with him upon the fituation of his affairs : 
but, before he received any anfwer from that quar- 
ter, the earl of Cumberland* with Sir Thomas Ge- 
rard knight-marfhal, came into the city, and pror 
claimed him and all his adherents tractors. This 
circumftance was no fooner known, than many of 
the earl's followers flunk away -, and he himfelf, in 
manifeft dejection, attempted to return to his own 
houfe, intending to make his peace with the queen, 
by means of the counlellors whom he had left in 
cuftody. Finding Ludgate guarded by Sir John 
Levifon, who denied him paffage, he afked and ob- 
tained leave for Gorges to pais, that he might re- 
leafe the counfeliors, whom he forthwith conduct- 
ed to Whitehall. The earl in returning towards 
the heart of the city, found a chain drawn a-crofs 
the ftreet, at the corner of St. Paul's, and guarded 
by armed men, who had been afTembled by the bi- 
fhop of London. In fighting his way through this 
obftruction, Henry Tracy, a young gentleman for 
whom he had a lingular affection,, loft his life ; and 
Sir Chriflopher Blount was wounded and taken. 
The earl, going down Friday-ftreet, embarjeed in 
a boat at Queenhythe, and landing at EfTex-houfe, 
began to make preparations for his defence. 

He was immediately inverted by the lord admir 
ral, at the head of feveral regiments provided with 
artillery, and, about ten at night, he, with his com- 
pany, furrendered at difcretion. He and Souths 
ampton were immediately conveyed to the archbi- 
shop's palace at Lambeth, from whence they were t0 ' t £ cnt 
next day lent to the Tower; and his friends were Tower} 
pjnfined irj other prifons. The miniftry ftill alarm- 

f " ' ?a 


A.C1601, ed the queen with affurances that the danger was 
not yet over. The citizens were obliged to keep 
double watch and ward : and captain Thomas Lea 
was executed at Tyburn, becaufe he had faid to Sir 
Robert Crofts, " Might not feven or eight honed 
" fellows as we are, throw ourfelves at her majef- 
" ty's feet, and reprefent the injury that is done to 
< c fo many brave gentlemen, who may one day do 
" her good fervice ?" This infinuation being re- 
ported by Crofts, was interpreted into a defign of 
letting EfTex at liberty : Lea was apprehended, 
convicted, and condemned. He died with great 
intrepidity, declaring himielf intirely innocent of the 
crime laid to his charge. EfTex and Southampton 
were tried by their peers on the nineteenth day of 
February ; lord Buckhurit prefiding as high ftew- 
trini, con- ard, and both were condemned as traitors. EfTex, 
€x^uted. and a ^* ter condemnation, was viiited by that iuperftitious 
devotion which took poffefiion of his mind in all his 
diigraces. He was terrified almofl into defpair by 
the ghoitly remonftrances of his own chaplain A fh- 
ton-, he was reconciled to Cecil, and the reft of his 
adveriaries, and made a full confeffion of his con- 
spiracy. On Afh-wednefday he was brought to the 
icaffold, which was erected within the Tower, and 
Suffered in prefence of the earls of Cumberland and 
Hertford, the lord vifccunt Bindon, the lord Tho- 
mas Howard, the lord Darcy, the lords Compton, 
Morely, and many other peribns of diftinction : Sir 
^Walter Raleigh retired into the armoury, from 
whence he law the execution, at which he could 
not help medding tears. EfTex appeared in a fuit 
of black fattin ; and after having made an obeifance 
to the Spectators, confefTed his fins with marks of 
uncommon lbrrow and contrition, though he pro- 
tefted that he never entertained a thought to the 
prejudice of her majefty's perlbn. His behaviour 
denoted penitence, not without a mixture of ap- 
prchenfi.on : he refigned himielf intirely to the di- 
6 reclion 


region of the divines who attended him ; and after A » c - ,6o *« 
let exercifes of devotion, iubmitted his neck to the 
executioner, who, with three ftrokes fevered his 
head from his body. Thus died, in the thirty- Camden, 
fourth year of his age, Robert Devereux earl of Ef- 
fex, once the minion of fortune, and always the 
darling of the people. He was a nobleman poffef- 
ied of excellent and amiable qualities ; brave, libe- 
ral, and humane ; a patron of learning, in which he 
himielf had made good progrefs •, a warm friend, 
and an avowed enemy. His foibles were vanity, 
ambition, and an impetuofity of temper, by which 
he fell a facrifice to the artful intrigues of thofe who RcH w 
dreaded his power, and envied his good fortune, ton. 
His accomplices Meyric and Cuffe were executed 
at Tyburn ; Sir Charles Danvers and Sir Chriflo- 
pher Blount were beheaded : Littleton, Orel, and wlnwoos3 « 
Sir Edmund Bainham were tried and condemned j 
but the firft dying in prifon, the others were par- 
doned. The earl of Southampton was detained in 
the Tower til] the acceffion of king James, by whom 
he was fet at liberty, and reftored in blood by acl 
of parliament. Elizabeth certainly looked upon 
Elfex with the eyes of particular affection, which in 
all probability was not extinguifhed at the time of 
his condemnation •, for me betrayed great agitation 
of mind, and even countermanded the order for his 
execution. But ihe was provoked by his contemp- 
tuous forbearance to implore her mercy; and being 
alarmed at his own declaring that his life would be 
dangerous to her fafety, me ordered the fentence to 
be executed. He is laid to have made application 
to her for pardon •, but his letters and meffages were 
intercepted by the earl and countefs of Nottingham, 
It does not appear, however, that ihe underwent 
any violent tranfports at the news of his death ; 
though when her indignation fubfided, me became 
penfive and melancholy, and never heard his name 
mentioned without fighing. 




a.c. i6ot. The king of Scotland, when he heard of the earl's 
AmbafTa being apprehended, had difpatched the earl of 
doN arrive Mar, and the abbot of Kinlofs, as his ambufiadors 
fan? Scot " to t ^ ie court of England ; and, by the notes with 
which they were furnifhed, we may conclude that 
he was interefted in fome project which did not take 
-effect. But the earl being executed before they 
■arrived, they pretended their errand was to congra- 
tulate her majefty upon her happy fuccefs in quel- 
ling the late audacious attempt. Elizabeth afrect- 
ed to take the compliment in good part : and was 
even prevailed upon to add two thoufand pounds a 
year to their mailer's penfion. During their resi- 
dence in England, they managed his affairs fodex- 
teroufly, that the majority of the council was won 
.over to his intereft 5 and among the reft fecretary 
Cecil, who from this period corresponded with 
James, by means of the lord Henry Howard. 
About the fame time Oflend was inveiled by the 
archduke Albert, and defended with incredible va- 
lour by Sir Francis Vere, .at the head of the Eng- 
lish garrifon. Henry IV. of France, repairing to 
£rotrus. Calais, Elizabeth fent Sir Thomas Edmonds with 
a compliment to that prince, who returned it by 
the marechals du Biron, de Lavardin, and the duke 
d'Aumont. Thefe noblemen were received at the 
court of England with great magnificence; and, 
though no part .of their negotiation tranfpired, are 
laid to have conferred with her majefty upon a 
Scheme which Henry had formed againft the houfe 
of Auftria, The parliament meeting on the twenty- 
feventh day of October, the queen gave them to 
underftand, that the wars in Flanders and Ireland 
had drained her exchequer in fpite of all her fruga- 
lity ; and they indulged her with a more consider- 
able fubfidy than had ever been granted fince her 
acceffion. In confideration of this Supply, (he iffued 
a proclamation for repealing fome monopolies of 
felt, oil. Starch, and otjrer commodities, which had 



given offence to the nation -, and the commons de- A,c - ldof * 
puted fouricore of their body to prefent their hum- 
ble thanks for this inftance of her parental regard. 
Then they pafTed an act for the relief of the poor : 
and having made fome other laws of public utility, 
were difTolved in the month of December. D'Ewc, 

The rebels in Ireland being again put in motion, 
by fupplies and promiies from the king of Spain, 
the lord deputy marched againft Tyrone, whom he 
drove from his camp under Blackwater, expelled 
the MacgenifTes from Lecale, took Dundrum, and 
feveral other caftles belonging to the rebels, fe- 
cured the abbey of Armagh with a flrong garrifon, 
advanced as far north as Dungannon, and routed' 
them in ieveral encounters. Sir Henry Docwra. 
compelled Macfwiny Fanagh to fubmit, and re- 
trieved fome caftles which had been betrayed to 
the rebels ; and Sir George Carew feizing the titu- 
lar earl of Defmond, and Florence Maccarty, fent 
them to England, where they died in prilbn. On JJ^ 
the twenty-firft day of September, a Spanim fleet troops amv$ 
entered the harbour of Kinfale, and Don John de in IreUnd * 
Aguila landing with four thoufand veterans, Sir 
Richard Piercy retreated with his men to Cork, in 
obedience to the order he had' received. The Spa- 
nim general immediately publifhed a manifefto, de- 
claring he was come to execute the pope's bull 
againft Elizabeth, and re-eftablifh the catholic re- 
ligion. Tyrone and O Donel afTembling their 
forces, refolved to join him-, but, before they could 
advance into Munfter, the lord-deputy had inverted 
the Spaniards in Kinfale -, and detached Carew to 
flop their progrefs on the frontiers : but another 
reinforcement of two thoufand Spaniards landing at 
Beerhaven and Baltimore, under the command 1 of 
Sibeure and Alonfo O Campo, were joined by O 
Donel and Tyrone, fo as to conftitute an army of 
feven thoufand horfe and foot, with which they ad- 
vanced to the relief of Kinfale. Inftead of thrown 

in g 


a.c. 1601. ing a fupply into the place, they were defeated by 
the lord-deputy, with the lofs of twelve hundred 
men killed upon the fpot ; and O Campo with three 
Spanifh officers were taken. Syriago arriving with 
feven hundred recruits at Caftlehaven, was no 
fooner informed of this defeat, than he fet fail for 
Spain, carrying O Donel with him -, and Tyrone 
retired to his taftnefles in Ulfter. Aguiia* difcou- 
raged by theie difaflers, furrendered upon honour- 
able conditions, and the lord-deputy took porTefllon 
of Kinfale. The Spaniards were conveyed to their 
own country in Englifn bottoms •, and Aguila gave 
fuch an unfavourable account of Tyrone and his 
confederates, that Philip would fend no more 
troops to Ireland, though he ftill fupplied the re- 
Camden. bels with money, arms, and ammunition. 

, „ . In the beginning of this year, an ambafTador ex- 

traordinary arriving from France, in order to regu- 
late the navigation which had been interrupted on 
both fides by depredations, the queen appointed 
commifiioners to treat upon the . lubject; and all 
differences were compromiied. The Englifh mi- 
nirler in Paris had, in the name of his miftrefs, 
made a propofal to Henry of a league offenfive and 
defenfive, in order to drive the Spaniards intirely 
out of the Low-Countries -, but the finances of the 
French king were fo difordered, and his kingdom 
ib filled with malcontents, that he could not engage 
in an enterprize of fuch importance. The arch- 
duke Albert had made fome advances towards a 
peace with Elizabeth, but me rejected them, left 
the ftates of the Netherlands mould be tempted to 
throw themfelves into the arms of France. -That 
they might be encouraged to maintain the war, fhe 
fufpended their annual payment for two years, and 
allowed them to raife feven thoufand men in Eng- 

Wwwocd. land. Frederic Spinola had undertaken to fortify 
himfelf on the IQe of Wight; and his mailer Phi- 
lip had equipped fifteen gallies, having two thou- 


fend foldiers on board for that fervicc. The queen A -C, 160*. 
being informed of his defign, fent vice-admiral 
Leviibn, and Sir William Monfon, to deftroy the , 
Spanifh fleet in the harbours of Portugal. Mon- Depredat?- 
ibn being left behind to wait for a reinforcement ons on rhe 
of Dutch mips, Levifon proceeded on his voyage, J^S u- 
and fell in with the Spanifh plate fleet from Ame- vl . fo " a " d 

. . , , t i ii'i r Sir William 

nca, which he immediately attacked without luc- Monfon. 
cefs. It was fo numerous, and ftrongly convoyed 
by galleons, that he was furrounded, and in great 
danger of being taken. He made fhift, however, 
to retire, and being joined by Monfon, failed to 
the port of Selimbria, in which he found an Eaft- 
India carrack of fifteen hundred tuns : me was 
richly laden, and guarded by eleven gallies, under 
the command of the marquis de Santa Cruz and 
Spinola. Neverthelefs, the Englifh admiral at- 
tacked her without hefitation, funk two of the gal- 
lies, compelled the reft to fheer off in a mattered 
condition, and taking poffeffion of the carrack, va- 
lued at one million two hundred thoufand crowns, 
brought her in fafety to England. Spinola having 
refitted fix of the gallies, let fail from Lifbon for 
Elanders ; but falling in with Sir Robert Manfel 
in the channel, two of them were funk, a third 
wrecked, and he efcaped with the reft to Dun- 

In the courfe of this year, a rancorous quarrel 
broke out between the jefuits and the fecular priefts 
in England, which laft accufed the others as the 
caufe of all the fevere laws which had been enacted 
againft the catholics •, becaufe they had been con- 
cerned in all the confpiracies, and even hired ai- 
faffins to murder her majefty. Bitter pamphlets 
were publifned on both fides. The fecular priefts 
were faddled with a fuperior called Blackwell, at  
tached to the jefuits, who continued to opprefs^ 
and even declared them fchifmatics - s but they ap- 
pealed to the pope, who revoked his authority. Se- 


a 4 c. 1602. cretary Cecil recommended the feculars to the pro- 
jection of the French king ; but Elizabeth ifTued a 
proclamation, commanding all the jefuits to depart 
the kingdom immediately •, and this order was ex-> 
tended to fuch feculars as would refufe to take the 
The duke de oath of allegiance. It was at this juncture that 
WeVT" Henry IV. of France ordered the marechalde Biron 
France. to be beheaded, for having confpired with other 
noblemen to difmember the French monarchy. The 
marechal de Bouillon, who was like wife concerned 
in this confpiracy, retired to Germany, from 
whence he follicited Elizabeth's interceflion with 
his mafter; and (he, by her ambaflador, hinted to 
Henry, that this might be a Spanifh ftratagem to 
infect him with fufpicions of his bed fubjects ; but 
that prince told the Englifh ambafTador, his mif- 
trefs had a better opinion of Bouillon than he de- 
ferved, inafmuch as he had actually engaged in the 
confpiracy of EfTex, againft her own perfon and 

The rebellion in Munfter being revived by a 
fupply in money from Spain, the prefident took by 
afiault Dunboy, which had been fortified by O 
Sullivan, and drove him with his confederates out 
of the province. The lord-deputy marching to 
Blackwater, erected a bridge over the river, and 
a fort, to which he gave his own name of Charle- 
jnont : Tyrone having fled to caftle Roe on the 
Ban, the whole country was wafted, and the caftle,- 
in which his molt valuable effects were fecured, fell 
into the hands of Sir Arthur Chichefter, on whom 
the lord-deputy beftowed the government of Mont- 
joy, another fort which he had juft railed at Loch- 
eaugh. O Cahan, Macguire, Rory O Donel and 
the O Rileys having iubmitted, he directed his 
route into Connaught, where he rimmed the fort of 
Ga)lway : then Sir Arthur Chichefter, and Sir Hen^ 
ry Docwra joining their forces, purfued Tyrone 
through the foftnefie* riU the approach of winter. 



By this time the native Irifh were reduced to a de- A - c «6ci. 
plorable condition. Their corn and houfes were Re^toon \h 
deftroyed, their cattle driven away ; ib that many ^tuiX 
thousands of them perifhed in the woods by cold 
and famine. They now curled Tyrone as the au- 
thor of all their miferies. His adherents dropped 
off daily, and fubmitting to the deputy, met with 
a favourable reception. Tyrone himfelf had, in 
the fpring, fent propoials of iubmiflion which the a.c. i6~ 5 . 
queen rejected with difdain, until me was importu- 
ned by Cecil, by the French ambaffaclor at his re- 
quell, and laftly by her council, to indulge him 
with fuch terms as would put an end to an ex- 
penflve rebellion, fraught with mifery and blood- 
med. At length (be consented to fign his pardon, 
which was fent to the lord Momioy, with oowers 
to grant part of the conditions he demanded. The 
neceflities of Tyrone were fo urgent, that he re- 
paired to Millefont, where, throwing himfelf at the 
deputy's fcety he fubmitted his life and eftate to 
the queen's mercy. O Rourke followed his exam- 
ple ; and the rebellion being entirely fuppreffed, 
the whole kingdom was reduced to obedience and Wars * 

The queen had pardoned him with fuch reluct- 
ance, that many people imagined her laft illnefs 
was produced from her chagrin at that event: It 
muft be owned, however, fhe had many more pow- 
erful caufes of grief and mortification. She was 
very loth to relinquifh the pleafures of life and roy- 
alty. She endeavoured to conceal the ravages 
which time had made upon her coniiitution, even 
from her own knowledge. She affected an extra- 
vagant gaiety both in her dreis and diveriions, and 
even engaged in a childifn inter courfe of love with 
the earl of Clanrickarde. a young Irifh nobleman^ 
who refembled EfTex in his peflbnal qualifications j 
but he did not meet her advances with equal 

N y 60. G g warmth* 



a. c. 1603. warmth, and for that reafon the intercourfe was 
loon laid afide. She tried to divert her attention 
from dif agreeable objects, by hunting, tournaments^ 

! rhe ] ^ uee " and parties of pleafure : but, in ipite of all her en- 
' deavours, (he was feized with the horrors of me- 
lancholy. She became peevifh, penfive, filent, 
and fighed and wept infenfibly. Perhaps the fa- 
culties of her mind were impaired by long and vio- 
lent exerciie. Perhaps rne reflected with remorfe 
upon fome actions of her life, which were contrary 
to humanity, candour, and good morals. She had 
iuft loft a friend and confident in the countefs of 
Nottingham -, fhe had been thwarted by her mini- 
ftry and council in the affair of Tyrone •, me found 
her conftitution decaying j ilie forefaw, through the 
exaggerating mift of jealoufy, her courtiers and' 
dependants, fhrinking away in the evening of her 
life, in order to recommend themielves to her fuc- 
ceffor y and her indignation againft the unfortunate 
Effex having fubfided, fhe lamented his fate, re- 
membring nothing of him but the amiable fide of 
his character, and the pleafure fhe had enjoyed in 
his converfation. Such a concurrence of caufes,. 
pined to the infirmities of her body, was more than 
iufficient to plunge her into an abyfs of defpon- 
dence. She loft her appetite, and could enjoy no re- 
pofe : feeling a perpetual heat in her ftomach, at- 
tended with an unquenchable thirft, flie drank with- 
out ceafmg, but refufed the afllftance of her phy- 
ficians. When the archbifhop of Canterbury, fe- 
cretary Cecil, and others of her council, in treated 
her on their knees to take what was neceffary for 
her iuftenanee and relief, fhe peeviihly replied, that 
fhe knew her own conftitution, and was in no dan- 
ger.. At length, teized by their intreaties, me de- 
iired that they would let her die in quiet. Her 
melancholy and diftemper gaining ground, Cecil 
and the lord-admiral, deiired to know her feniiments 



with regard to the fucceffion •, and flue laid, as the vc - ,6o 3. 
crown of England had been always held 15 y kings, 
it ought not to devolve upon rafcals, but upon her 
immediate heir the king of Scotland. Having 
continued fitting upon cuihions for ten days, with- 
out clofing an eye or uttering a fy liable, Hie was 
put to bed partly by force, and ieemed to revive a 
little : me heard ibme pious meditations, and 
joined in prayer with the archbifhop of Can- 

After me was deprived of her fpeecH, the noble- 
men of her council defired me would give fome 
token of her approving the Scottiih monarch as her 
fuccefibr* and Hie laid her hand upon her head as 
a mark of her approbation. On the twenty-fourth t> queen's 
day of March, about two o'clock in the morning, dcath - 
me expired, in the feventieth year of her age, 
and in the forty-fifth of her reign. She had given 
orders that her corpie mould not be touched or - 
ihen by any perfon but her own women : it was 
therefore not expofed to public view, but being 
conveyed from Richmond where me died, to 
Whitehall, was interred in the chapel of Henry 
VII. at Weitminiter, with great magnificence. 
Elizabeth, in her perfon, was mafculine, tall, - Icr c harac- 
ftraight, and flxong limbed, with an high round ter - 
forehead, brown eyes, fair complexion, line white 
teeth, and yellow hair. She danced with great 
agility; her voice was ftrong and (brill;, me un- 
derftood mufic, and played upon feveral inftru- 
ments. She porTerled an excellent memory, un- 
derftood the dead and living languages, had made 

good proficiency in the fciences, and was well 
read in hiftcry. Her conversation was fprightly 
and agreeable, her judgment folid, her apprehen- 
fion acute, her application indefatigable, and her 
courage invincible. She was the great bulwark of 
the proteflant religion : me was highly ccmmend- 

G g 2 able 


a.c. 1603. a ble for her general regard to the impartial adminif- 
tration of juftice •, and even for her rigid ceconomy,, 
which faved the public money, and evinced that love 
for her people, which me fo warmly profefTed: yet 
, flie deviated from juftice in fome inftances when her 
intereft or paffions were concerned ; and notwi th- 
ing all her great qualities, we cannot deny that fhe 
was vain, proud, imperious, and in fome cafes 
cruel : her predominant paffions were jealoufy and 
avarice •, though Die was alio iiibjecttofuch violent 
gulls of anger as overwhelmed all regard to 
the dignity of her flation, and even hurried her 
beyond the bounds ot common decency. She 
was wife and fteady in her principles of govern- 
ment •, and, above all princes, fortunate in a mi- 
niftry *. 


* Her vanity appeared in her love whether fhe or hi? miftrefs was the bet- 

of flattery, which (he greedily fwal- ter mufician. In order to difp lay her 

lowed even when it was fulfome and learning, fhe fpoke to him in the 

abfurd ; and in the variety and rich- French, High-Dutch, and Italian lan- 

nels of her apparel, which fhe con- guages j and detained him two day, 

tinued to wear even in her old age. Her until he fhould fee her dance a fara- 

bdiaviour to Sir James Me! vil whenhe brand. 

came as ambaffadcr from Mary queen: Her cruelty and jealoufy were too 

61 Scots, was alt- gather childifh. Un- confpicuous in the fate of the duke ©f 

derflanding that he had been a travel- Norfolk and Mary queen of Scots. Of 

ler, fhe fhifted h=rdrefs every day, that avarice and parfimony fhe exhibited 

he. might tell her which kind of habit numberlefs proofs, in extorting pre- 

became her ben*. She afked whether fents from noblemen, on pretence of 

fl»e or his queen was the fairer, the vifiting them at their houfes: in allow - 

taller, and the better dancer j and i n g ner am bafTadors in foreign c:>un- 

when he faid that Mary was taller than tries to live at their own' expence, nh- 

h'r highnefs, fhe anfwercd, that thtn til feme of them were ruined j and in 

Mary was too high, for fhe herfelf carrying en the war againft Spain at the 

was neither too high nor toolow. Shz charge of private adventurers. When 

direcled the lord Hun r don to conduct me died, befides a vaft quantity of 

Melvil, as if by accident, into a gallery, plate and jewels, fheleft three thoufahd 

where he fhculci hear her play upon rohef, none of which fhe had the libe- 

the virg : nals. He guefTed the contri- rality to diftr;bute among her fervants. 

vance, and without leave entered her She raifed one hundred thoufand crowns 

apartment. Thrn fhe ddn'ed-io kno> yearly, by granting licences to Roman 

[ 453 3 

Of the CHURCH. 

Hiftory of the Englifh Church, from the Union 
of the two Roles to the Union of the two 

ARchbifhop Bourchier, who crowned Henry 
VII. dying ibon after that ceremony, was 
fucceeded by Morton bifhop of Ely, who had been 
fo inftrumental in raifing Henry to the throne. One 
of this prince's maxims was to live well with the 
clergy : and therefore we find no disturbance in 
the Englifh church during his whole reign •, nor 
any eccleiiaflical ftep of importance, except a regu- 
lation of fancluaries, which the king obtained from 
the pope, who, by way of recompenfing himfelf 
for this favour, fent Jafper Pons as his agent to 
collect money from the Englifh people for dif- 
peniations from going to the jubilee. We have, 
in the courie of the hiftory, mentioned this pontiff's 
fcheme againfc the Turks, in which he invited 
Henry to engage. His iuccefTor Julian II. wrote 

cafholirs and non-conform'/U, exempt- revile foreign ambafTadorsinthe proflefl 
ing them from the penalty inflicted by terms j to infult her ministers and fub- 
law upon thofe who did not regularly je£ls in the mofr abufive language, and 
attend divine worfhip. She exacted e- even to chaftife her ff male attendants 
very new-year's day above fixty thou- with her own hand. On fuch occafi- 
fand crowns in gilts from her dcprn- on-, /he ufed to utter oaths and impre- 
dants. She entertained (pies in all the cations in the mof! vulgar icile j and 
houfes of th" nobility, encouraged in- the ladies of her court did not Ample to 
former?, introduced the ufc of tortures, follow her example. Ker great art 
enacted a L'reat number of penal laws} confifted in cajoling her parliament and 
and by the terror of her fuipicion, people with the mofr flattering caref- 
which was generally fatal to the object ft', the fincerity cf which they could 
drove mny g-ntk-men into exile, th.'t not doubt, when they found them- 
■fhe might piofccutc them to confjfca felves rich and happy under her addi- 
tion, and enjoy the : r eftates. Her cho- niftration 
leric difpofitlon prompted her often to Winwpod. Melvil. Ofborne. Carte. 

G g 3 to 


to him on the lame fubje£U and he am-ufed both with 
Bacftn. general vpromifes which he had no intention to per- 
form. 1 he -affairs of the church are lb interwoven 
with the civil hiiiory of Henry VIII. in whofe 
reign the reformation began, that the chief eccle- 
.fiaftical events are there recorded; and indeed there 
was no room to treat of the Englifh church apart, 
Henryvm. a fter it had renounced the papal fupremacy. During 
" -cSon the firft eighteen years of this prince's reign, he 
ze;»i tor rhe a £t/ e d in fpiritual matters as an humble dependant 
^f crs * of the Roman pontiff. He exercifed his pen in 
defence of the papal authority : he fent deputies to 
the council of the Lateran, which had been con- 
voked in oppofition to that of Piia. He called in 
all the books of Luther, from whole doctrine two 
and forty articles were collected, and condemned by 
virtue of a commiffion which Wolfey iffued as le- 
gate in England : Henry likewiie granted a privi- 
lege for printing Fimer's book againft the German 
reformers *, and, upon all occafions, manifefted un- 
common zeal for the catholic religion. The car- 
dinal being veiled with his legatine power, ex- 
prefTed uncommon animofity againft thole who pro- 
le {fed the new doctrine. Six men and one woman 
were condemned to the flames at Coventry, for 
having taught their children to repeat the Lord a s 
prayer, the ten commandments, and the apoftles 
creed, in the vulgar tongue. Severities of the 
ime nature were practiied in different parts of the 
kingdom, where the reformation began to gain 
^ound. This, however, was the only practice in 
vkich the cardinal and the clergy could agree. He 
n flurried a power cf calling convocations, and lay- 
-ing them under contribution-, and, when they 
.complained of theie encroachments, he threatened 
them with a geneta! vifitation. He was fupported 
in thefe arbitrary proceedings by the king, who 
reaped the fruits of his exaction, and began to hold 

the perions of the clergy in contempt, on account 


Of the CHURCH. 455 

of their ignorance and profligacy. Neverfhelefs, 
he flill retained his attachment to the old religion. 
When Luther, at the defireof his patron the elector 
of Saxony, wrote a letter to the king of England, 
excufing the acrimony and abufe with which he 
had treated him in his writings, Henry in his an- 
iwer, retorted the other's virulence, in farcafms 
upon his doctrine, and refufcd to forgive him on 
.any other terms than thole of his retracting his er- 
rors, renouncing his wife, and retiring from the 
world, to pafs the remainder of his days in pen- 
ance and mortification. It appears from a let;er of 
cardinal Wolfey to the bifhop of Winchefter, that - 
the flrft had formed a plan for a reformation of the 
clergy •, and pope Adrian himfelf was fo well dif- 
pofed in this particular, that the German princes 
were encouraged to prefent him with the grievances 
of the church, cligeftcd into an hundred articles, 
containing an account of the luxury, prophanity, 
avarice, fuperilition, and pride of ecclefiaftics : 
but the good effects of the pope's moderation Were 
prevented by the cabals and intrigues of his clergy, 
and, in England, Henry flill continued to prole- stmu 
cute the Lutherans. 

After the fall of Wolfey, we have feen, in the 
civil hiftory, the demands of Henry upon his 
clergy; and in what manner they fubfcribed to the 
articles in which they owned his fupremacy. Cran- 
mer being appointed archbifhop of Canterbury, 
the king deliberated with him about the fuppreffion 
of monaileries ; and k was refolved, that this 
fbould be preceded by a vifitation, which in all pro- 
bability would reconcile the pecple to the fcheme, 
by bringing to light the vices and impoftnre prac- 
tiled in religious houfes. Cromwell was created 
vicar-general, with iuch powers as abfolutely iuf- 
pended all epifcopal juriidiction : and this power 
he delegated to his deputies, enabling them to 
confirm or annul the election of prelates, to fuf • 

Gg 4 pend 


pend or deprive them j to convene fynods, try ec~ 
clefiaiiaftical caufes, pafs ceniures, and grant pen- 
fions to fuch monks as might be willing to quit a, 
monaitic life. Their inftruccions were extremely 
minute touching their inquiry into the doctrines, 
morals, and behaviour of abbots and abberTes, nuns, 
and friars - 3 and they followed them, with the utmoft 
rigour, difclofing fuch fcenes of vice, obfcenity, 
and impoflure, as expofed them to the cleteftation 
of all thofe who retained the leaft regard for de- 

a. c. 1535, C ency and good order. After three hundred and 
feventy-fix abbies had been fupprefled, when a mo- 
tion was made in convocation for tranflating the 
Bible into the Engiifn language, Gardiner and the 
popiili bifnops oppofed it v/ith all their power, 
till Henry himielf ordered that the tranflation 
mould be begun -, and it was afterwards printed at 
Paris. In the mean time, an Engliih book, called 
the King's Primer, was publifhed, containing the 
doctrines of chriftianity, let forth in a plain, fami- 
liar manner, and expofing the fuperitUions of the 
Romifh clergy. 

£.0.15.6. A convocation being held, to confirm the fen- 
tence againft the king's late marriage, the lower 
houfe prefented the upper houfe with fifty- nine opi- 
nions meriting reformation, extracted from the 
fermons and writings of Cranmer and the proteflant 

Articles party. After a long debate, they eilabliihed a let 

religion of articles concerning religion, ordaining bifhops 

theconvo- 1 " t0 "$***& tne P eo pl e m tne Bible and the Creed, 
cation and to condemn all doctrines that were declared 


heretical by the rirft four councils of the church ; 
namely, thofe of Nice, Conftantinople, Ephefus, 
and Calcedon : acknowledging baptifm to be a 
divine inftitution, and condemning the doctrines of 
the Anabaptifts and Pelagians on that fubject : li- 
miting penance to the articles of contrition, con- 
femon, and amendment of life, as necerTary to fal- 
vation •, and declaring absolution pronounced by 

7 the 

Of the CHURCH. 457 

the prieit to be as effectual, as if by God himfelf : 
confirming the doctrine of tranfubftantiation \ and 
defining j unification to be a perfect renewal in 
Chrift, the fruit of the chriftian virtues operating 
both outwardly and inwardly ; and recommending 
images in churches as helps to devotion : exhort- 
ing the people to honour the faints as perfons in 
glory j to praife God for them, and imitate their 
virtues •, and to follicit their interceffion at the 
throne of grace : to retain certain iymbols, as con- 
taining myftical fignifications, and ferving to lift 
up the mind to God : fuch as the prieft's veftments, 
the ceremony of iprinkling holy water, to remind 
us of our baptiim and the blood of Chrift ; of giv- 
ing holy bread in fign of our union with Chrift, and 
in remembrance of the facrament ; of carrying 
candles on Candlemas-day, alluding to Chrift as 
the fpiritual light \ giving afhes on Afh-Wednef- 
day, in token of penance and mortality •, bearing 
palms en Palm-Sunday, thereby mewing a defire 
to receive Chrift in our hearts as he entered into 
Jerufalem ; creeping to the crofs, killing it, and 
letting up the fepulchre on Good-Friday, in token 
of humility, and in remembrance of his death ; of 
hallowing the font, together with exorciims and 
benedictions ; recommending prayers for departed 
fouls as good and charitable : but, as the fcripture 
did notafcertain the pains they fufTe red, or the; 
place in which they were confined, the people were en- 
joined to remit them wholly to God's mercy, and to 
rejeel the notion of their being delivered from pur- 
gatory by the pope's pardons ; by maiTes laid in and bIia- 
particular places, or before certain images. Thefe ed. 
articles were publifhed with a preface by Henry 
himfelf ; and the emperor made them the bafis of 
the famous Interim which he granted in favour of 
the German proterlants. 

The pope having fummoned Henry to his coun- 
cil at Mantua, the king protefted againft the lega- • 



lity and proceedings of this affembly, and was fe • 
conded by the convocation of Canterbury. Hither- 
to he had acted under the fanction of this authority ; 
but now Cromwell, as his vicar, independent of 
all reftriction, publifhed a let of instructions to the 
clergy, inforcing the late articles, and recommend- 
ing order and difciplinc among the people. Thefe 
were followed by a new vifitation and difTolution of 
the greater monafteries. Some infamous methods 
were practifed to perfuade and intimidate the ab- 
bots and monks into a furrender of their houfes and 
Henry T s Jrt- charters. Henry was refolved to be abfolute both 
i&reiigiea! m church and ftate : he had formed a religion of 
his own, and perfecuted equally the papifts and 
proteflants, who refilled to conform with his opi- 
nions, notwithltanding the remonstrances of Me- 
lancthon, who by letters exhorted him to a greater 
confiftency in his doctrines and conduct. There 
was not one perfon in his dominions who durft 
openly difTent from his fyftem, except Cranmer 
archbifhop of Canterbury ; and we have already 
obierved, in the civil hiftory, that this prelate was 
fcreened from deftruction by the perlbnal affection 
of Henry. 

After the fall of Cromwell, the archbifhop was 
obliged to proceed with great caution, and re- 
folved to befriend the proteflants, by gradually 
lapping the foundations of the Romifli religion. 
He called a convocation in London, to confult 
upon means for putting a flop to the perfecution, 
and reforming the clergy \ he recommended a re- 
vision of the laws and canons enacted again ft 
fimony, perjury, blafphemy, and other crimes, 
and propofed a tranflation of the Bible, which was 
actually printed by Grafton, and publifhed by the 
king's authority. He likewife, with the king's: 
permiffion, decreed that the ufe of tapers, filk ha- 
bits, and other ornaments of images, mould be 
aboiifhed - 3 that a chapter of the New Teftament 


Of the CHURCH, 459 

fhouM be read in every parifh, morning and even- 
ing ; that the mhTals, and other books of liturgy, 
mould be examined, corrected, and caftigated of 
all feigned legends, fuperflitious orifons, collects, 
verficles, refponfes, and names of faints, not men- 
tioned in the fcripture. The king afterwards 
granted a commiffion to afelect number of the con- 
vocation, to draw up a declaration of the chriilian 
doctrine, for the neceiTary erudition of a chriftian 

r. 1 • r '1111- Declaration 

man. inis performance contained the declaration ©fdodivine 
of faith, the creed, the feven facraments, the ten j° r .^ e c ' a_ 
commandments, the Lord's prayer, the Ave-Ma- chrrftb* 
ria ; an article of free-will ; an article of juitirica- waUm 
tion ; an article of good works, and another of 
prayer for departed fouls. 

Notwithstanding thefe points which Cranmer 
gained in favour of the reformed religion, in op- 
pofition to Gardiner, Bonner, and other Romifh 
prelates, the doctrine of tranfubftantiation ftill re- 
mained in full force, under the protection of the 
king himfelf, who was fo bigotted to this article of 
belief, that many perfons were brought to the 
flake for diibelieving the real prefence in the Eu- 
charifh We have feen what fnares were laid for 
the deftruction of Crarfmer ; and that they not only 
mifcarried, but even ferved to confirm Henry's 
confidence in that prelate's innocence and integrity. 
The king was fo much convinced of the purity of 
his intention, that he did not take umbrage at the 
archbiihop's making a motion in the houfe of lords 
for moderating the proceedings upon the act of 
the fix articles, which had been the foundation of 
a moil cruel perfecution. Though Cranmer was 
on this occafiqn uniupported by the other prelates, 
he argued with fuch itrength of reaibn, that the 
houfe agreed to the act of mitigation. In the fame Pw ji e * ** 
parliament he propofed a digeil of the ecclerlafucalanddigeft e a S 
laws; and an act palled^ authorifmg the king to th 
nominate fixteen ecclefiaitics, and as many laymen, 


tlis can y-iis. 


for reviewing the canons. Cranmer actually fini fri- 
ed the draught of a code, intitled Reformatio le- 
gum ecclefiafticarum, which he prefented to the 
king at Hampton-court •, and letters patent were 
Bumet. drawn up for authorifing this digeft. Nay, Henry 
about this time feemed bent upon a further refor- 
mation. In a letter to the archbifhop, he forbade 
the practice of creeping to the crofs, and of feveral 
other fuperilitious ceremonies of popery : but his 
intention was partly frustrated by the remonflrances 
of Gardiner, who, in a letter to him from the im- 
perial court, where he refided, gave him to under- 
hand, that if any further innovations mould be 
made in the religion of England, the emperor 
would never confent to a pacification. This was 
the true reafon for dropping the fcheme of the di- 
geft, in which Cranmer had made fuch consider- 
able progrefs. Nevertheleis, Cranmer, in obe- 
dience to Henry's commands, tranflated the li- 
turgy, and fome procefTions, into the Englifh lan- 

1 owards the latter end of his reign, he became 
more and more arbitrary, both in fpirituals and 
temporals. The archbiihops of Canterbury and 
York, Bonner of London, and feveral other pre- 
lates, were fain to make conveyances in his favour, 
of many manours belonging to their different dio- 
cefes, upon very flight considerations -, and thefe 
deeds were confirmed by parliament, which had al- 
ready beflowed upon him all the colleges, frerchapels, 
a. g. 1546 and other remaining religious endowments. In the 
Propooi for j a ft V€ar f n * ls reign, the French king fent over 

tfcemafsln Annibauk his admiral, with a propoial for abojifh- 
Fianceand j n g tne m2 f s j n ^^ kingdoms ^ and Henry relihV 

ed the fcheme \o well, that he ordered Cranmer to 
draw up the form of a communion, to be fub- 
ftituted in the room of it •, but his death prevented 
it from being put in execution. 


Of the C H U- R C H. 461 

When Edward fucceeded to the throne, th* 
archbifbop exerted all his influence to complete the 
reformation. The king had been inftrucled by 
tutors, who were attached to the proteftant doc- 
trines ; and the proteclor openly favoured that re- 
ligion. Cranmer was afiifted by Barlow, bifhopof 
St. Davids, Ridley afterwards bifliop of London, 
and feveral other able preachers, who, by their 
zeal and elocution, contributed to the fuccefs of 
his endeavours. Gardiner perceiving, from the 
complexion of the miniflry, and the inclinations of 
the people, that he mould be of very little fervice^ 
to the caufe of popery, by openly oppofing the 
tenets of the reformation, endeavoured to check 
the progreis of them, by reprefenting to the pro- 
tector, that ail innovations during a minority 
would produce confuiion and difturbance in the 
date •, and propofing that matters of religion mould 
continue as they were left at the death of Henry, 
until the reigning king Ihould take the manage- 
ment of affairs into his own hands. Very little re- 
gard was paid to his infinuations. A book written 
againfl the corruptions of popery, and pubiifhed 
by Herman archbiihop- elector of Cologne, was 
now tranflated into the Englifh language, and 
printed in London by the direction of Cranmer. 
This performance made a ftrong imprefTion up^ 
on the minds of the people, which were further 
enlightened by Marcart's declaration of the mals, 
and the paraphrafe of Eralmus on the New Tes- 
tament, which were carefully tranflated and pub- 
liflied for the general ufe of the nation. Glafier, 
in a fermon at St. Paul's church, affirmed, that 
the inilitution of Lent was no more than a pofl- 
tive law ; and others preached againit other parts 
of the popifli worfhip : bur, thele were virulently 
oppofed by the inferior clergy, who derived their 
fubiiftence from the fees thev received bv the la- 
crarrients, and other facramentals, and chiefly by 



finging mattes for the departed fouls of the poor * 

Orpofiton f or which they charged two-pence a mals. Thefe 

formed doc- therefore were enemies to the reformation, which 

tofccs; would have deprived them of bread; and they 

were fupported by Gardiner, Bonner, and Ton- 

ftal, who declared againfl all alteration in religion : 

but, the chief of the party was the princefs Mary, 

who now openly efpoufed the regulations of her 

father, and in particular the act of the fix articles. 

On the other hand, the props of the reformation 
were ntft, the young king himfelf, who had been 
carefully educated in protefrant principles by Dr. 
Cox, and Mr. Chiek, the protector, the archbifhops 
of Canterbury and York, Holbeach bifhop of 
London, Goodrich of Ely, and Ridley elect of 
Rochefter. Old Latimer was now releafed, but 
refilling to refume his epifcopal function, lived 
Agenfrai privately with Cranmer. This prelate and his 
^er'Eng- friends obtained letters patent for a vifitation over 
land. England, during which all bifhops were prohibited 
from preaching in anyplace but in their own cathe- 
drals •, and other ecclefiaftics were reflricted to 
their collegiate or parochial churches, unleis pro- 
vided with the king's fpecial licence. The kingdom 
w r as divided into fix feparate diilricts or circuits \ 
and the vifitors for each confuted of two gentle- 
men, a civilian, a divine, and a regifler. They 
were furnifhed with injunctions, articles, and ho- 
milies, drawn up for the inftruction of the people •, 
and they were accompanied by the moil eminent 
preachers, to explain the moit ufeful articles of 
religion. The common people confidered the 
priefts as fo many mountebanks, who had fecrets 
for the falvation of their fouls, and thought nothing 
was neceffary but to leave their fpiritual concerns 
to the (kill and direction of fuch empirics. Some 
preachers had run into the other extreme, and 
perfuaded their hearers, that if they magnified 
Chriii, and depended wholly upon his merits and 

b' inter- 

Of the CHURCH. 463 

interceffion, they could not perifh, even though 
they fhould lead the moil profligate lives. In the 
homilies thefe errors were rectified. They afcribed 
the falvation of mankind to the death and fufferings 
of Chrifl : but they declared there was no falva- 
tion through Chrifl, but to fuch as truly repented, 
and lived according to the rules of the gofpeL 
The articles and injunctions related to the renun- 
ciation of the papal power, the acknowledgment 
of the king's iupremacy, preaching and teaching 
the elements of religion in the vulgar tongue, 
taxing the benefices of the clergy for the fupport 
of the poor, the maintenance of fcholars and man - 
fion-houfes, regulating the lives of churchmen, 
and abolifhing fuperftition, pilgrimages, images, 
and other abiurdities of the popiiri religion. In a 
word, the iriflru6lions and injunctions contained 
excellent rules for the reformation of the clergy, 
as well as of the ignorant laity, and for the ad- 
vancement of true piety and good morals. Never- 
thelefs, they met with great oppofition. Bonner 
received them with a proteflation, that he would 
obferve them, if they were not contrary to God's 
law, and the ordinances of the church. Sir An- 
thony Cook, and the other vifitors, complaining 
of this proteft to the council, he was ordered to ap- 
pear ♦, and though he made a full fubmiflion, was 
committed to the Fleet-prifon. The council be- 
ing informed of Gardiner's attention to reject the 
homilies fummonedhim to the board, and expos- 
tulated with him upon the fubject. He affirmed 
that the homilies contained manifefl contradictions, 
and excluded charity from j unification •, he offered 
to difpute upon this fubject at Oxford, againft any 
opponent whatfoever : and he exclaimed againft 
the paraphrafe of Erafmus, which he faid was bad 
enough in the original, but much worfe in the 
Engliih tranflation. Notwithstanding all his argu- 
ments, he was iikewife fent to the Fleet, from 


in convcca' 


Burnet. whence he wrote a letter in his own vindication to 
the protector, when this nobleman returned in 
triumph from Scotland : but he was not releafed 
till after the feflion of parliament, when he was fee 
at liberty by an act of pardon. 

a. c. 1547. Q n j-^g fif cn d a y f November, the convocation 

met, and Taylor dean of Lincoln was chofen pro- 
locutor. Cranmef opened the aCembly with a 
tion. fpeech, in which he prefTed the members to a fur- 

ther reformation, that the remains of popery might 
be entirely laid afide. The lower houie prefented 
four petitions to the upper houfe, praying that the 
ecclefiaftical laws might be reviewed and publifhed 
purfuant to a ftatute enacted in the. late reign, 
that the clergy of the lower houfe might be admit- 
ed to fit in parliament with the commons, accord- 
ing to ancient ufage. That the corrections made 
by the bifhops and others in the office of divine 
fervice, by order of the convocation, might be laid 
before the houie •, and that the rigour of the fta- 
tute for the payment of firft fruits might be 
mitigated. The attendance of the lower clergy in 
parliament had been two hundred years in difufe ; 
and therefore no regard was paid to this petition^ 
It was refolved, however, that fome bifhops and 
divines fhould be appointed to labour for the refor- 
mation of the church fervi< e. In this convocation, 
a motion was made for annulling all canons, laws, 
and ufages again ft the marriage of priefts, and like- 
wife all vows of celibacy ; and a refolution taken 
to adminifter the communion in both kinds: this 
was immediately confirmed by act of parliament. 

At the fame time the privy- council publifhed a 
proclamation, indemnifying all thofe who had 0- 
mitted bearing candles on Candlemas day, taking 
afhes on Afh-Wednefday, creeping to the crofs, 
carrying palms, and other ceremonies of fuperfti- 
tion. They likewife directed a mandate to the 
archbimop of Canterbury, for a general fuppreHion 


Of the CHURCH. 4^5 

of images % and this order was rigoroufly put in ex- 
ecution, though not without a dangerous opposi- 
tion Cranmer's next care was to form a commit- 
tee for reforming the offices of the church. It was The new li- 
compofed of eminent prelates, and doctors in divi- *™%y « e- 
nity, who proceeded with equal accuracy and cir- 
cumfpection. A form being drawn up for the 
communion in both kinds, was published by the 
king's proclamation, and the books diftributed 
through all the parifhes of England. The new 
book of Common-prayer, and the other offices 
compofed by the committee, were extremely difa- 
greeable to Gardiner, who exerted all his eloquence 
and influence in exciting the people to reject fuch 
innovations \ he preached openly againft ths pro- 
ceedings of the government, and employed all his 
emiffaries to bring their injunctions into contempt 
with the multitude. Accordingly feveral danger- 
ous commotions were raifed; and the Lollard mob 
being the ftronger, became very infolent and li- 
centious, until they were fupprelTed by the care 
and vigilance of the administration. Gardiner was 
feveral times fummoned before the council, and 
reprimanded for the liberties he had taken in de- 
fending popery ; at length he flatly told the pro- 
tector, that as a biibop, he could not be anfwera- 
ble to his own confcience, for omitting to preach 
upon th(t mafs and the euchariil, which he con- 
ceived to be the principal points of the Chriflian Gardiner ia 

... tt i r -j ^ committed - 

religion. He was therefore committed to the. tot h e 
Tower, and all his papers were fecured. Tower. 

The new liturgy being eftabliffced, and the act a. 0.1549, 
of uniformity palled, another vifitation was fet on 
foot. The inductions given to the vifitors im- 
ported, That in alt parifh churches the fervica 
fhouJd be read in a plain audible voice, as the 
people did not underftand it while the priefts re- 
tained the tone they ufed in reading Latin pray- 
ers : That fome of the old rites mould be abolifh- 
ed, fuch as the prieft's killing the altar, the prac- 

N°. 60. H h tice 


tice of cro fling, lifting the bock from one place 
to another, breathing on the bread, and fhewing 
it before the diftribution, praying by beads,' and 
fubftituting a certain number of Ave-Marias for one 
Pater- nofler. That the priefte fhould exhort the peo- 
ple to remember the box of the poor ; and that cu- 
rates fhould preach and catechife at lead once in fix 
weeks : That the communion fhould not be fold 
in trentals ; and that there fhould be but one com- 
munion in one church, except on Eafter-day and 
Chriftmas, when people came to the facrament in 
greater numbers; and that no markets fhould be 
held, or bargains made in churches or church- 
yards, efpecially in time of divine fervice or fer- 
mon. Cranmer, at the fame time, held a provin- 
cial vifltation, in which the articles were drawn ac- 
cording to the king's injunction. The council 
fent orders to the bifhop of London, to forbid 
fpecial mafles in St. Paul's church ; and to take 
care that there mould be only one communion at 
the great altar. Bonner immediately complied 

Bumet. with this order, and the new fervice was univer- 
faliy received, except by the princefs Mary, whofe 

f °^J lce# chaplains ftill continued to fay mafs in her own 
family, notwithftanding the exhortations, and even 
threats of the council. 

In the courfe of this year public difputations were 
held at Oxford and Cambridge, touching the real 
pretence in the facrament. The Lutherans affirmed, 
that in the facrament there was both the fubftance of 
the bread and wine, and Chrift's body together. The 
proteftants of Swifferland taught, That the facrament 
was only an inftitution, to commemorate the death 
and fufTerings of Chrift. Martin Bucer believed in 
the real prelence, though he did not think the my- 
llery was to be explained ; and Calvin agreed 
with him in maintaining, that the body and blood 
of Chrift were really prefent. Peter Martyr, fettled 
at Oxford, publickiy explained the Eucharift. in 
She Helvetian manner, and a tumult was raifed on 


Of the C H U R C H. 46J 

the occafion. Public ciifputations were afterwards 
held in prefence of the king's commiilioners. 
Cranmer collected and publifhed all the reaibns 
againft the doctrine of tranfubflantiation, and was 
anfwered by Gardiner, under the name of Marcus 

*-^ n t 1 • ii 'i Sects ofana- 

Conitantius. It was at this time, that the council baptifband 
ordered the laws to be put in execution againft, a- g°fpeii*»« 
nabaptifls, and other heretics, who began to abound 
in England, and broach doctrines equally abfurd 
and blafphemous. Of thefe we have already men- 
tioned Joan Bocher, or Joan of Kent, whefe death- 
warrant the young king figned with the utmoft re- 
luctance. There was another feet called Gofpellers> 
who profefTed the doctrine of predeftination, from 
which they made fuch inferences, that many peo- 
ple gave way to their paOions, under the notion of 
their being predeftinated to fuch -actions ; fo that 
impiety, and even defperation, was often the con- 
fequence of fuch a beJief. Luther altered his opi- 
nion concerning this tenet, and Melancthon con- 
demned it in his writings : but it was iliil main* 
tained by Calvin and Bucer. 

We have, in the civil hiftory, feen how Gardi- 
ner was deprived, and the protector difgraced. 
Upon the fall of this nobleman, the hopes of the 
papiits began to revive ; they even gave out that 
the old religion would prevail, as the new fervice 
Was nothing more than an act of the duke of So- 
merfct. The council being apprifed of this report, implehienM 
wrote to all the bifhops of England, requiring all o£fuperftu 
clergymen to deliver up all antiphonales, mifials, puffed?" 
grayles, procefficnals, manuals, legends, pies, por- 
tuaffes, journals, and ordinals, to fuch as fhould 
be appointed by the king to receive them • injoin- 
ing the bifhops to obferve one uniform order, in 
the fervice fet forth by the common confent of the 
realm : and in particular, to take care that there 
fhould be provifion made of bread and wine for 
the communion on Sunday. At the fame time, an a,c 15:9, 

Hh 2 act 


act pafled in parliament, decreeing, That all books 
of fuperftition mould be deftroyed ; that all images 
in churches mould be defaced ; and that the pray- 
ers to faints mould be expunged from all the pri- 
mers which the late king had publifhed. 

Ridley's elevation to the fee of London, and 
Hooper's promotion to that of Gloucefter, were 
events that operated ftrongly in favour of the re- 
SfeTto' 6 " formation. Yet this lad refufed to wear the epif- 
wearthe copal veftments, which he faid were human inven- 
YdtSl. P on *9 anc * not fuitable to the simplicity of the 
chriftian religion. In vain Cranmer and Ridley 
exhorted him to comply with this ceremony, as a 
law injoined by the magiftrate, and a matter of 
little or no confequence in religion. In vain did 
Bucer and Peter Martyr fecond the opinion of thofe 
prelates : Hooper continued obftinate, and was 
for fome time fufpended from preaching. In the 
courfe of this fummer, John-a-Lafco was allowed 
to preach at St. Auftin's in London, to a congre- 
gation of Germans, who had fled from their own 
country, rather than receive the interim of the diet. 
They were erected into a corporatipn, and four other 
minifters were affociated with John-a-Lafco, tho' 
he was fuperintendant. At this juncture, Polydore 
Vergil was permitted to retire to his own country, 
and to hold'the archdeaconry of Wells, with his pre- 
bend of Nonnington, notwkhftanding hie abfence 
from the kingdom. Poinet was declared bifhop 
of Rochester, and Coverdale was appointed coad- 
jutor to Veyfey bifhop of Exeter. The book of 
Common prayer was reviewed, and many articles 
of it cenfured by Martin Bucer, who now wrote 
a book for the king's ufe, intituled, Concerning 
the kingdom of Chrilt. Young Edward was bent 
upon reforming the abufes of the church. He 
even began to write a difcourfe about a general 
reformation : and it was at this period, that the 
journal of his proceedings commenced. 


Of the CHURCH, 469 

In the beginning of the following year, Bucer 
died at Oxford, univerfally regretted by all thofe 
v/ho favoured the reformation. He was a perfon 
of great learning, modefty, and zeal, and had 
nothing fo much at heart as the union of thofe 
v/ho profefifed the doctrines of Chriftianity. The a,c, 1551. 
greateft part of this year was fpent by Cranmer 
and Ridley, in preparing the articles which mould 
contain the doctrines of the church of England, in 
a concife and plain form, cutting off the errors of 
popery, as well as thofe lately introduced by the 
anabaptifts and enthufiafls of Germany ; avoiding 
the niceties of fchoolmen, together with fome 
points of controverfy ; and with regard to others 
leaving a liberty to divines of following their pri- 
vate opinions, without difturbing the peace of the 
church. The next care of the reformers was to The book 
correct the book of Common-prayer, in which they ofcommon- 
macle fome additions and alterations, which were J^ ye d r cor " 
authorifed by act of parliament. In the fame fe{- 
f:on another act v/as pafTed, relating to holidays 
and fafling-days. It was decreed, That all Sun- 
days, with the days marked in the calendar and 
liturgy, mould be kept as holidays ; and that the 
bifhops fnould proceed by the cenfures of the church 
againft the difobedient. A provifo was added, for 
the obfervation of St. George's feaft by the knights 
of the garter •, another in favour of labourers ot 
fifhermen,' v/ho might work on thefe days, in cafe 
ofnecefBty. The eves of holidays were ordained 
to be kept as fads ; and on Fridays and Saturdays, 
as well as in Lent, abftinence from flefri was en- 
joined. Other laws were enacted againfl ufury and 
fi mony, and in favour of the marriage of the 

After the diflblution of this parliament, the chiefs Rcformati- 
of the reformed religion were employed in devifing jjJ^J* 1 ** 
proper rules and regulations for the ecclefiadical laws, 
courts, and all things relating to the government 

H h 3 of 


A. C,?ssz. $f the church. An a6l had parted, empowering 
the king to nominate two and thirty perfbnrfer 
making a general reformation of the ecclefiaftical 
laws: and, during this feflion, a commiffion was 
given to eight perfons to prepare the matter for the 
review of the two and thirty, that it might be the 
more eanTy compiled. This work was chiefly com- 
pofed by Cranmer, and proves that he was the 
greateft canonift then in England. Dr. Haddon, 
univerfity orator at Cambridge, and Sir John Chiek 
were employed to tranflate it into the Latin lan- 
guage; a talk which they performed with equal ac- 
curacy and elegance. It was digefted into fifty one 
titles; and' the thirty two commissioners divided 
themfelves into four clafleS, in order to revife, cor- 
rect, and bring it to perfection : they accordingly 
iinimed the work; but the king died- before it re- 
ceived the royal confirmation. At this period, the 
clergy were brought into contempt by their extreme 
poverty. Many ecclefiafiics exercifed the trades of 
carpenters, taylors, and publicans. The rich did 
not maintain ftudents at the univerfities, according 
to the king's injunctions. The places' defighed for 
poor fcholars in fchools and colleges, were given to 
the children of wealthy people : the livings were fold 
in a fcandalous manner, and the majority of the 
country clergy were fo ignorant, that they could 
hardly read -the fervice. 

The council of Trent was now {ufpended for two 
years, without having made any progrefs in the 
reformation of the church. When it was convok- 
ed by the pope, the king of France had protefled 
againft it, and threatened'to call a national council 
in France. Nevertheless the emperor prerTed the 
Germans to go to Trent ; and Maurice, with the 
other princes of the Augfburgh confeflion, ordered 
their divines to confider of the matters to be pro- 
pounded in council. They demanded a fafe-con- 
dudl from the council as well as from the emperor ; 


Of the CHURCH. 471 

and this was obtained, though not in the terms of 
that which was granted by the council of Ban! to 
the Bohemians. Mean while the fathers pub- ^ f r "f eed; ^ 
limed their decrees about the Eucharift, confirm ciioflient, 
ing the doctrine of tranfubftantiation. Then they 
proceeded to enjoin auricular confedion as neceffa- 
ry to falvation. The ambaffadors of the duke of 
Wirtemberg moving, that they might have a fafe- 
conduct for their divines to come and propofe their 
doctrines, the legates anfwered, that they would 
not engage in any difputation with the proteftant 
divines ; but, if they had any fcruple, in which 
they defired fatisfaclion, with an humble and obe- 
dient mind, they fhould have a hearings with re- 
gard to the fafe- conduct, they fata it argued a di- 
ftruft of the council, to -afk any other than what was 
already granted. When the ambaffadors of Maurice 
arrived at Trent, they defired that every article 
might be reconfidered : but this propofal was re- 
jected with difdain. -1 hen they excepted to the 
fafe-conduct which had been given, as different 
from that of the council of Bafil ; the legates pro- 
mifed to take that affair into ccnfideration. The 
pope underflanding that the emperor intended to 
revive the fpirit of former councils, in order to 
lefTen the pontifical power, made peace with France, 
and ordered the legates to proceed in the clecifion 
of the doctrine, hoping the protectants would re- 
tire from Trent, in defpair of obtaining their de- 
mands. The fafe-conduct they defired was refus- 
ed $ and another being granted for the fecurity of 
their perfons, divines arrived from Wirtemberg 
and Strafbourgh ; but the war of Germany break- 
ing out, the bifhops of the empire and the am- 
bafTadcrs retired, and the legates fufpended the 
council for two years. The hiftory of this fa- Earnet - 
mous council which ended in fmoke, was written 
with equal elegance and impartiality by father 
Paul of Venice -, though, after the death of this 
celebrated author, Pallavicini, a Jefuit, pretended 

H h 4 to 

chu-ch un- 
esr Mary, 


to refute him in another hiftory on the fame fuh- 
jecl, from pretended journals and memorials of 
thofe who were prefent at the council. 
The fee of In the laft parliament of Edv/ard, an act was 
vidi aaidi " paffed for dividing the diocefe of Durham into two 
bishopries, one of which was denominated the fee 
of Ncwcaftle. The council afterwards appointed vi- 
fitors to make an enquiry about the plate, jewels* and 
other furniture, in all cathedrals and churches, and 
compare what they mould find, with the inventories 
made in former vifitations, that they might know 
how far, and in what manner, it had been embezzled. 
State of the When Mary afcended the throne, the deprivecj 
bifhops were reftored, the proteflant prelates were 
fet afide, and the council wrote a letter to the 
bifhops, attended with a proclamation, forbidding all 
perfons to preach or expound the fcriptures with- 
out the queen's licence. The papifts, even before 
they were fupported by any legal authority, began 
to erect altars, and revive the iuperftitious ceremo- 
nies which hud been abolifhed. We have fecn, in 
the civil hiftory, how Mary, with the aiTiftance of 
cardinal Pole, re-eirablifhed the Roman catholic 
religion. After the iuppreflion of Wyat's rebel- 
lion, inflruclions were fent to the bifoops, enjoin- 
ing a visitation of their clergy, and a reftorat on of 
aii the rites, ceremonies, and canons of die Roman 
church. The bifhops who favoured the reitoranon, 
were now deprived in their turn ; and the jails were 
filled with proteflant divines. Cranmer, Latimer, 
and Ridley were committed prifoners by the queen's 
precept, to the mayor and bailiffs of Oxford, 
where they were obliged to difpute with four po- 
pifh divines in public, and treated with the mod 
inlcient partiality. Thofe who were impriibned in 
and about London, drew up repeated add re fifes and 
petitions to the queen and parliament •, and thefe 
being altogether neglected, their friends and par- 
tifans were inflamed into fome indecencies againn; 
ihi government, which were productive of a ievere 



Of the CHURCH. 

perfecution. In the beginning of this reign, a 
great number of Engliih proteftants retired to the 
continent, and fettled in feveral different places. 
Thofe refiding at Franckfort were greatly influ- 
enced by John Knox the Scottifh reformer, who ex- 
claimed againft the Englifh. liturgy, and was a vio- 
lent arTerter of purity in church-government. Thefe 
principles produced a fchifrn among the Englifh 
refugees. Thofe who had retired to Zurich dis- 
claimed all fuch innovations. Knox and Whit- 
tingham confuked Calvin, who difapproved of the 
Englifh fervice. Nevenhelefs, they agreed to 
compromife the difference, and to compile a new 
liturgy from thofe of England and Geneva. Dr. 
Cox, however, with fome other refugees, arriving 
at Francfort, acquired a majority in the aflfembly, 
and fixed the imputation of treafon on Knox and 
his party. They fuppoited the charge from parts 
of his own writings, levelled not only at queen 
Mary, but alfo againft the emperor ^ fo that he was 
obliged to take refuge in Geneva j and Cox mo- 
delled the church at Franckfort according to the 
En glim conftitu'tion. 

Upon the acceiTion of Elizabeth to the throne, The rec- 
all the ecclefiaftical meafures which had been taken jr* at j.°" J* 
in the laft reign were reverfed. She affumed thebyEiiza- 
fupremacy, ejected the popifh bifhops, reflored beth< 
thofe few of the protectant prelates who were 
alive •, prepared a fet of injunctions that differed 
very little from thofe of Edward ; and gave order 
for a royal vifitation of the clergy all over Eng- 
land. The commiffioners were chiefly laymen, to 
whom fhe delegated her whole fupremacy. The 
Englifh refugees now returned to their own coun- 
try, the greater part of them with ftrong preju- 
dices againft the church-fervice ; and feveral foreign 
princes interceded with the queen in behalf of thofe 
diffenters, that they might be indulged with the 
liberty of a feparate worfhip. This, however, fhe 
would never grant, though they enjoyed a tolera- 


tion from her connivance. Dr. Parker had been 
prevailed upon to accept of the archbifhopric of 
Canterbury ; and the papifts affected afterwards to 
ridicule the irregularity of his ordination, which 
they branded with the name of the Nag's head con- 
fee ration ; becaufe, after he had b^en confecrated 
in Lambeth- chapel, the officers of the court of 
Canterbury were entertained at a tavern of that 
name in Cheapfide. It appears, however, from 
■inconteftible evidence, that he was duly confecrated ; 
and thus authorized, he proceeded to the confe- 
cration of other prelates, who were elected into the 
vacant fees. Jewel bifhop of Salifbury published a 
lift of the abfurdities in the religion of Rome •, and 
declared from the pulpit, that if any papift would 
make good a fingle proportion of thofe he had ftig- 
matized, either from the fcripture, or the ancient 
fathers and councils, he would give up the conteft 
and fubferibe himfelf a profelyte. He afterwards 
diflinguifhed himfelf by his apology for the church 
of England, and acquired great reputation for 
learning all over Europe. 

Notwithstanding Elizabeth's averfion to popery, 
me did not approve of the marriage of the clergy. 
She even directed an order to the archbifhop of Can- 
terbury, implying, That no head of a cathedral or 
college mould keep his wife or family within thofe 
places •, and fignified herdiilike of marriage among 
the clergy, in a private letter to Parker himfelf, 
who was a married prelate. The diffenters, who 
uith a vigour aDou c this time publifhed the Geneva Bible, were 
againft the become fo bold and troublefome with their fana- 
ticifm, that the queen found it convenient to check 
their vivacity, by a proclamation commanding all 
heretics, whether foreigners or natives, to depart 
A.c, J563. t ^ e kj n gd om j n one anc | twenty days. This ferved 

to keep them within bounds -, and the majority of 
them thought proper to diffemble their opinions. 
Neverthelefs, the woriTiip of Geneva continued to 
make profelytes, even in the convocation, where 


Of the C H U R C H. 475 

fome prelates propcfed a further reformation in 
church ceremonies : a propoial which occanoned 
very warm debates, though no innovation was 
made. They infilled upon doctrinal points, and 
fettled the articles of refigibn as they now Hand in 
the book of Common Prayer. Yet the heats con- 
cerning fome forms were fo violent, that Elizabeth 
in a letter to the archbifhop of Canterbury, required 
him to exert his authority- againfl thole who re- 
fufed to conform with the eftablilhed church, 
threatening to employ more rigorous methods for 
that purpofe, fhould the efforts of him and the 
other prelates mifcarry. 

The puritans were patronized by the earl of Lei- 
cefter, and Pilkington bifhop of Durham : but, not- 
withftanding their intereft, Elizabeth refolved to 
make fome examples. Sampfon deanof Chrift-church 
in Oxford, was deprived of his deanery, and Hum- 
phrey, prefident of Magdalen-college, was con- 
fined and ce'nfured. The diffenters ftill gaining 
ground, under the aufpices of Beza, a foreigner, 
archbifhop Parker prevailed upon the queen to 
publifh a proclamation, enjoining conformity to 
the habits ; and fome of the inferior clergy were 
filenced, fufpended, and even imprifoned. Thfc Jefuits ap- 
puritans are faid to have been clandeflinely encou- SifguifeJf? 
raged by the jefuits, fome of whom were taken in puritan*, 
the act of preaching their doctrines, in order to fo- 
ment divisions in the church of England. It mull 
be owned, however, that if the difTenters were 
thus encouraged, they themfelves did not know 
the real characters of their auxiliaries \ for, of 
all other chriftians, they were the moil rancorous 
enemies of popery, and all its adherents. We have 
elfewhere obferved that mifTionaries were fent over 
from the Englifh feminaries abroad, to foment the 
interline troubles of the kingdom -, and, as they 
wore all kinds of difguife, fome of them might 
appear in the fhape of puritans, that they might 
the better avoid the cognizance of the law, and 



have opportunities of mifleading the weakeft- mind- 
ed people, who are thofe that are the mod fubjecl: 
to the impreffions of fanaticifm. 

The chief preacher and director of the puritans 
was Thomas Cartwright of the univerfity of Cam- 
bridge ; and the tenets in which he difTented from 
Opinions of the eftablifhed church were thefe that follow. He 

ter e s dflen tau g nt tnat tne names and functions of archbifhops 
and archdeacons ought to be fupprefTed : That the 
office of a bifhop ought to be limited to preaching 
and praying; and that of a deacon to the employ- 
ment of taking care of the poor: That the go- 
vernment of the church ought to be vefled in the 
minifter and elders ; and that every minifter ought 
to belong to a particular congregation ; and that 
his office ought to be conferred upon him by the 
public choice of the congregation : That no perfon 
ought to be admitted into the miniftry, unlefs he 
had the- talent of teaching and preaching •> and 
that the fame perfon ought to preach, pray, and 
adminifter the facrament : That nothing but cano- 
nical fcripture ought to be read in the church : That 
there ought to be no private prayer in the church li- 
turgy ; but all the audience mould attend to the 
minifter, whether preaching or praying : That 
the minifter has no exclufive privilege for burying 
the dead, which equally belongs to the reft of the 
parifn : That all portions of fcripture, names, and 
diflinclions of God, ought to be treated with the 
fame degree of regard ; fo that the people need not 
Hand at the reading of the Gofpel, or bow at the 
name of Jefus : That the pofture of fitting at the 
communion is as lawful as that of kneeling or 
{landing, and exhibits a more natural representa- 
tion of a fupper : That the facrament ought not to 
be adminiftered in private, even to thofe in danger 
of death : That the fign of the crofs in baptifm is 
a fuperfiitipus practice : That the father ought to 
prtfent the child for baptifm, and make a confef- 
fion of the faith in which he intends to inftruct 

4 him 

Of the CHURCH* 

him : but that there ought to be no fee form ; nor 
mould the child's name be given by a woman ; 
nor mould any perfon be allowed to engage for the 
education of the infant, but fuch as is qualified to 
receive the Lord's lupper j and all names of paga- 
nifm mould be avoided, as well as facred epithets, 
fuch as Chrifl, Angel, Baptift, &c. That ma- 
trimony ought to be celebrated at all times of the 
year ; and that it was fcandalous to take money 
for a licence to marry at certain prohibited times ; 
That no perfons ought to marry without the know- 
ledge of the congregation . That it is unlawful to 
faft in Lent, as v/eli as on Fridays and Saturdays : 
That the keeping of holidays and fairs upon the 
Lord's day is unlawful : That kings and bifhops 
ought not to be anointed ; and that thefe words, 
" Receive the holy Ghoft, 3 ' at the ordination of 
rniniflers, ought to be omitted, as a ridiculous and 
wicked expreilicn. Collier. 

Thefe were the opinions efpoufed and afTerted by 
Cartwright, who made fuch progrefs in his teach- 
ing, as alarmed the eftablifhed church. Dr. Cha- 
derton of Cambridge, and afterwards the two arch- 
bishop?, complained of him to Cecil and the coun-